Proud Mary

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Proud Mary"
European picture sleeve
Single by Creedence Clearwater Revival
from the album Bayou Country
B-side"Born on the Bayou"
ReleasedJanuary 9, 1969 (1969-01-09)[1]
Recorded1968
StudioRCA, Hollywood[2]
Genre
Length3:07
LabelFantasy
Songwriter(s)John Fogerty
Producer(s)John Fogerty
Creedence Clearwater Revival singles chronology
"I Put a Spell on You"
(1968)
"Proud Mary"
(1969)
"Bad Moon Rising"
(1969)
Music video
"Proud Mary" (lyric video) on YouTube

"Proud Mary" is a song by American rock band Creedence Clearwater Revival, written by vocalist and lead guitarist John Fogerty. It was released as a single in January 1969 by Fantasy Records and on the band's second studio album, Bayou Country. The song became a major hit in the United States, peaking at No. 2 on the Billboard Hot 100 in March 1969, the first of five singles to peak at No. 2 for the group.[8][9]

Later that year, R&B singer Solomon Burke released a rendition on Bell Records that reached No. 15 on the Billboard R&B chart.

Another version by R&B duo Ike & Tina Turner, released on Liberty Records in 1971, did nearly as well as the original on the charts, reaching No. 4 on the Billboard Hot 100 and No 5 on the Billboard R&B chart. They won a Grammy Award for their rendition in 1972.

Background and recording[edit]

In a 1969 interview, Fogerty said that he wrote it in the two days after he was discharged from the National Guard.[10] In the liner notes for the 2008 expanded reissue of Bayou Country, Joel Selvin explained that the songs for the album started when Fogerty was in the National Guard, that the riffs for "Proud Mary", "Born on the Bayou", and "Keep on Chooglin'" were conceived by Fogerty at a concert in the Avalon Ballroom, and "Proud Mary" was arranged from parts of different songs, one of which was about a washerwoman named Mary.[2] The line "Left a good job in the city" was written following Fogerty's discharge from the National Guard, and the line "rollin' on the river" was from a movie by Will Rogers.[11]

The Proud Mary, more formally known as the Mary Elizabeth, was a real ship and was based in Memphis, Tennessee. The Proud Mary traveled along the Mississippi River from 1928 to 1978.[12]

"Proud Mary's" singer, a low-wage earner, leaves what he considers a "good job," which he might define as steady work, even though for long hours under a dictatorial boss. He decides to follow his impulse and imagination and hitches a ride on a riverboat queen, bidding farewell to the city. Only when the boat pulls out does he see the "good side of the city"—which, for him, is one in the distance, far removed from his life. Down by the river and on the boat, the singer finds protection from "the man" and salvation from his working-class pains in the nurturing spirit and generosity of simple people who "are happy to give" even "if you have no money." The river in Fogerty and traditionally in literature and song is a place holding biblical and epical implications. ... Indeed, the river in "Proud Mary" offers not only escape but also rebirth to the singer.[13]

The song is a "seamless mix of black and white roots music."[14] Fogerty explained that he liked Beethoven's Fifth Symphony and wanted to open a song with a similar intro (descending by a third), implying the way "Proud Mary" opens with the repeated C chord to A chord. Fogerty wanted to evoke male gospel harmonies, as exemplified by groups he was familiar with such as the Swan Silvertones, the Sensational Nightingales, and the Five Blind Boys of Mississippi; especially on the line, "Rollin', rollin', rollin' on the river"; and in the guitar solo he did his "best [imitation of] Steve Cropper."[15] The basic track for "Proud Mary", as with the other songs on the album, was recorded by John Fogerty (lead guitar), Tom Fogerty (rhythm guitar), Stu Cook (bass), and Doug Clifford (drums) at RCA Studios in Hollywood, California, with John overdubbing instruments and all the vocals later.[2]

Critical reception[edit]

Billboard described "Proud Mary" as a "driving blues item with a strong beat."[16] Cash Box described it as "a steady moving mid-speed chunk of funk and rhythm that will make itself felt in both pop and underground spots."[17] Cash Box ranked it as the No. 55 single of 1969.[18]

Chart performance[edit]

Certifications and sales[edit]

Certifications and sales for "Proud Mary" by Creedence Clearwater Revival
Region Certification Certified units/sales
United Kingdom (BPI)[36] Silver 200,000
United States (RIAA)[37] 2× Platinum 2,000,000

Sales+streaming figures based on certification alone.

Solomon Burke version[edit]

"Proud Mary"
Single by Solomon Burke
from the album Proud Mary
B-side"What Am I Living For"
ReleasedApril 1969
Recorded1969
GenreCountry soul
Length3:26
LabelBell Records
783
Songwriter(s)John Fogerty

In April 1969, Solomon Burke released a cover of Proud Mary on Bell Records.[38] Burke mixed gospel and country music to make the song as a celebration of black consciousness. It was the title track of his 1969 album Proud Mary.[39]

The single was Burke's second release for Bell and was co-produced by singer Tamiko Jones.[40] Jones was being rehabilitated after a bout of polio and was at the time Burke's fiancée and manager.[41][42] Burke recalled:

We went to Muscle Shoals and recorded Proud Mary, which they didn't like at all. They thought it was stupid to record a song Proud Mary, which was already on the charts. I was explaining to them that it was a very big record, but it's a very white record, a pop record. We will redo the record, open up the doors for it to get on the r&b charts and make the black stations to play the record ... This record was a hit without anybody's help. Proud Mary was only promoted by Tamiko Jones and myself.[43]

On May 24, 1969, Burke performed his version of "Proud Mary" on American Bandstand.[44]

The song returned Burke to the US R&B Top 20, with the single reaching No. 15 on the Billboard R&B chart and No. 45 on the Billboard Hot 100.[45] Burke stated in a 2002 interview: "I was in Vegas for sixteen weeks at the Sands Hotel. I missed this record being a hit, because we weren't there to promote the record, we had no backing. The greatest thing I ever did was tell Ike Turner, "Hey man, you should get on this record ... I think you and Tina could tear this thing up."[46]

Critical reception

The single received positive reviews.[38]

According to Mark Denning, "While that may have seemed like a bald-faced bid for pop radio play, in Burke's hands the song became a bracing tale of life in the Deep South as African-Americans searched for liberation aboard the ship that carried them as slaves and put them to undignified labor serving wealthy whites."[47]

John Fogerty, the song's composer, was impressed by Burke's version of his song: "Two thousand miles away this man had crawled right up inside my head to learn what Proud Mary was all about. Sure, it's great when someone sings your song, but when he understands it, you listen like it was the first time."[48]

Chart performance

Weekly chart performance for "Proud Mary" by Solomon Burke
Chart Peak position
US Billboard Hot 100[49] 45
US Billboard R&B Singles[50] 15

The Checkmates Ltd. Featuring Sonny Charles version[edit]

"Proud Mary"
Single by Checkmates, Ltd. Featuring Sonny Charles
from the album Proud Mary
B-side"Do You Love Your Baby"
Released1969
Recorded1969
GenreSoul
Length3:30
LabelA&M Records
1130X
Checkmates, Ltd. Featuring Sonny Charles singles chronology
"Black Pearl"
(1969)
"Proud Mary"
(1969)
"I Keep Forgettin'"
(1970)

Checkmates, Ltd. recorded a version of "Proud Mary" featuring Sonny Charles, which was produced by Phil Spector in 1969.[40]

The single was released on A&M Records in September 1969.[51] It reached No. 69 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart and No. 30 on the U.K. Singles Chart.[52]

Chart performance

Weekly chart performance for "Proud Mary" by Checkmates Ltd.
Chart Peak position
US Billboard Hot 100[53] 69
UK Singles[54] 30

Ike & Tina Turner version[edit]

"Proud Mary"
Picture sleeve (Spain)
Single by Ike & Tina Turner
from the album Workin' Together
B-side
ReleasedJanuary 14, 1971
Recorded1970
StudioBolic Sound (Inglewood, California)
Genre
Length4:48 (album), 3:15 (7-inch single)
LabelLiberty Records
Songwriter(s)John Fogerty
Producer(s)Ike Turner
Ike & Tina Turner singles chronology
"Workin' Together"
(1970)
"Proud Mary"
(1971)
"Ooh Poo Pah Doo"
(1971)
"Proud Mary"
Single by Tina Turner
from the album
What's Love Got to Do with It
B-side"Disco Inferno"
ReleasedNovember 19, 1993
Recorded1993
StudioRecord Plant
Genre
Length5:27
LabelParlophone
Songwriter(s)John Fogerty
Producer(s)
Tina Turner singles chronology
"Why Must We Wait Until Tonight"
(1993)
"Proud Mary"
(1993)
"GoldenEye"
(1995)
Official audio
"Proud Mary" on YouTube

In January 1971, Ike & Tina Turner released "Proud Mary" on Liberty Records as the second single from their 1970 album Workin' Together.[56] Their rendition differs greatly from the structure of the original, but is also well-known and became one of Tina Turner's most recognizable signature songs.

According to Tina, Ike was not keen on the original version, but the cover of "Proud Mary" by the Checkmates, Ltd. piqued his interest.[57] Ike and Tina Turner's version was substantially rearranged by Ike Turner and Soko Richardson.[58][59] The song starts off with a slow, sultry soulful tone in which Tina introduces the song and warns the audience that she and the band are gonna start it off "nice and easy" as "we never do nothing nice and easy" but say they would finish it "nice and rough". After the lyrics are first sung softly by the Turners, the song is then turned into a funk rock vamp with Tina and the Ikettes delivering gospel-influenced vocals.

The single peaked at No. 4 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart on March 27, 1971, two years after the original by Creedence Clearwater Revival was at its peak. It also reached No. 5 on the Billboard R&B chart, and earned the duo a Grammy Award for Best R&B Vocal Performance by a Group in 1972.[60]

Ike and Tina performed a version of the song on Playboy After Dark on December 3, 1969; episode aired on February 3, 1970.[61] They also performed it on The Ed Sullivan Show on January 11, 1970, in the film It's Your Thing (1970), and on Soul Train; episode aired on April 22, 1972.[62] The song became a staple in all of their live shows. Live versions of the song were released on the albums Live at Carnegie Hall (1971) and Live In Paris (1971).

The song continued to be an essential part of Tina's performances as a solo artist. In 1988, a live version was included on the album Tina Live in Europe. In the biopic What's Love Got to Do with It, the song is performed in a timeline of events in Ike and Tina Turner's career in which the couple are transformed from an opening act for the Rolling Stones to a major headlining act in the 1970s. Tina re-recorded the song for the biopic's 1993 soundtrack album of the same name. This track was released as a promotional single issued to radio stations and DJs. Tina Turner's solo performance was later included on her 2004 greatest hits album All the Best. After a contestant's take on the song on The X Factor in 2010, it entered the UK Singles Chart at No. 62 and the Scottish Singles Chart at No. 40. Another live version was released in 2009 on the Tina Live album. It was recorded on March 21, 2009, in Arnhem, Netherlands as part of Turner's 50th Anniversary Tour. Tina also performed duets of "Proud Mary" with Beyoncé and Cher.

Critical reception[edit]

The song received positive reviews.[63]

Billboard (January 23, 1971): "The John Fogerty classic gets a powerhouse treatment with the Turner originality and drive to put it back up the Hot 100 and soul charts. Dynamite entry."[64]

Cash Box (January 23, 1971): "Slow intro almost belies the power that grows into this revival of the Creedence monument. R&B sales could build enough momentum to put the side into top forty again."[65]

Formats and track listings[edit]

1971 US 7-inch

  1. Proud Mary – 3:15
  2. Funkier Than A Mosquito's Tweeter – 2:40

1993 US 7-inch and cassette single

  1. "Proud Mary (Edit Live Version) – 4:32
  2. "The Best" (Live) – 5:22

1993 US CD single

  1. "Proud Mary (Edit Live Version) – 4:32
  2. "Proud Mary (Edit) – 4:10
  3. "We Don't Need Another Hero (Thunderdome)" (Live) – 4:55
  4. "The Best" (Live) – 5:22

Chart performance[edit]

Weekly charts[edit]

Certifications and sales[edit]

Certifications and sales for "Proud Mary" by Ike & Tina Turner or Tina Turner
Region Certification Certified units/sales
United Kingdom (BPI)[83]
Solo version
Platinum 600,000
United States (RIAA)[84]
Duet version
Gold 1,000,000^

^ Shipments figures based on certification alone.
Sales+streaming figures based on certification alone.

Accolades[edit]

For their rendition, Ike & Tina Turner won a Grammy Award for Best R&B Vocal Performance by a Group in 1972.[60] Both CCR and Ike & Tina Turner's versions of the song received Grammy Hall of Fame Awards, in 1998 and 2003, respectively.[85] "Proud Mary" ranked at No. 155 on Rolling Stone's 2004 list of The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time.[86]

Other versions[edit]

In 1969, Anthony Armstrong Jones released a version of "Proud Mary" that reached No. 22 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart.[87] The song served as the title track of his debut album.[88]

In 1970, the song was recorded by Leonard Nimoy, in his album The New World of Leonard Nimoy.

In 1972, Brush Arbor released a version of "Proud Mary" that reached No. 56 on the Billboard Hot Country Singles chart.[89]

Elvis Presley began incorporating "Proud Mary" into his live shows in 1970. Presley's version is a full-out rocker and is featured in his 1972 concert film Elvis on Tour, and on his live albums On Stage (1970) and As Recorded at Madison Square Garden (1972).

Neil Sedaka performed a live version of "Proud Mary" at a concert he gave in Sydney, Australia in 1971.

The 2011 soundtrack to Bringing Up Bobby, an American comedy drama film, contained a Ukrainian language version of Proud Mary, performed by actress Milla Jovovich.[90]

Amanda Ayala performed a rendition of "Proud Mary" in 2019 on Topgolf TV's "Who Will Rock You?" The performance was subsequently released exclusively on Spotify.

Prince performed a sample of "Proud Mary" during his 2007 Super Bowl Halftime Show performance.[91]

The Longest Johns performed a studio version of the song on their 2024 album Voyage.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lingan, John (2022). A Song For Everyone: The Story of Creedence Clearwater Revival. New York City: Hachette Books. chap. 18. ISBN 978-0-306-84670-0.
  2. ^ a b c "Bayou Country : 40th Anniversary : Liner notes" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2011. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  3. ^ Decurtis, Anthony (November 1, 2005). "John Fogerty Is Closer to Peace With a Label". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  4. ^ Molanphy, Chris (February 28, 2019). "The Bad Moon on the Rise Edition". Hit Parade | Music History and Music Trivia (Podcast). Slate. Retrieved August 20, 2023.
  5. ^ Phull, Hardeep (2008). Story Behind the Protest Song: A Reference Guide to the 50 Songs that Changed the 20th Century. Greenwood Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-313-34141-0.
  6. ^ Various Mojo Magazine (November 1, 2007). The Mojo Collection: 4th Edition. Canongate Books. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-84767-643-6.
  7. ^ Valdez, Steve (2014). "Folk rock". In Henderson, Lol; Stacey, Lee (eds.). Encyclopedia of Music in the 20th Century. London: Routledge. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-135-92946-6.
  8. ^ "Creedence Clearwater Revival – Billboard Singles". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
  9. ^ "The Hot 100 Chart (March 15, 1969)". Billboard. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
  10. ^ John Fogerty interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1970)
  11. ^ Goldberg, Michael (1993). Wenner, Jann S. (ed.). "Fortunate Son: John Fogerty – The 1993 Rolling Stone Interview". Rolling Stone. United States. Retrieved December 29, 2010.
  12. ^ "Jimmy Ogle - Proud Mary".
  13. ^ Kitts, Thomas M. (2015). John Fogerty: An American Son, [unpaginated]. Routledge. ISBN 9781317961253.
  14. ^ Campbell, Michael and Brody, James (2007). Rock and Roll: An Introduction, second edition, p.237-8. Cengage Learning. ISBN 9781111794538
  15. ^ Fogerty, John (2015). Fortunate Son: My Life, My Music, [unpaginated]. Little, Brown. ISBN 9780316244565.
  16. ^ "Spotlight Singles" (PDF). Billboard. January 4, 1969. p. 48. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  17. ^ "CashBox Record Reviews" (PDF). Cash Box. January 4, 1969. p. 15. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  18. ^ "Top 100 Chart Hits of 1969" (PDF). Cash Box. December 27, 1969. p. 22. Retrieved December 8, 2021.
  19. ^ "Creedence Clearwater Revival – Proud Mary" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40.
  20. ^ "Creedence Clearwater Revival – Proud Mary" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  21. ^ "Creedence Clearwater Revival – Proud Mary" (in French). Ultratop 50. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  22. ^ "Top RPM Singles: Issue 6060." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  23. ^ "The Irish Charts – Search Results – Proud Mary". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved December 6, 2018.
  24. ^ "Nederlandse Top 40 – week 15, 1969" (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  25. ^ "flavour of new zealand - search listener". Flavourofnz.co.nz. Archived from the original on June 13, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2020.
  26. ^ "Creedence Clearwater Revival – Proud Mary". VG-lista.
  27. ^ "SA Charts 1965 - 1989 Songs P-R". South African Rock Lists. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  28. ^ "Creedence Clearwater Revival – Proud Mary". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  29. ^ "Official Singles Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company.
  30. ^ "Creedence Clearwater Revival Chart History (Hot 100)". Billboard. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  31. ^ "Offiziellecharts.de – Creedence Clearwater Revival – Proud Mary" (in German). GfK Entertainment charts. Retrieved December 30, 2020. To see peak chart position, click "TITEL VON Creedence Clearwater Revival"
  32. ^ "Go-Set Australian charts – Top Records for the Year of 1969". Poparchives.com.au.
  33. ^ "Item Display – RPM – Library and Archives Canada". Collectionscanada.gc.ca.
  34. ^ "Top 20 Hit Singles of 1969". Retrieved September 2, 2018.
  35. ^ "Top 100 Hits of 1969/Top 100 Songs of 1969". Musicoutfitters.com.
  36. ^ "British single certifications – Creedence Clearwater Revival – Proud Mary". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved January 7, 2022.
  37. ^ "American single certifications – Creedence Clearwater Revival – Proud Mary". Recording Industry Association of America.
  38. ^ a b "Spotlight Singles: Top 20 R&B" (PDF). Billboard. April 19, 1969. p. 77.
  39. ^ "Album Reviews" (PDF). Billboard. June 21, 1969. p. 56.
  40. ^ a b Myers, Marc (November 1, 2016). Anatomy of a Song: The Oral History of 45 Iconic Hits That Changed Rock, R&B and Pop. Open Road + Grove/Atlantic. p. 1955. ISBN 978-0-8021-8965-3.
  41. ^ Wilson, John S. (January 14, 1971). "CAREER RESUMED BY TAMIKO JONES". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 26, 2023.
  42. ^ Cordell S. Thompson, "New York Beat", Jet (October 8, 1970):63.
  43. ^ "Tribute to Solomon Burke". www.soulexpress.net. Retrieved August 26, 2023.
  44. ^ "Saturday on Eight", Lewiston Evening Journal (May 23, 1969):22
  45. ^ "Proud Mary (song by Solomon Burke) ••• Music VF, US & UK hits charts". www.musicvf.com. Retrieved August 26, 2023.
  46. ^ Solomon Burke, in James Porter, "Songs of Solomon: Solomon Burke Interview", Roctober 33 (2002)
  47. ^ The Soul Clan Album & Song Chart History. Billboard.com (July 27, 1968). Retrieved on April 7, 2011.
  48. ^ Mojo, Issues 158–161 (EMAP Performance Ltd., 2007).
  49. ^ "Hot 100" (PDF). Billboard. June 7, 1969. p. 66.
  50. ^ "Rhythm & Blues Singles" (PDF). Billboard. Vol. Billboard. May 31, 1969. p. 48.
  51. ^ "Spotlight Singles: Top 60 Pop Spotlight" (PDF). Billboard. September 27, 1969. p. 84.
  52. ^ "Proud Mary (song by Checkmates Ltd.) ••• Music VF, US & UK hits charts". www.musicvf.com. Retrieved August 27, 2023.
  53. ^ "THE HOT 100". Billboard. November 1, 1969. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
  54. ^ "Official Singles Charts - Checkmates Ltd". Official Charts.
  55. ^ "Tina Turner: 15 Essential Songs". Rolling Stone. May 24, 2023. Retrieved May 24, 2023. ...her indelible revamp of this Creedence Clearwater Revival hit, which starts out at half-time before exploding into a frenzied R&B showstopper.
  56. ^ "Spotlight Singles - Top 20 Pop Spotlight" (PDF). Billboard. January 23, 1971. p. 70.
  57. ^ Turner, Tina; Loder, Kurt (1986). I, Tina: My Life Story. New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 9780670808731.
  58. ^ Soko Richardson Archived October 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine press release from pressnetwork.com January 30, 2004
  59. ^ Noted Soul Drummer Soko Richardson Dies Paiste Cymbals, February 2004
  60. ^ a b "1971 Grammy Champions" (PDF). Billboard. March 25, 1972. p. 6.
  61. ^ Runtagh, Jordan (September 28, 2017). "15 Electrifying Musical Performances from Hugh Hefner's Playboy After Dark". People.
  62. ^ The Best of Soul Train Live (booklet). Time Life. 2011.
  63. ^ "Picks of the Week" (PDF). Record World. January 23, 1971. p. 1.
  64. ^ "Spotlight Singles: Top 20 Pop Spotlight" (PDF). Billboard. January 23, 1971. p. 70.
  65. ^ "Singles Reviews" (PDF). Cash Box. January 23, 1971. p. 22.
  66. ^ "Ike & Tina Turner – Proud Mary" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
  67. ^ "Top RPM Singles: Issue 5223." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
  68. ^ "Ike & Tina Turner – Proud Mary" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
  69. ^ a b "Ike & Tina Turner – Billboard Singles". AllMusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved November 21, 2010.
  70. ^ "Cash Box Top 100" (PDF). Cash Box. April 3, 1971. p. 4.
  71. ^ "Cash Box Top 60 In R&B Locations" (PDF). Cash Box. March 27, 1971. p. 39.
  72. ^ "The Singles Chart" (PDF). Record World. April 3, 1971. p. 33.
  73. ^ "The R&B Singles Chart" (PDF). Record World. April 17, 1971. p. 58.
  74. ^ "Offiziellecharts.de – Ike & Tina Turner – Proud Mary" (in German). GfK Entertainment charts. Retrieved December 30, 2020. To see peak chart position, click "TITEL VON Ike & Tina Turner"
  75. ^ "Official Scottish Singles Sales Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
  76. ^ "Tina Turner: Artist Chart History". Official Charts Company. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
  77. ^ "IRMA – Irish Charts". Irish Recorded Music Association. Retrieved June 3, 2023.
  78. ^ "Official Singles Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved June 2, 2023.
  79. ^ "Jaaroverzichten 1971" (in Dutch). Ultratop. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
  80. ^ "Jaaroverzichten – Single 1971" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
  81. ^ "The Year in Music: 1971" (PDF). Billboard. December 25, 1971. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
  82. ^ a b "Best Records and Artists of 1971" (PDF). Cash Box. December 25, 1971.
  83. ^ "British single certifications – Tina Turner – Proud Mary". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved July 19, 2022.
  84. ^ "American single certifications – Ike and Tina Turner – Proud Mary". Recording Industry Association of America.
  85. ^ "Grammy Hall of Fame". Grammy Awards. United States: National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on February 19, 2011. Retrieved January 10, 2011.
  86. ^ "The RS 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Rolling Stone. December 9, 2004. Archived from the original on June 22, 2008. Retrieved April 10, 2008.
  87. ^ "Hot Country Singles" (PDF). Billboard. August 30, 1969. p. 46.
  88. ^ "Album Reviews" (PDF). Billboard. September 20, 1969. p. 66.
  89. ^ "Proud Mary (song by Brush Arbor) ••• Music VF, US & UK hits charts". www.musicvf.com. Retrieved August 27, 2023.
  90. ^ DeYoung, Bill (November 1, 2011). "Bringing up Famke". Connect Savannah. Retrieved May 17, 2023.
  91. ^ "Prince plays Super Bowl halftime show". Nme.com. February 5, 2007. Retrieved December 12, 2021.

External links[edit]