Chapter 31 of the Book of Proverbs in the Hebrew Bible is presented as advice which Lemuel's mother gave to him, about how a virtuous king should reign, and also detailing the attributes of a virtuous wife or ideal woman. The second section of text of this chapter directs women to be industrious and fear the Lord.
The 10th to 31st verses of the chapter are called Eshet Ḥayil (אשת חיל, woman of valor). It is a praise of the good wife, a definition of a perfect wife or "ideal woman" in Judaism. This "Woman of Valor" has been described as the personification of wisdom, or in some sense as a description of a particular class of Women in Israel, Persia, or in Hellenistic society. It is one of the thirteen alphabetical acrostic poems in the Bible. Traditionally, the Eisheth Ḥayil was viewed as written by King Solomon and many prominent theologians continue to hold this belief. However there is a more recent branch of critical scholarship which suggests it was added to Proverbs later. This chapter is recited on Friday night, before Shabbat dinner in some Jewish homes. Some see this as a praise directed from the husband to his wife. It has also been suggested that the son in Proverbs 31 is King Solomon, receiving advice from Bathsheba, herself the wife of King David.
The word חיל (Ḥayil) appears in verses 10 and 29 of the passage, thought as the summary of the good woman's character. Traditionally it has been translated "virtuous" or "noble." Some scholars have suggested that it rather means "forceful," "mighty," or "valiant" because the use of the word in the Tanakh is almost exclusively used regarding warfare.
The chapter has been emphasised within the biblical womanhood movement, and a number of books have been published on the "Proverbs 31 woman". This emphasis has been subject to criticism.
- Sandoval, Timothy J. The Discourse of Wealth and Poverty in the Book of Proverbs, ISBN 90-04-14492-7, p. 201
- "The Proverbs Principle" by Shari Beck; ISBN 978-0-595-47454-7
- God's Word to Women Lesson 78 by Katherine Bushnell
- Reid, E. R. (1993). The Proverbs 31 Woman. Destiny Image Publishers.
- Kennedy, Nancy (1995). Help! I'm Being Intimidated by the Proverbs 31 Woman!: My Battles with a Role Model Who's Larger Than Life. Multnomah.
- George, Elizabeth (2003). Discovering the Treasures of a Godly Woman: Proverbs 31. Harvest House.
- Partow, Donna (2008). Becoming the Woman God Wants Me to Be: A 90-Day Guide to Living the Proverbs 31 Life. Revell.
- Horn, Sarah (2011). My So-Called Life as a Proverbs 31 Wife: A One-Year Experiment...and Its Surprising Results. Harvest House.
- Lodge, Carey (3 January 2015). "How misapplying Proverbs 31 gives us a skewed picture of biblical womanhood". Christian Today. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- Oquist, Lauren (28 August 2014). "Stop Obsessing About the Proverbs 31 Woman". Relevant. Retrieved 27 July 2015.