Province No. 2
Province No. 2
प्रदेश नं० २
Location of Province No. 2
Map of Province No. 2, Nepal
|Formation||20 September 2015|
|• Body||Government of Province No. 2|
|• Governor||Tilak Pariyar|
|• Chief Minister||Mohammad Lalbabu Raut Gaddhi (FSFN)|
|• High Court||Janakpur High Court|
|• Provincial Assembly||Unicameral (107 seats)|
|• Parliamentary constituency||32|
|• Total||9,661 km2 (3,730 sq mi)|
|• Density||560/km2 (1,400/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||1st|
|Demonym(s)||Madhesi (Southern Nepali)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:45 (NST)|
|Main Official Language||Nepali (6.67%) (under Constitution of Nepal)|
|Other Official Language(s)||1. Maithili (45.30%)|
2. Bhojpuri (18.58%)
3. Bajjika (14.7%)
|Sex ratio||101.18 ♂ /100 ♀ (2011)|
Province No. 2 (proposed names: Madhesh or Mithila- Bhojpura) (Nepali/Maithili: प्रदेश नं० २) is a province in the southeastern region of Nepal that was formed after the adoption of the Constitution of Nepal. It is Nepal's second most populous province, and smallest province by area. It borders Province No. 1 to the east, Province No. 3 to the north, and India to the south. It has an area of 9,661 km2 (3,730 sq mi) with a population of 5,404,145 per the 2011 Census of Nepal, making it most densely populated province of Nepal.
The Koshi River and Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve acts as provincial demarcation border between Province 2 and Province 1 in the east. And the demarcation line between Chitwan National Park and Parsa National Park (previously Wildlife Reserve) acts as provincial demarcation border between Province 2 and Province 3 in the west.
The Capital city, a sub-metropolitan city of Janakpur, also known as Janakpurdham, is a centre for religious and cultural tourism. It is also thought to have been the capital of the Videha dynasty that ruled Mithila region in ancient times.
The first urban planned municipality of Nepal, Rajbiraj, is also the oldest municipality of the Terai belt of Nepal. The town is believed to have been named after the ancient Rajdevi temple, which dates back to the 1700s. The metropolitan city of Birgunj is an economically important industrial centre and the only metropolitan city in the province.
The region is surrounded by:
- The Sunsari District of Province No. 1 to the East.
- The Chitwan District of Province No. 3 to the West.
- The Makwanpur District and Sindhuli District of Province No. 3 and Udayapur District of Province No. 1 to the North.
- India to the South.
As per Central Bureau of Statistics(CBS) the province covers about 9,661 km2 (3,730 sq mi). of Nepal's total area of 147,181 km2 (56,827 sq mi). with total number of 5,404,145 inhabitants, it is the second most populous province in Nepal.
The province is located on flat plains of Terai, and Chure (Churiya) or the Shiwalik Hills are the natural border of the province which falls in northern side. The southern side has an international border with the India. Koshi River on its eastern side acting as a natural border with Province No. 1. Province No. 2 has eight districts in a series (parallel). Koshi River, Bagmati River, Kamla River, Lakhandei River and Bishnumati River are the main rivers of the province.
Government and administration
The Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Janakpur High Court is the head of the judiciary. The present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Tilak Pariyar (governor), Mohammad Lalbabu Raut (chief minister) and Udaya Prakash Chapagain. The province has 107 provincial assembly constituencies and 32 House of Representative constituencies.
Province No. 2 has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal. The term length of provincial assembly is five years. The Provincial Assembly of Province No. 2 is temporarily housed at the District Education Office in Janakpur.
Province No. 2 is divided into eight districts, which are listed below. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer. The districts are further dived to municipalities or rural municipalities. The municipalities include one metropolitan city, three sub-metropolitan cities and 73 municipalities. There are 59 rural municipalities in the province.
|1||Saptari District||सप्तरी जिल्ला||Rajbiraj||639,284||1,363 km²|||
|2||Parsa District||पर्सा जिल्ला||Birgunj||601,017||1,353 km²|||
|3||Sarlahi District||सर्लाही जिल्ला||Malangwa||769,729||1,259 km²|||
|4||Bara District||बारा जिल्ला||Kalaiya||687,708||1,190 km²|||
|5||Siraha District||सिराहा जिल्ला||Siraha||637,328||1,188 km²|||
|6||Dhanusha District||धनुषा जिल्ला||Janakpur||754,777||1,180 km²|||
|7||Rautahat District||रौतहट जिल्ला||Gaur||686,722||1,126 km²|||
|8||Mahottari District||महोत्तरी जिल्ला||Jaleshwar||627,580||1,002 km²|||
Largest cities or towns in Province No. 2
Central Bureau of Statistics 
Province No. 2 has no difficult terrains still the transportation has not been well developed in the region due to lack of investments and negligence.
The major connecting link for the province is the Mahendra Highway (East West Highway) which runs longitudinally across the province. All major cities of the province remain disconnected from this highway. Janakpurdham, Rajbiraj , Birgunj and Gaur lie 25,10, 24 and 42 kilometres south of the Mahendra Highway, respectively. The Tribhuvan Highway does not cross as much of the province as the Mahendra Highway, but it is most important link as it connects the province to Kathmandu and to the India. The starting point of Tribhuvan Highway i.e. Birgunj is the most important International Gateway and trade way for this province and entire country and hence known as "The Gateway of Nepal". In terms of revenue generation, Birgunj custom point is the largest. Birendra highway which is connected to Mahendra highway from Headquarter of Rautahat district Gaur to the Chandranigahapur (largest city of Rautahat). which is 42 km in length.
- Mahendra Highway (East West Highway) - Part
- Postal Highway - Part
- Tribhuvan Highway - Part
- Birendra Highway - part
A few other railway projects are under progress in the province no. 2. All these projects are of Nepal Railways. Government of Nepal has proposed Janakpur as a Main Station for 1024 km east-west Metro Railway project and further be extended to India and China for connecting Nepal Railways with Indian Railways and China Railway for business and tourism promotion.
- Janakpur (Nepal) to Lhasa (China)
- Bardibas, Janakpur (Nepal) to Jainagar, Bihar (India)
- Janakpur (Nepal) to Kathmandu (Nepal)
- Janakpur (Nepal) to Biratnagar (Nepal)
- Janakpur (Nepal) to Nepalgunj (Nepal)
- Janakpur (Nepal) to Birgunj (Nepal)
Province No. 2 has 3 airports:
- Rajbiraj Airport, in Rajbiraj
- Janakpur Airport in Janakpur.
- Simara Airport in Pipara Simara close to Birganj.
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