|Provinces of Indonesia|
|Category||First level administrative division of a decentralized unitary state|
|Populations||Smallest: 522,215 (South Papua)|
Largest: 49,405,800 (West Java)
|Areas||Smallest: 661 km2 (255 sq mi) (Jakarta)|
Largest: 153,444 km2 (59,245 sq mi) (Central Kalimantan)
|This article is part of a series on|
|Subdivisions of Indonesia|
|full list; cities by GDP; cities by population; regencies by population)|
Provinces of Indonesia are the 38 administrative divisions of Indonesia and the highest tier of the local government (formerly called first-level provincial region or provinsi daerah tingkat I). Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities (formerly called second-level region regencies and cities or kabupaten/kotamadya daerah tingkat II), which are in turn subdivided into districts (kecamatan).
Article 18 paragraph 1 of The 1945 Constitution states that "The Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia is divided into provincial regions and those provincial regions are divided into regencies and city, whereby every one of those provinces, regencies, and municipalities has its regional government, which shall be regulated by laws."
According to the Law on Regional Government (UU 23/2014) the authority of the Provincial Government includes:
- Development planning and control;
- Planning, utilization, and community peace;
- Implementation of public order and public peace;
- Provision of public facilities and infrastructure;
- Handling the health sector;
- Education and allocation of potential human resources;
- Handling social problems across regencies/cities;
- Services in the field of manpower across regencies/cities;
- Facilitating the development of cooperatives, small and medium enterprises, including across districts/cities;
- Environmental control;
- Defense services, including across regencies/cities;
- Population and civil registration services;
- Government general administration services;
- Investment administration services, including across regencies/cities;
- The implementation of other basic services that cannot be carried out by regencies/cities; and
- Other mandatory affairs mandated by laws and regulations.
The authority of the provincial government are government affairs which are located across regencies/municipalities, government affairs whose users are across regencies/municipalities, government affairs whose benefits or negative impacts lie across regencies/municipalities, government affairs which use more resources. efficient if carried out by the province.
Each province has a local government, headed by a governor and a legislative body (DPRD). The governor and members of local representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms, but governors can only serve for two terms. The general election to elect members of the DPRDs is conducted simultaneously with the national general election. Previously, the general elections for Governor and Vice Governor were not held simultaneously. However, since 2015 regional head elections have been held simultaneously. Under the plan, simultaneous partial local elections will be held in February 2017, June 2018, December 2020, culminating in simultaneous elections for all local executive posts on November 2024 and then every five years.
After the creation of Southwest Papua, Indonesia now has 38 provinces: 29 ordinary provinces and 9 provinces that have special status. The 1945 Constitution mentions that the state of Indonesia acknowledges and respects the special status of some of its regional governments. The special status is divided into two separate characteristics which in Indonesian are "Istimewa" and "Khusus". The main meaning for both is special in English, however, Istimewa could also be translated to "privileged".
Seven provinces in Indonesia that have special characteristics are:
- Central Papua, Highland Papua, Papua, South Papua, Southwest Papua, and West Papua, which have their special status in the recognition and special respect for indigenous Papuans.
- Special Capital Region of Jakarta, which has the special status as the capital city of Indonesia.
One province has "privileged" characteristics:
- Special Region of Yogyakarta, which has Sultan Hamengkubuwono as its hereditary governor and Adipati Paku Alam as its hereditary vice-governor. Basically a sultanate under a republic.
One province has both characteristics:
- Aceh, which has the special and privileged status of implementation of Islamic sharia law in religious life, customary life, and education.
The provinces are officially grouped into seven geographical units for statistical and national planning purposes, but without administrative function.
|Sumatra||Aceh, the Bangka Belitung Islands, Bengkulu, Jambi, Lampung, North Sumatra, Riau, the Riau Islands, South Sumatra, and West Sumatra||59,977,300||Medan|
|Java||Banten, Central Java, East Java, the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, the Special Region of Yogyakarta, and West Java||154,282,100||Jakarta|
|Kalimantan||Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, North Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, and West Kalimantan||17,052,200||Samarinda|
|Nusa Tenggara (Lesser Sunda Islands)||Bali, East Nusa Tenggara, and West Nusa Tenggara||15,355,100||Denpasar|
|Sulawesi||Central Sulawesi, Gorontalo, North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, and West Sulawesi||20,304,400||Makassar|
|Maluku Islands||Maluku and North Maluku||3,201,000||Ambon|
|Papua (Western New Guinea)||Central Papua, Highland Papua, Papua, South Papua, Southwest Papua, and West Papua||5,601,900||Jayapura|
Table of provinces
|Aceh||Aceh||Aceh||11||ID - AC||5,407,900||56,835||95||Sumatra||23||5||18|
|Bali||Bali||Bali||51||ID - BA||4,415,100||5,590||790||Lesser Sunda Islands||9||1||8|
|Babel||19||ID - BB||1,494,600||16,690||90||Sumatra||7||1||6|
|Banten||Banten||Banten||36||ID - BT||12,252,000||9,353||1,310||Java||8||4||4|
|Bengkulu||Bengkulu||Bengkulu||17||ID - BE||2,060,100||20,128||102||Sumatra||10||1||9|
|Central Java||Jawa Tengah||Jateng||33||ID - JT||37,032,400||34,337||1,078||Java||35||6||29|
|Central Kalimantan||Kalimantan Tengah||Kalteng||62||ID - KT||2,741,100||153,444||18||Kalimantan||14||1||13|
|Central Papua||Papua Tengah||Pateng||94||ID - PT||1,431,000||61,073||23||Western New Guinea||8||0||8|
|Central Sulawesi||Sulawesi Tengah||Sulteng||72||ID - ST||3,066,100||61,606||50||Sulawesi||13||1||12|
|East Java||Jawa Timur||Jatim||35||ID - JI||41,150,000||48,037||857||Java||38||9||29|
|East Kalimantan||Kalimantan Timur||Kaltim||64||ID - KI||3,859,800||126,981||30||Kalimantan||10||3||7|
|East Nusa Tenggara||Nusa Tenggara Timur||NTT||53||ID - NT||5,466,300||46,447||118||Lesser Sunda Islands||22||1||21|
|Gorontalo||Gorontalo||Gorontalo||75||ID - GO||1,192,700||12,025||99||Sulawesi||6||1||5|
|Highland Papua||Papua Pegunungan||Pagun||95||ID - PE||1,430,500||51,213||28||Western New Guinea||8||0||8|
|Special Capital Region
|Daerah Khusus Ibukota
|DKI Jakarta||31||ID - JK||10,680,000||661||16,158||Java||6||5||1|
|Jambi||Jambi||Jambi||15||ID - JA||3,631,100||49,027||74||Sumatra||11||2||9|
|Lampung||Lampung||Lampung||18||ID - LA||9,176,600||33,570||273||Sumatra||15||2||13|
|Maluku||Maluku||Maluku||81||ID - MA||1,881,700||46,158||41||Maluku Islands||11||2||9|
|North Kalimantan||Kalimantan Utara||Kaltara||65||ID - KU||727,800||70,101||10||Kalimantan||5||1||4|
|North Maluku||Maluku Utara||Malut||82||ID - MU||1,319,300||32,999||40||Maluku Islands||10||2||8|
|North Sulawesi||Sulawesi Utara||Sulut||71||ID - SA||2,659,500||14,500||183||Sulawesi||15||4||11|
|North Sumatra||Sumatera Utara||Sumut||12||ID - SU||15,115,200||72,461||209||Sumatra||33||8||25|
|Papua||Papua[b]||Papua||91||ID - PA||1,035,000||82,681||13||Western New Guinea||9||1||8|
|Riau||Riau||Riau||14||ID - RI||6,614,400||89,936||74||Sumatra||12||2||10|
|Riau Islands||Kepulauan Riau||Kepri||21||ID - KR||2,179,800||8,270||264||Sumatra||7||2||5|
|Southeast Sulawesi||Sulawesi Tenggara||Sultra||74||ID - SG||2,701,700||36,160||75||Sulawesi||17||2||15|
|South Kalimantan||Kalimantan Selatan||Kalsel||63||ID - KS||4,182,100||37,135||113||Kalimantan||13||2||11|
|South Papua||Papua Selatan||Pasel||93||ID - PS||522,200||117,849||4.4||Western New Guinea||4||0||4|
|South Sulawesi||Sulawesi Selatan||Sulsel||73||ID - SN||9,225,800||45,331||204||Sulawesi||24||3||21|
|South Sumatra||Sumatera Selatan||Sumsel||16||ID - SS||8,657,000||86,772||100||Sumatra||17||4||13|
|Southwest Papua||Papua Barat Daya||PBD||96||621,904||39,123||16||Western New Guinea||6||1||5|
|West Java||Jawa Barat||Jabar||32||ID - JB||49,405,800||37,045||1,334||Java||27||9||18|
|West Kalimantan||Kalimantan Barat||Kalbar||61||ID - KB||5,541,400||147,037||38||Kalimantan||14||2||12|
|West Nusa Tenggara||Nusa Tenggara Barat||NTB||52||ID - NB||5,473,700||19,676||278||Lesser Sunda Islands||10||2||8|
|West Papua||Papua Barat[c]||Pabar||92||ID - PB||561,403||60,275||9||Western New Guinea||7||0||7|
|West Sulawesi||Sulawesi Barat||Sulbar||76||ID - SR||1,458,600||16,595||88||Sulawesi||6||0||6|
|West Sumatra||Sumatera Barat||Sumbar||13||ID - SB||5,640,600||42,120||134||Sumatra||19||7||12|
|DIY||34||ID - YO||3,761,900||3,171||1,186||Java||5||1||4|
Upon the independence of Indonesia, eight provinces were established. West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Maluku still exist as of today despite later divisions, while Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Nusa Tenggara, formerly Lesser Sunda (Sunda Kecil) were fully liquidated by dividing them into new provinces. The province of Central Sumatra existed from 1948 to 1957, while East Timor was annexed as a province from 1976 until its power transfer to UNTAET in 1999 prior to its independence as a country in 2002.
|Special Region of Surakarta
(Daerah Istimewa Surakarta)
|Sumatra||Bukittinggi / Medan||1945–1948||Central Sumatra|
East Nusa Tenggara
West Nusa Tenggara
|Sulawesi||Makassar / Manado||1945–1960||North-Central Sulawesi|
|Dili||1976–1999||Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste|
New provinces made from currently-existing provinces
|Province of origin|
|Special Region of Yogyakarta||1950||Yogyakarta||Central Java|
|Central Kalimantan||1958||Central Kalimantan||South Kalimantan|
|Jakarta Special Capital Region||1959||Greater Jakarta||West Java|
|North Maluku||1999||North Maluku||Maluku|
|Bangka Belitung Islands||2000||Bangka Belitung Islands||South Sumatra|
|Riau Islands||2002||Riau Islands||Riau|
|West Papua||2003||West Irian Jaya||Irian Jaya|
|West Sulawesi||2004||West Sulawesi||South Sulawesi|
|North Kalimantan||2012||North Kalimantan||East Kalimantan|
|Central Papua||2022||Central Papua||Papua|
|Highland Papua||2022||Highland Papua||Papua|
|South Papua||2022||South Papua||Papua|
|Southwest Papua||2022||Southwest Papua||West Papua|
|1954||Sunda Kecil||Lesser Sunda||Nusa Tenggara||Nusa Tenggara||non-existent|
|1959||Aceh||Aceh||Daerah Istimewa Aceh||Aceh Special Region||Aceh|
|1961||Jakarta Raya||Greater Jakarta||Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Raya||Greater Jakarta Special Capital Region||Jakarta Special Capital Region|
|1973||Irian Barat||West Irian||Irian Jaya||Irian Jaya||Papua|
|1990||Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Raya||Greater Jakarta Special Capital Region||Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta||Jakarta Special Capital Region||Jakarta Special Capital Region|
|2001||Daerah Istimewa Aceh||Aceh Special Region||Nanggroë Aceh Darussalam||State of Aceh, the Abode of Peace||Aceh|
|2002||Irian Jaya||Irian Jaya||Papua||Papua||Papua|
|2007||Irian Jaya Barat||West Irian Jaya||Papua Barat||West Papua||West Papua|
|2009||Nanggroë Aceh Darussalam||State of Aceh, the Abode of Peace||Aceh||Aceh||Aceh|
Former provincial capitals
- Tanjungpinang to Pekanbaru, Riau (until 1959)
- Jakarta to Bandung, West Java (until 1960)
- Singaraja to Denpasar, Bali (until 1960)
- Soasio, Tidore to Sukarnopura, West Irian (1956–1963)
- Dili, East Timor (1975–1999), later became the capital of Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
- Ternate to Sofifi, North Maluku (until 2010)
- Banjarmasin to Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan (until 2022)
- Jakarta is a province-level Capital Special Region comprising five Kota Administrasis (administrative cities/municipalities) and one Kabupaten Administrasi (administrative regency). It has no de jure capital, but many governmental buildings are located at Central Jakarta.
- Since 25 July 2022 Papua Province has been reduced to just five regencies (plus a city) in the northern part of Western New Guinea, plus three regencies in Cenderawasih Bay, with most of the previous regencies of the province split off to form three new provinces. Figures have been adjusted to take account of this separation.
- Since November 2022, West Papua Province has been reduced to a smaller part of Western New Guinea, with much of the western parts of the province split off to form the new province of Southwest Papua. Figures have been adjusted to take account of this separation.
- ISO 3166-2:ID
- Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2023.
- "Data Wilayah – Kementerian Dalam Negeri – Republik Indonesia". Archived from the original on 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
- Buku Induk—Kode dan Data Wilayah Administrasi Pemerintahan per Provinsi, Kabupaten/Kota dan Kecamatan Seluruh Indonesia (PDF) (in Indonesian), Kementerian Dalam Negeri [Ministry of Home Affairs], archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-11-19
- ISO 3166-2:ID (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of Indonesia)
- Badan Pusat Statistik/Statistics Indonesia, Jakarta, 2023.
- Badan Pusat Statistik/Statistics Indonesia, Jakarta, 2023.
- Figures adjusted to take account of the separation of Tarakan city and four regencies, as confirmed by Badan Pusat Statistik, to form the new province of North Kalimantan, listed separately in this table.
- West Papua was created from the western portion of Papua province in February 2003, initially under the name of Irian Jaya Barat, and was renamed Papua Barat (West Papua) on 7 February 2007. The split remains controversial. In November 2004, the Constitutional Court of Indonesia ruled that the split violated Papua's autonomy laws. However, since the western province had already been created, it should remain separate from Papua. The ruling also aborted the creation of another proposed province, Central Irian Jaya, because the split was not yet completed. As of June 2008, an ISO 3166-2 code has not yet been published for West Papua. If one were to follow precedent, it would be ID-PB. Note: ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-1 (corrected 2010-02-19) page 18-19 confirms this as ID-PB. See http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_3166-2_newsletter_ii-1_corrected_2010-02-19.pdf Archived 2011-01-01 at the Wayback Machine. The code ID-IJ now refers to the larger geographical region including Papua and West Papua.
- "Pangeran Surakarta Ajukan Piagam Soekarno Jadi Bukti Keistimewaan". Constitutional Court of Indonesia. Retrieved 2023-06-20.
- "Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 21 Tahun 1950" [Government Regulation Number 21 of 1950]. Government Regulation No. 21 of 1950 (PDF) (in Indonesian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-12-11.
- "Undang-Undang Nomor 25 Tahun 1956" [Act Number 25 of 1956]. Act No. 25 of 1956.
- "Undang-Undang Nomor 64 Tahun 1958" [Act Number 64 of 1958]. Act No. 64 of 1958.
- "Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang Nomor 47 Tahun 1960" [Government Regulation in Lieu of Law Number 47 of 1960]. Government Regulation in Lieu of Law No. 47 of 1970 (in Indonesian).
- "Undang-Undang Darurat Nomor 19 Tahun 1957" [Emergency Act Number 19 Year 1957]. Emergency Act No. 19 of 1957 (in Indonesian).
- "Undang-Undang Nomor 13 Tahun 1964" [Act Number 13 of 1964]. Act No. 13 of 1964.
- "Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 7 Tahun 1976" [Act of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 1976]. Act No. 7 of 1976 (PDF) (in Indonesian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-11-14.
- Meilani, Tri; Adji, Raka. "The long-awaited birth of South Papua province". antaranews.com. Retrieved 22 February 2023.
- "Southwest Papua Province inaugurated, Indonesia now has 38 provinces". Indonesiawindow.com. Retrieved 22 February 2023.