Provinces of Indonesia

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Provinces of Indonesia
Provinsi di Indonesia
CategoryFirst-level administrative division of a decentralized unitary state
  • 18 August 1945
PopulationsSouth Papua (522,215) – West Java (49,405,800)
AreasJakarta 661 km2 (255 sq mi) – Central Kalimantan 153,444 km2 (59,245 sq mi)

Provinces are the first-level administrative divisions of the Republic of Indonesia. It is formerly called the first-level provincial region provinsi daerah tingkat I) before the Reform era. Provinces have a local government, consisting of a governor (Gubernur) and a regional legislative body (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Provinsi). The governor and members of local representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms, but governors can only serve for two terms. Provincial governments have the authority to regulate and manage their own government affairs, subject to the limits of the central government.

Currently, Indonesia is divided into 38 provinces, 9 of which have special status. The terminology for special status are "Istimewa" and "Khusus", which translates to 'special' and/or 'designated' in English. Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities (formerly called second-level region regencies and cities or kabupaten/kotamadya daerah tingkat II), which are in turn subdivided into districts (kecamatan).


Article 18 paragraph 1 of The 1945 Constitution states that "The Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia is divided into provincial regions and those provincial regions are divided into regencies and city, whereby every one of those provinces, regencies, and municipalities has its regional government, which shall be regulated by laws."

According to the Law on Regional Government (UU 23/2014) the authority of the Provincial Government includes:

  1. Development planning and control;
  2. Planning, utilization, and community peace;
  3. Implementation of public order and public peace;
  4. Provision of public facilities and infrastructure;
  5. Handling the health sector;
  6. Education and allocation of potential human resources;
  7. Handling social problems across regencies/cities;
  8. Services in the field of manpower across regencies/cities;
  9. Facilitating the development of cooperatives, small and medium enterprises, including across districts/cities;
  10. Environmental control;
  11. Defense services, including across regencies/cities;
  12. Population and civil registration services;
  13. Government general administration services;
  14. Investment administration services, including across regencies/cities;
  15. The implementation of other basic services that cannot be carried out by regencies/cities; and
  16. Other mandatory affairs mandated by laws and regulations.

The authority of the provincial government are government affairs which are located across regencies/municipalities, government affairs whose users are across regencies/municipalities, government affairs whose benefits or negative impacts lie across regencies/municipalities, government affairs which use more resources. efficient if carried out by the province.

Each province has a local government, headed by a governor and a legislative body (DPRD). The governor and members of local representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms, but governors can only serve for two terms. The general election to elect members of the DPRDs is conducted simultaneously with the national general election. Previously, the general elections for Governor and Vice Governor were not held simultaneously. However, since 2015 regional head elections have been held simultaneously. Under the plan, simultaneous partial local elections will be held in February 2017, June 2018, December 2020, culminating in simultaneous elections for all local executive posts on November 2024 and then every five years.

Current provinces[edit]

Seven provinces in Indonesia that have special characteristics are:

One province has "privileged" characteristics:

One province has both characteristics:

  • Aceh Aceh, which has the special and privileged status of implementation of Islamic sharia law in religious life, customary life, and education.

Geographical units[edit]

The provinces are officially grouped into seven geographical units for statistical and national planning purposes, but without administrative function.[1]

Geographical unit Provinces Population
Largest city
Sumatra Aceh, the Bangka Belitung Islands, Bengkulu, Jambi, Lampung, North Sumatra, Riau, the Riau Islands, South Sumatra, and West Sumatra 59,977,300 Medan
Java Banten, Central Java, East Java, the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, the Special Region of Yogyakarta, and West Java 154,282,100 Jakarta
Kalimantan Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, North Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, and West Kalimantan 17,052,200 Samarinda
Nusa Tenggara (Lesser Sunda Islands) Bali, East Nusa Tenggara, and West Nusa Tenggara 15,355,100 Denpasar
Sulawesi Central Sulawesi, Gorontalo, North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, and West Sulawesi 20,304,400 Makassar
Maluku Islands Maluku and North Maluku 3,201,000 Ambon
Papua (Western New Guinea) Central Papua, Highland Papua, Papua, South Papua, Southwest Papua, and West Papua 5,601,900 Jayapura

List of provinces[edit]

Click on a province name to go to its main article
Emblem Name[3][4] Regional
ISO[5] Capital Largest city Population
(mid 2022)[6]
(per km2)
(mid 2022)[7]
Aceh 11 ID-AC 5,407,900 56,835 95 Sumatra 5 18
Bali 51 ID-BA 4,415,100 5,590 790 Lesser Sunda Islands 1 8
Bangka Belitung Islands
Kepulauan Bangka Belitung
19 ID-BB 1,494,600 16,690 90 Sumatra 1 6
Banten 36 ID-BT 12,252,000 9,353 1,310 Java 4 4
Bengkulu 17 ID-BE 2,060,100 20,128 102 Sumatra 1 9
Central Java
Jawa Tengah
33 ID-JT 37,032,400 34,337 1,078 Java 6 29
Central Kalimantan
Kalimantan Tengah
62 ID-KT 2,741,100 153,444 18 Kalimantan 1 13
Central Papua
Papua Tengah
94 ID-PT 1,431,000 61,073 23 Western New Guinea 0 8
Central Sulawesi
Sulawesi Tengah
72 ID-ST 3,066,100 61,606 50 Sulawesi 1 12
East Java
Jawa Timur
35 ID-JI 41,150,000 48,037 857 Java 9 29
East Kalimantan[8]
Kalimantan Timur
64 ID-KI 3,859,800 126,981 30 Kalimantan 3 7
East Nusa Tenggara
Nusa Tenggara Timur
53 ID-NT 5,466,300 46,447 118 Lesser Sunda Islands 1 21
Gorontalo 75 ID-GO 1,192,700 12,025 99 Sulawesi 1 5
Highland Papua
Papua Pegunungan
95 ID-PE 1,430,500 51,213 28 Western New Guinea 0 8
Special Capital Region of Jakarta
Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta
31 ID-JK 10,680,000 661 16,158 Java 5 1
Jambi 15 ID-JA 3,631,100 49,027 74 Sumatra 2 9
Lampung 18 ID-LA 9,176,600 33,570 273 Sumatra 2 13
Maluku 81 ID-MA 1,881,700 46,158 41 Maluku Islands 2 9
North Kalimantan
Kalimantan Utara
65 ID-KU 727,800 70,101 10 Kalimantan 1 4
North Maluku
Maluku Utara
82 ID-MU 1,319,300 32,999 40 Maluku Islands 2 8
North Sulawesi
Sulawesi Utara
71 ID-SA 2,659,500 14,500 183 Sulawesi 4 11
North Sumatra
Sumatera Utara
12 ID-SU 15,115,200 72,461 209 Sumatra 8 25
Papua 91 ID-PA 1,035,000 82,681 13 Western New Guinea 1 8
Riau 14 ID-RI 6,614,400 89,936 74 Sumatra 2 10
Riau Islands
Kepulauan Riau
21 ID-KR 2,179,800 8,270 264 Sumatra 2 5
Southeast Sulawesi
Sulawesi Tenggara
74 ID-SG 2,701,700 36,160 75 Sulawesi 2 15
South Kalimantan
Kalimantan Selatan
63 ID-KS 4,182,100 37,135 113 Kalimantan 2 11
South Papua
Papua Selatan
93 ID-PS 522,200 117,849 4.4 Western New Guinea 0 4
South Sulawesi
Sulawesi Selatan
73 ID-SN 9,225,800 45,331 204 Sulawesi 3 21
South Sumatra
Sumatera Selatan
16 ID-SS 8,657,000 86,772 100 Sumatra 4 13
Southwest Papua
Papua Barat Daya
96 ID-PD 621,904 39,123 16 Western New Guinea 1 5
West Java
Jawa Barat
32 ID-JB 49,405,800 37,045 1,334 Java 9 18
West Kalimantan
Kalimantan Barat
61 ID-KB 5,541,400 147,037 38 Kalimantan 2 12
West Nusa Tenggara
Nusa Tenggara Barat
52 ID-NB 5,473,700 19,676 278 Lesser Sunda Islands 2 8
West Papua
Papua Barat
92 ID-PB[9] 561,403 60,275 9 Western New Guinea 0 7
West Sulawesi
Sulawesi Barat
76 ID-SR 1,458,600 16,595 88 Sulawesi 0 6
West Sumatra
Sumatera Barat
13 ID-SB 5,640,600 42,120 134 Sumatra 7 12
Special Region of Yogyakarta
Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta
34 ID-YO 3,761,900 3,171 1,186 Java 1 4

Former provinces[edit]

Three-province Sumatra (1948–56) (L) and two-province Sulawesi (1960–64) with present-day regency borders

Upon the independence of Indonesia, eight provinces were established. West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Maluku still exist as of today despite later divisions, while Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Nusa Tenggara, formerly Lesser Sunda (Sunda Kecil) were fully liquidated by dividing them into new provinces. The province of Central Sumatra existed from 1948 to 1957, while East Timor was annexed as a province from 1976 until its power transfer to UNTAET in 1999 prior to its independence as a country in 2002.

Province Capital Period Successor(s)
Special Region of Surakarta
(Daerah Istimewa Surakarta)[10]
Surakarta 1945–1946 Central Java
Sumatra[11] Bukittinggi / Medan 1945–1948 Central Sumatra
North Sumatra
South Sumatra
Kalimantan[12] Banjarmasin 1945–1956 East Kalimantan
South Kalimantan
West Kalimantan
Nusa Tenggara[13] Singaraja 1945–1958 Bali
East Nusa Tenggara
West Nusa Tenggara
Sulawesi[14] Makassar / Manado 1945–1960 North-Central Sulawesi
South-Southeast Sulawesi
Central Sumatra
(Sumatera Tengah)[11][15]
Bukittinggi 1948–1957 Jambi
West Sumatra
North-Central Sulawesi
(Sulawesi Utara-Tengah)[16]
Manado 1960–1964 North Sulawesi
Central Sulawesi
South-Southeast Sulawesi
(Sulawesi Selatan-Tenggara)[16]
Makassar 1960–1964 South Sulawesi
Southeast Sulawesi
East Timor
(Timor Timur)[17]
Dili 1976–1999 Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste

New provinces made from currently-existing provinces[edit]

Pre-1999 Maluku (L) and Irian Jaya (now Papua, R) with present-day regency borders
Provinces in Western New Guinea, after the split of Papua Province into four provinces in June 2022[18] and after the split of West Papua Province into two provinces in December 2022[19]
New province
(current name)
Year New province
(then name)
Province of origin
Special Region of Yogyakarta 1950 Yogyakarta Central Java
Aceh 1956 Aceh North Sumatra
Central Kalimantan 1958 Central Kalimantan South Kalimantan
Jakarta Special Capital Region 1959 Greater Jakarta West Java
Lampung 1964 Lampung South Sumatra
Bengkulu 1967 Bengkulu South Sumatra
North Maluku 1999 North Maluku Maluku
Banten 2000 Banten West Java
Bangka Belitung Islands 2000 Bangka Belitung Islands South Sumatra
Gorontalo 2000 Gorontalo North Sulawesi
Riau Islands 2002 Riau Islands Riau
West Papua 2003 West Irian Jaya Irian Jaya
West Sulawesi 2004 West Sulawesi South Sulawesi
North Kalimantan 2012 North Kalimantan East Kalimantan
Central Papua 2022 Central Papua Papua
Highland Papua 2022 Highland Papua Papua
South Papua 2022 South Papua Papua
Southwest Papua 2022 Southwest Papua West Papua

Renamed provinces[edit]

Year Old name
Old name
New name
New name
Current name
1954 Sunda Kecil Lesser Sunda Nusa Tenggara Nusa Tenggara non-existent
1959 Aceh Aceh Daerah Istimewa Aceh Aceh Special Region Aceh
1961 Jakarta Raya Greater Jakarta Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Raya Greater Jakarta Special Capital Region Jakarta Special Capital Region
1973 Irian Barat West Irian Irian Jaya Irian Jaya Papua
1990 Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Raya Greater Jakarta Special Capital Region Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Jakarta Special Capital Region Jakarta Special Capital Region
2001 Daerah Istimewa Aceh Aceh Special Region Nanggroë Aceh Darussalam State of Aceh, the Abode of Peace Aceh
2002 Irian Jaya Irian Jaya Papua Papua Papua
2007 Irian Jaya Barat West Irian Jaya Papua Barat West Papua West Papua
2009 Nanggroë Aceh Darussalam State of Aceh, the Abode of Peace Aceh Aceh Aceh

Former provincial capitals[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Jakarta is a province-level Capital Special Region comprising five Kota Administrasis (administrative cities/municipalities) and one Kabupaten Administrasi (administrative regency). It has no de jure capital, but many governmental buildings are located at Central Jakarta.


  1. ^ ISO 3166-2:ID
  2. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2023.
  3. ^ "Data Wilayah – Kementerian Dalam Negeri – Republik Indonesia". Archived from the original on 2012-02-22. Retrieved 2011-02-16.
  4. ^ Buku Induk—Kode dan Data Wilayah Administrasi Pemerintahan per Provinsi, Kabupaten/Kota dan Kecamatan Seluruh Indonesia (PDF) (in Indonesian), Kementerian Dalam Negeri [Ministry of Home Affairs], archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-11-19
  5. ^ ISO 3166-2:ID (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of Indonesia)
  6. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik/Statistics Indonesia, Jakarta, 2023.
  7. ^ Badan Pusat Statistik/Statistics Indonesia, Jakarta, 2023.
  8. ^ Figures adjusted to take account of the separation of Tarakan city and four regencies, as confirmed by Badan Pusat Statistik, to form the new province of North Kalimantan, listed separately in this table.
  9. ^ West Papua was created from the western portion of Papua province in February 2003, initially under the name of Irian Jaya Barat, and was renamed Papua Barat (West Papua) on 7 February 2007. The split remains controversial. In November 2004, the Constitutional Court of Indonesia ruled that the split violated Papua's autonomy laws. However, since the western province had already been created, it should remain separate from Papua. The ruling also aborted the creation of another proposed province, Central Irian Jaya, because the split was not yet completed. As of June 2008, an ISO 3166-2 code has not yet been published for West Papua. If one were to follow precedent, it would be ID-PB. Note: ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-1 (corrected 2010-02-19) page 18-19 confirms this as ID-PB. See Archived 2011-01-01 at the Wayback Machine. The code ID-IJ now refers to the larger geographical region including Papua and West Papua.
  10. ^ "Pangeran Surakarta Ajukan Piagam Soekarno Jadi Bukti Keistimewaan". Constitutional Court of Indonesia. Retrieved 2023-06-20.
  11. ^ a b "Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 21 Tahun 1950" [Government Regulation Number 21 of 1950]. Government Regulation No. 21 of 1950 (PDF) (in Indonesian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-12-11.
  12. ^ "Undang-Undang Nomor 25 Tahun 1956" [Act Number 25 of 1956]. Act No. 25 of 1956 (in Indonesian). {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  13. ^ "Undang-Undang Nomor 64 Tahun 1958" [Act Number 64 of 1958]. Act No. 64 of 1958 (in Indonesian). {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  14. ^ "Peraturan Pemerintah Pengganti Undang-Undang Nomor 47 Tahun 1960" [Government Regulation in Lieu of Law Number 47 of 1960]. Government Regulation in Lieu of Law No. 47 of 1970 (in Indonesian).
  15. ^ "Undang-Undang Darurat Nomor 19 Tahun 1957" [Emergency Act Number 19 Year 1957]. Emergency Act No. 19 of 1957 (in Indonesian).
  16. ^ a b "Undang-Undang Nomor 13 Tahun 1964" [Act Number 13 of 1964]. Act No. 13 of 1964 (in Indonesian). {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  17. ^ "Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 7 Tahun 1976" [Act of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 1976]. Act No. 7 of 1976 (PDF) (in Indonesian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-11-14.
  18. ^ Meilani, Tri; Adji, Raka. "The long-awaited birth of South Papua province". Retrieved 22 February 2023.
  19. ^ "Southwest Papua Province inaugurated, Indonesia now has 38 provinces". Retrieved 22 February 2023.