Provinces of Italy

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Provinces of Italy (grey borders), within Regions (solid borders)

The provinces of Italy (Italian: province d'Italia) are the constituent entities of the Italian Republic, on an intermediate level between a municipality (comune) and a region (regione). Since 2015, provinces have been classified as ‘institutional bodies of second level’.[1]

There are currently 107 institutional bodies of second level in Italy, including 80 ordinary provinces, 2 autonomous provinces, 4 regional decentralization entities, 6 free municipal consortia, and 14 metropolitan cities, as well as the Aosta Valley region (which also exercises the powers of a province).

Italian provinces (with the exception of the current Sardinian provinces) correspond to the NUTS 3 regions.[citation needed]


A province of the Italian Republic is composed of many municipalities (comune). Usually several provinces together form a region; the region of Aosta Valley is the sole exception—it is not subdivided into provinces, and provincial functions are exercised by the region.

The three main functions devolved to provinces are:

  • local planning and zoning;
  • provision of local police and fire services;
  • transportation regulation (car registration, maintenance of local roads, etc.).

The number of provinces in Italy has been steadily growing in recent years, as many new ones are carved out of older ones. Usually, the province's name is the same as that of its capital city.

According to the 2014 reform, each province is headed by a President (or Commissioner) assisted by a legislative body, the Provincial Council, and an executive body, the Provincial Executive. President (Commissioner) and members of Council are elected together by mayors and city councilors of each municipality of the province. The Executive is chaired by the President (Commissioner) who appoint others members, called assessori. Since 2015, the President (Commissioner) and other members of the council will not receive a salary.[2]

In each province, there is also a Prefect (prefetto), a representative of the central government who heads an agency called prefettura-ufficio territoriale del governo. The Questor (questore) is the head of State Police (Polizia di Stato) in the province and his office is called questura. There is also a provincial police force depending from local government, called provincial police (polizia provinciale).

The South Tyrol and Trentino are autonomous provinces: unlike all other provinces they have the same legislative powers as regions and are not subordinated to Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, the region they are part of.

List of provinces[edit]


Type Province Capital Code Region Macroregion
Population (2019)[3]
Comuni President
F Agrigento Agrigento AG Sicily Insular 434,870 3,053 144 43 Marcello Maisano (commissioner)
O Alessandria Alessandria AL Piedmont North-West 421,284 3,559 119 188 Gianfranco Lorenzo Baldi (R)
O Ancona Ancona AN Marche Centre 471,228 1,963 241 47 Liana Serrani (L)
D Aosta Aosta AO Aosta Valley North-West 125,666 3,261 39 74
O Arezzo Arezzo AR Tuscany Centre 342,654 3,233 106 36 Roberto Vasai (L)
O Ascoli Piceno Ascoli Piceno AP Marche Centre 207,179 1,228 170 33 Paolo D'Erasmo (L)
O Asti Asti AT Piedmont North-West 214,638 1,510 143 118 Marco Gabusi (R)
O Avellino Avellino AV Campania South 418,306 2,792 157 118 Domenico Gambacorta (R)
M Bari Bari BA Apulia South 1,251,994 3,821 329 41 Antonio Decaro (L)
O Barletta-Andria-Trani Barletta, Andria, Trani BT Apulia South 390,011 1,538 255 10 Nicola Giorgino (R)
O Belluno Belluno BL Veneto North-East 202,950 3,676 58 63 Roberto Padrin (I)
O Benevento Benevento BN Campania South 277,018 2,071 139 78 Claudio Ricci (L)
O Bergamo Bergamo BG Lombardy North-West 1,114,590 2,723 404 243 Matteo Rossi (L)
O Biella Biella BI Piedmont North-West 175,585 914 203 74 Emanuele Ramella Pralungo (L)
M Bologna Bologna BO Emilia-Romagna North-East 1,014,619 3,702 268 55 Virginio Merola (L)
O Brescia Brescia BS Lombardy North-West 1,265,954 4,783 263 205 Pier Luigi Mottinelli (L)
O Brindisi Brindisi BR Apulia South 392,975 1,839 219 20 Maurizio Bruno (L)
M Cagliari Cagliari CA Sardinia Insular 431,038 1,248 345 17 Massimo Zedda (L)
F Caltanissetta Caltanissetta CL Sicily Insular 262,458 2,124 128 22 Alessandro Di Liberto (commissioner)
O Campobasso Campobasso CB Molise South 221,238 2,910 79 84 Rosario De Matteis (L)
O Caserta Caserta CE Campania South 922,965 2,640 347 104 Giorgio Magliocca (R)
M Catania Catania CT Sicily Insular 1,107,702 3,553 307 58 Enzo Bianco (L)
O Catanzaro Catanzaro CZ Calabria South 358,316 2,392 154 80 Enzo Bruno (L)
O Chieti Chieti CH Abruzzo South 385,588 2,588 153 104 Mario Pupillo (L)
O Como Como CO Lombardy North-West 599,204 1,288 462 148 Maria Rita Livio (L)
O Cosenza Cosenza CS Calabria South 705,753 6,650 110 150 Franco Iacucci (L)
O Cremona Cremona CR Lombardy North-West 358,955 1,771 205 113 Davide Viola (L)
O Crotone Crotone KR Calabria South 174,980 1,716 102 27 Armando Foresta (I)
O Cuneo Cuneo CN Piedmont North-West 587,089 6,902 86 247 Federico Borgna (L)
F Enna Enna EN Sicily Insular 164,788 2,561 67 20 Giovanni Corso (commissioner)
O Fermo Fermo FM Marche Centre 173,800 860 207 40 Moira Canigola (L)
O Ferrara Ferrara FE Emilia-Romagna North-East 345,691 2,630 137 21 Tiziano Tagliani (L)
M Florence Florence FI Tuscany Centre 1,011,349 3,515 284 41 Dario Nardella (L)
O Foggia Foggia FG Apulia South 622,183 6,966 92 61 Francesco Miglio (L)
O Forlì-Cesena Forlì FC Emilia-Romagna North-East 394,627 2,376 166 30 Davide Drei (L)
O Frosinone Frosinone FR Lazio Centre 489,083 3,243 154 91 Antonio Pompeo (L)
M Genoa Genoa GE Liguria North-West 841,180 1,839 480 67 Marco Bucci (R)
R Gorizia Gorizia GO Friuli-Venezia Giulia North-East 139,403 466 306 25 TBD
O Grosseto Grosseto GR Tuscany Centre 221,629 4,501 51 28 Antonfrancesco Vivarelli Colonna (R)
O Imperia Imperia IM Liguria North-West 213,840 1,156 193 66 Fabio Natta (PSI)
O Isernia Isernia IS Molise South 84,379 1,528 58 52 Lorenzo Coia (L)
O La Spezia La Spezia SP Liguria North-West 219,556 881 254 32 Giorgio Cozzani (R)
O L'Aquila L'Aquila AQ Abruzzo South 299,031 5,035 62 108 Angelo Caruso (R)
O Latina Latina LT Lazio Centre 575,254 2,250 247 33 Giovanni Bernasconi (L)
O Lecce Lecce LE Apulia South 795,134 2,759 296 97 Antonio Maria Gabellone (R)
O Lecco Lecco LC Lombardy North-West 337,380 816 417 85 Flavio Polano (L)
O Livorno Livorno LI Tuscany Centre 334,832 1,211 283 19 Alessandro Franchi (L)
O Lodi Lodi LO Lombardy North-West 230,198 782 291 60 Francesco Passerini (R)
O Lucca Lucca LU Tuscany Centre 387,876 1,773 222 33 Luca Menesini (L)
O Macerata Macerata MC Marche Centre 314,178 2,774 117 55 Antonio Pettinari (R)
O Mantua Mantua MN Lombardy North-West 412,292 2,339 178 64 Beniamino Mauro Morselli (L)
O Massa and Carrara Massa MS Tuscany Centre 194,878 1,157 176 17 Gianni Lorenzetti (L)
O Matera Matera MT Basilicata South 197,909 3,447 59 31 Francesco De Giacomo (L)
M Messina Messina ME Sicily Insular 626,876 3,247 201 108 Renato Accorinti (L)
M Milan Milan MI Lombardy North-West 3,250,315 1,575 2,004 134 Giuseppe Sala (L)
O Modena Modena MO Emilia-Romagna North-East 705,393 2,689 261 47 Gian Carlo Muzzarelli (L)
O Monza and Brianza Monza MB Lombardy North-West 873,935 405 2,098 55 Luca Santambrogio (R)
M Naples Naples NA Campania South 3,084,890 1,171 2,631 92 Luigi De Magistris (L)
O Novara Novara NO Piedmont North-West 369,018 1,339 278 87 Matteo Besozzi (L)
O Nuoro Nuoro NU Sardinia Insular 208,550 5,838 37 74 Costantino Tidu (L)
O Oristano Oristano OR Sardinia Insular 157,707 2,990 53 87 Massimo Torrente (commissioner)
O Padua Padua PD Veneto North-East 937,908 2,143 436 102 Fabio Bui (I)
M Palermo Palermo PA Sicily Insular 1,252,588 4,992 250 82 Leoluca Orlando (L)
O Parma Parma PR Emilia-Romagna North-East 451,631 3,450 128 44 Filippo Fritelli (L)
O Pavia Pavia PV Lombardy North-West 545,888 2,965 185 186 Vittorio Poma (L)
O Perugia Perugia PG Umbria Centre 656,382 6,332 106 59 Nando Mismetti (L)
O Pesaro and Urbino Pesaro PU Marche Centre 358,886 2,564 143 53 Daniele Tagliolini (L)
O Pescara Pescara PE Abruzzo South 318,909 1,225 264 46 Antonio Di Marco (L)
O Piacenza Piacenza PC Emilia-Romagna North-East 287,152 2,590 112 46 Francesco Rolleri (L)
O Pisa Pisa PI Tuscany Centre 419,037 2,445 171 37 Marco Filippeschi (L)
O Pistoia Pistoia PT Tuscany Centre 292,473 965 304 20 Rinaldo Vanni (L)
R Pordenone Pordenone PN Friuli-Venezia Giulia North-East 312,533 2,130 148 50 TBD
O Potenza Potenza PZ Basilicata South 364,960 6,549 59 100 Nicola Rocco Valluzzi (L)
O Prato Prato PO Tuscany Centre 257,716 365 684 7 Matteo Biffoni (L)
F Ragusa Ragusa RG Sicily Insular 320,893 1,614 197 12 Dario Caltabellotta (commissioner)
O Ravenna Ravenna RA Emilia-Romagna North-East 389,456 1,858 211 18 Michele De Pascale (L)
M Reggio Calabria Reggio Calabria RC Calabria South 548,009 3,184 178 97 Giuseppe Falcomatà (L)
O Reggio Emilia Reggio Emilia RE Emilia-Romagna North-East 531,891 2,292 231 42 Gianmaria Manghi (L)
O Rieti Rieti RI Lazio Centre 155,503 2,750 58 73 Giuseppe Rinaldi (L)
O Rimini Rimini RN Emilia-Romagna North-East 339,017 863 382 25 Andrea Gnassi (L)
M Rome Rome RM Lazio Centre 4,342,212 5,352 784 121 Virginia Raggi (M5S)
O Rovigo Rovigo RO Veneto North-East 234,937 1,790 138 50 Marco Trombini (R)
O Salerno Salerno SA Campania South 1,098,513 4,918 226 158 Giuseppe Canfora (L)
O Sassari Sassari SS Sardinia Insular 491,571 7,692 64 92 Guido Sechi (commissioner)
O Savona Savona SV Liguria North-West 276,064 1,545 186 69 Monica Giuliano (L)
O Siena Siena SI Tuscany Centre 267,197 3,823 71 35 Fabrizio Nepi (L)
O Sondrio Sondrio SO Lombardy North-West 181,095 3,210 57 77 Luca Della Bitta (R)
O South Sardinia Carbonia SU Sardinia Insular 350,725 6,530 54 107 Mario Mossa (commissioner)
A South Tyrol Bolzano BZ Trentino-South Tyrol North-East 531,178 7,400 69 116 Arno Kompatscher (SVP)
F Syracuse Syracuse SR Sicily Insular 399,224 2,108 192 21 Antonio Lutri (commissioner)
O Taranto Taranto TA Apulia South 576,756 2,436 238 29 Martino Carmelo Tamburrano (R)
O Teramo Teramo TE Abruzzo South 308,052 1,948 160 47 Domenico "Renzo" Di Sabatino (L)
O Terni Terni TR Umbria Centre 225,633 2,122 111 33 Giampiero Lattanzi (L)
F Trapani Trapani TP Sicily Insular 430,492 2,460 177 24 Giuseppe Amato (commissioner)
A Trento Trento TN Trentino-South Tyrol North-East 541,098 6,203 85 175 Maurizio Fugatti (R)
O Treviso Treviso TV Veneto North-East 887,806 2,477 359 95 Stefano Marcon (R)
R Trieste Trieste TS Friuli-Venezia Giulia North-East 234,493 212 1,116 6 TBD
M Turin Turin TO Piedmont North-West 2,259,523 6,829 337 312 Chiara Appendino (M5S)
R Udine Udine UD Friuli-Venezia Giulia North-East 528,791 4,904 110 134 TBD
O Varese Varese VA Lombardy North-West 890,768 1,199 737 139 Nicola Gunnar Vincenzi (L)
M Venice Venice VE Veneto North-East 853,338 2,461 351 44 Luigi Brugnaro (R)
O Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Verbania VB Piedmont North-West 158,349 2,256 72 74 Stefano Costa (L)
O Vercelli Vercelli VC Piedmont North-West 170,911 2,088 86 82 Carlo Riva Vercellotti (R)
O Verona Verona VR Veneto North-East 926,497 3,120 295 98 Antonio Pastorello (R)
O Vibo Valentia Vibo Valentia VV Calabria South 160,073 1,139 146 50 Andrea Niglia (I)
O Vicenza Vicenza VI Veneto North-East 862,418 2,723 320 119 Francesco Rucco (R)
O Viterbo Viterbo VT Lazio Centre 317,030 3,614 89 60 Pietro Nocchi (L)
Total 60,359,546 301,378 200 7,926


Italian provinces by population
Italian provinces by population density
  • Sardinia — following the outcome of the regional referendums of 2012 it was decreed that such institutions should be reformed or abolished by March 2013 (thus remaining in office until 28 February 2013).[4] In January 2014 the Sardinian Regional Administrative Court declared "unconstitutional" the abolition of the Sardinian provinces, which occurred in 2013.[5] In 2016, Sardinian provinces were reformed by Sardinia regional executive: Cagliari became a metropolitan city; the provinces Olbia-Tempio, Ogliastra, Medio Campidano and Carbonia-Iglesias were abolished.[6] In 2017, Regional council of Sardinia approved the institution of a new province, South Sardinia. It was formed by the municipalities of province of Cagliari that did not join to metropolitan city of Cagliari, and those which formed the provinces of Medio Campidano and Carbonia Iglesias.[7]
  • Sicily — provinces were replaced by six free municipal consortia in 2013 and three metropolitan cities in 2015.[8]
  • Friuli-Venezia Giulia — in 2016, the regional council of Friuli-Venezia Giulia approved a law which abolished the four provinces which formed the region, and replaced by 18 territorial unions of municipalities.[9] In 2019, the regional council of Friuli-Venezia Giulia rebranded the four provinces as the four regional decentralization entities, who took their competences, powers, and capital.[10]
  • Metropolitan cities — in 2015, 14 metropolitan cities replaced the provinces of Bari, Bologna, Cagliari, Catania, Florence, Genoa, Messina, Milan, Naples, Palermo, Reggio Calabria, Rome, Turin, and Venice.


Kingdom of Italy[edit]

In 1861, at the birth of the Kingdom of Italy, there were 59 provinces. However, at that time the national territory was smaller than the current one: regions of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Lazio were not included in the kingdom.

In 1866, following the Third Independence War, territories of Veneto, Friuli and Mantua were annexed. There were therefore nine more provinces: Belluno, Mantua, Padua, Rovigo, Treviso, Venice, Verona, Vicenza and Udine, all previously part of the Austrian Empire. Eventually, in 1870, following the union of Rome and its province from the Papal States, the provinces rose in number to 69.

After the First World War, new territories were annexed to Italy. The Province of Trento was created in 1920. Provinces of La Spezia, Trieste and Ionio in 1923. In 1924 the new provinces of Fiume, Pola, and Zara were created, increasing the total number of provinces in Italy to 76.

Between the two World Wars[edit]

Provinces of Italy in 1942

In 1927, following a Royal charter,[Note 1] a general province rearrangement took place. 17 new provinces were created (Aosta, Vercelli, Varese, Savona, Bolzano, Gorizia, Pistoia, Pescara, Rieti, Terni, Viterbo, Frosinone, Brindisi, Matera, Ragusa, Castrogiovanni, Nuoro) and the province of Caserta was suppressed. In the same year the institution of circondari, sub-provincial wards created before the unification, was abolished.

Province of Littoria (Latina) was created in 1934, and the Province of Asti in 1935.

Following the annexion of Yugoslavia in 1941, the Province of Zara was enlarged and joined the Governatorate of Dalmatia (comprising the provinces of Zara, Spalato, and Cattaro), while in the occupied central part of the present-day Slovenia the new Province of Ljubljana was created. This lasted only until 1945, when Yugoslavia was recreated.

After World War II[edit]

In 1945, after World War II, the province of Aosta changed its name to Valle d'Aosta and Littoria to Latina; the new province of Caserta was created. With the Paris Treaties, signed on 10 February 1947, Italy lost the provinces in the regions of Istria, Carnaro and Dalmazia and part of the provinces of Trieste and Gorizia. Moreover, the province of Trieste was occupied by United States and British forces. The Italian Republic therefore had 91 provinces at its birth.

The province of Ionio was renamed as Taranto in 1951, and in 1954 the province of Trieste was returned to Italy.

Recent history[edit]

The Province of Pordenone was created in 1968, the province of Isernia in 1970, and the Province of Oristano in 1974. In a reorganization in 1992 eight provinces were created: Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, Biella, Lecco, Lodi, Rimini, Prato, Crotone, and Vibo Valentia, while Forlì was renamed as Forlì-Cesena.

Four new provinces were created in Sardinia in 2001, with effect from 2005: Olbia-Tempio, Ogliastra, Medio Campidano and Carbonia-Iglesias. In 2004 three further provinces were created: Monza and Brianza, Fermo, and Barletta-Andria-Trani, making a total of 110 provinces.

In May 2012, a referendum abolished the eight provinces of Sardinia, and this suppression was to take effect on 1 March 2013. On 6 July 2012, new plans were published to reduce the number of provinces by around half.[11] In January 2014 the Sardinian Regional Administrative Court declared "unconstitutional" the abolition of the Sardinian provinces, which occurred in 2013.

In 2014 the Delrio Law[12] transformed the Provinces of Italy in a reduced number of broader administrative entities.[13]

In 2014 the Friuli Venezia Giulia of Debora Serracchiani was the first Italian region to pass a law for abolishing its provinces, while implementing the national reform in the local administrative level.[13] The Friuli region has multiplied four provinces in 18 unions of the Italian administrative unit called Comune.[14] After rejection of the 2016 Italian constitutional referendum, the Provinces of Italy were still kept alive under provisions of the Delrio Constitutional Law to be merged in a smaller number of union of provinces.[15]

Former provinces[edit]

Number of provinces
Year Provinces
1861 59
1866 68
1870 69
1923 75
1924 76
1927 92
1934 93
1935 94
1941 95
1944 94
1945 93
1947 91
1954 92
1968 93
1970 94
1974 95
1992 103
2001 107
2004 110
2016 107
Number of provinces in Italy
Trend in number of provinces

Historical abolished provinces[edit]

  • Province of Aosta (Italian: Provincia di Aosta) (1927–1945). Became the Autonomous Region of Aosta Valley in 1948.
  • Province of Terra di Lavoro (Italian: Provincia di Terra di Lavoro ) (1861–1927). Was divided into the current provinces of Frosinone, Latina and Caserta.

Provinces of Istria and Dalmatia[edit]

Provinces established during World War II[edit]

  • Province of Ljubljana (Italian: Provincia di Lubiana) (1941–1943). Was occupied by Germany in September 1943 and was administered as a part of the German Operation Zone of the Adriatic Littoral.
  • Province of Spalato (Italian: Provincia di Spalato) (1941–1943). Was a part of the Governorship of Dalmatia. Was occupied by Germany in September 1943 and later annexed by the Independent State of Croatia.
  • Province of Cattaro (Italian: Provincia di Cattaro) (1941–1943). Was a part of the Governorship of Dalmatia. Was occupied by Germany in September 1943 and partially annexed by the Independent State of Croatia.

Colonial provinces[edit]

Theoretical provinces[edit]

  • Province of the Western Alps (Italian: Provincia delle Alpi Occidentali). Planned World War II province to be created of the annexed French territories of the Alpes Maritimes (including the Principality of Monaco) and parts of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Hautes Alpes and Savoie.[16] The town of Briançon (Italian: Brianzone) was to act as the provincial capital.[16]
  • Province of Corsica (Italian: Provincia della Corsica). Planned to be created after WW2 Axis victory, with Petru Giovacchini as possible "Governor".
  • Province of Ragusa in Dalmatia (Italian: Provincia di Ragusa di Dalmazia). Planned World War II province to be created of the annexed Dalmatian territories that were areas of the ancient Republic of Ragusa.
  • Provinces in islands of Greece: Provincia delle Ionie; Provincia delle Cicladi; Provincia di Samo. Planned World War II provinces to be created of the Italian-annexed islands of Greece.


Provinces as proposed by the Monti Cabinet in 2012

Provinces are often deemed useless, and many proposals have been made in recent years to eliminate them.[17][18][19] However, the difficulty of changing the constitution and the opposition of groups of politicians and citizens halted any proposal of reform.[20][21]

In 2013, during his speech to the Chamber of Deputies, newly appointed Prime Minister Enrico Letta announced that a revision of the second part of the constitution was needed, in order to change the bicameral parliamentary system and to abolish the provinces. The proposal, presented during the Renzi premiership, was rejected in the constitutional referendum held in December 2016.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Regio Decreto Legislativo n. 1/1927, 3 January 1927, "Riordinamento delle circoscrizioni provinciali"


  1. ^ "Addio alle vecchie province, è legge il Ddl Delrio". Il Sole 24 Ore. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  2. ^ "Le elezioni". Dipartimento per gli affari interni e territoriali.
  3. ^ Italy: Regions and Provinces. CityPopulation. Updated January 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  4. ^ "Province, inizia il conto alla rovescia Gli enti scompariranno a febbraio 2013 - Cronache dalla Sardegna - L'Unione Sarda". 17 August 2001. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  5. ^ "Riordino province, incostituzionale secondo il TAR Sardegna". 10 January 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
  6. ^ "Enti locali: approvato nuovo assetto territoriale e nominati amministratori straordinari". Autonomous Region of Sardinia. 20 April 2016.
  7. ^ "Carbonia diventa capoluogo della provincia del Sud Sardegna". La Nuova Sardegna. 1 June 2016.
  8. ^ Legge 24 marzo 2014, n. 8. Gazzetta Ufficiale della Regione Siciliana (in Italian). Published 28 March 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  9. ^ "Soppressione delle province del Friuli-Venezia Giulia". Autonomous Region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia. 14 December 2016.
  10. ^ Legge regionale 29 novembre 2019, n. 21. Friuli-Venezia Giulia: Leggi e regolamenti (in Italian). Published 29 November 2019. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  11. ^ Redazione Online. "Spending review, province ridotte del 50% Patroni Griffi:«L'accorpamento è una svolta". Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  12. ^ "Legge 7 aprile 2014, n. 56". Gazzetta Ufficiale (in Italian). 7 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  13. ^ a b Called "enti territoriali di area vasta." See "L'attuazione della legge 56 in ambito regionale" [The implementation of Law n. 56 in the Italian regions] (in Italian). Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  14. ^ "Dal Friuli alla Sicilia: il caos nelle regioni". Il Fatto Quotidiano (in Italian). 5 May 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  15. ^ "Città metropolitane e province" (PDF). Italian Chamber of Deputies (in Italian). 19 April 2021. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 April 2019.
  16. ^ a b Davide Rodogno (2006). Fascism's European empire: Italian occupation during the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. pp. 89–92. ISBN 0-521-84515-7.
  17. ^ "Lombardo contro le Province "È giunto il momento di abolirle"". la Repubblica. 26 July 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  18. ^ "Pareggio di bilancio in Costituzione dal 2014 Addio Province (escluse Trento e Bolzano)". la Repubblica. 8 September 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  19. ^ "Più di un milione di persone a libro paga della Politica Spa". la Repubblica. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  20. ^ "Il presidente della Provincia di Varese "Via le Regioni come Molise e Umbria"". la Repubblica. 16 July 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  21. ^ Fabrizzi, Federica. "LA PROVINCIA: STORIA ISTITUZIONALE DELL'ENTE LOCALE PIÙ DISCUSSO". Retrieved 21 November 2011.

External links[edit]