Provinces of Nepal

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Provinces of Nepal
नेपालका प्रदेशहरू
Nepal ka Pradesh haru
Nepal adm location map.svg
CategoryFederated state
LocationFederal Democratic Republic of Nepal
  • 20 September 2015
PopulationsSmallest: Karnali, 1,570,418
Largest: Madhesh, 6,126,288
AreasSmallest: Madhesh, 9,661 square kilometres (3,730 sq mi)
Largest: Karnali, 27,984 square kilometres (10,805 sq mi)
DensitiesSmallest: Karnali, 61
Largest: Madhesh, 630

The provinces of Nepal (Nepali: नेपालका प्रदेशहरू, romanized: Nepālkā Pradeśharū) were formed on 20 September 2015 in accordance with Schedule 4 of the Constitution of Nepal. The seven provinces were formed by grouping the existing districts. The current system of seven provinces replaced an earlier system where Nepal was divided into 14 administrative zones which were grouped into five development regions.


A committee was formed to restructure administrative divisions of Nepal on 23 December 1956 and in two weeks, a report was submitted to the government. In accordance with The Report On Reconstruction Of Districts Of Nepal, 2013 (Nepali: नेपालको जिल्ला प्रशासन पुनर्गठनको रिपोर्ट, २०१३, romanized: Nepalko Jilla Prashasan Punargathanko Report, 2013), the country was first divided into total 7 Kshetras (area).[1]

  1. Arun Kshetra
  2. Janakpur Kshetra
  3. Kathmandu Kshetra
  4. Gandak Kshetra
  5. Kapilavastu Kshetra
  6. Karnali Kshetra
  7. Mahakali Kshetra

In 1962, all Kshetras were dissolved and the country was restructured into 75 development districts; those districts were further grouped into 14 zones.[2] In 1972, all 14 zones were grouped into 4 development regions; later in 1981, they were rearranged into the following 5 development regions.

  1. Eastern Development Region
  2. Central Development Region
  3. Western Development Region
  4. Mid-Western Development Region
  5. Far-Western Development Region

The provinces of Nepal were formed according to Schedule 4 of the Constitution of Nepal. The seven provinces were formed by grouping the existing districts; two districts, namely Nawalparasi and Rukum, were split between two provinces. Each district has local units. Local level bodies in Nepal include six metropolises, 11 sub-metropolises, 276 municipal councils and 460 village councils.[3] The current system of seven provinces replaced an earlier system where Nepal was divided into 14 administrative zones which were grouped into five development regions.

In January 2016 the Government of Nepal announced temporary headquarters of the seven provinces.[4] According to Article 295 (2), the permanent names of the provinces will be determined by a two-thirds vote of the respective province's legislature.


The executive power of the provinces, pursuant to the constitution and laws, is vested in the council of ministers of the province. The executive power of the province shall be exercised by the province head (governor) in case of absence of the province executive in a state of emergency or enforcement of the federal rule. Every province has a ceremonial head as the representative of the federal government. The President appoints a governor for every province. The governor exercises the rights and duties as to be performed specified in the constitution or laws. The governor appoints the leader of the parliamentary party with the majority in the provincial assembly as the chief minister and the council of ministers are formed under the chairpersonship of the chief minister.


The Pradesh Sabha is the unicameral legislative assembly of each of the seven federal provinces.[5] The term for the members of the provincial assemblies is five years, except when dissolved earlier.

Candidates for each constituency are chosen by the political parties or stand as independents. Each constituency elects one member under the first past the post system of election. Since Nepal uses a parallel voting system, voters cast another ballot to elect members through the party-list proportional representation. The current constitution specifies that sixty percent of the members should be elected from the first past the post system and forty percent through the party-list proportional representation system. Women should account for one-third of total members elected from each party and if one-third percentage are not elected, the party that fails to ensure so shall have to elect one-third of total number as women through the party-list proportional representation.[6]

A party with an overall majority (more seats than all other parties combined) following an election forms the government. If a party has no outright majority, parties can seek to form coalitions.

List of provinces of Nepal[edit]

Emblem Province Capital Governor Chief Minister Districts Area
Human Development Index (2019) GDP per capita (US$) 2021 est. Map
Province No. 1 Biratnagar Parshuram Khapung Rajendra Kumar Rai 14 25,905 km2 4,534,943 175 0.580 1,228 Nepal Province 1.svg
Madhesh Province Janakpur Hari Shankar Mishra Lalbabu Raut 8 9,661 km2 5,404,145 550 0.510 882 Nepal Madhesh Province.svg
Bagmati Province Hetauda Yadav Chandra Sharma Rajendra Pandey 13 20,300 km2 5,529,452 272 0.661 2,440 Nepal Province 3.svg
Gandaki Province Pokhara Prithvi Man Singh Gurung Krishna Chandra Nepali 11 21,504 km2 2,403,757 108 0.618 1,300 Nepal Province 4.svg
Lumbini Province Deukhuri Amik Sherchan Kul Prasad KC 12 22,288 km2 4,499,272 217 0.563 1,112 Nepal Province 5.svg
Karnali Province Birendranagar Govinda Prasad Kalauni Jeevan Bahadur Shahi 10 27,984 km2 1,570,418 49 0.538 917 Nepal Karnali.svg
Sudurpashchim Province Godawari Ganga Prasad Yadav Trilochan Bhatta 9 19,915 km2 2,552,517 130 0.547 964 Nepal Sudurpashchim Pradesh.svg
Emblem of Nepal (2020).svg Nepal Kathmandu President
Bidhya Devi Bhandari
Prime Minister
Sher Bahadur Deuba
77 147,516 km2 26,494,504 180 0.587 1,372 Nepal grey.svg

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "नेपालको जिल्ला प्रशासन पुनर्गठनको रिपोर्ट, २०१३" (PDF) (in Nepali).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ "Memorial Step of King Mahendra in 1st Poush 2017 BS". 13 December 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  3. ^ Kathmandu Post (2017). "744 new local units come into effect". Kanntipur Publications Pvt. Ltd.
  4. ^ "Govt fixes temporary state HQs, guvs". Kathmandu: Kathmandu Post. 2018.
  5. ^ "CA approves ceremonial prez, bicameral legislature". Kanptipur Media Group. 16 September 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2017. Provincial parliaments will be unicameral. "The CA also approved a mixed electoral system for parliamentary election with 60 percent directly elected and 40 percent proportionally elected."
  6. ^ "NEPAL: Diluted proportional electoral system". Scoop world. 16 October 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.