Provinces of Thailand

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Provinces of Thailand
จังหวัดของประเทศไทย
Changwat khong prathet thai
CategorySubordinate province
LocationKingdom of Thailand
Number76 Provinces
1 Special Administrative Division
Populations193,305 Samut Songkhram – 2,646,401 Nakhon Ratchasima (2020)[1]
Areas417 km2 (161 sq mi) Samut Songkhram – 20,494 km2 (7,913 sq mi) Nakhon Ratchasima[2]
GovernmentProvincal/Special Administrative Divisional government
SubdivisionsDistricts

The Provinces of Thailand are part of the government of Thailand that is divided into 76 provinces (Thai: จังหวัด, RTGSchangwat, pronounced [t͡ɕāŋ.wàt]) proper and one special administrative area (Thai: เขตปกครองส่วนท้องถิ่นรูปแบบพิเศษ), representing the capital Bangkok.[3][4][5] They are the primary local government units and are divided into amphoes (districts) and also act as juristic persons. Each province is led by a governor (ผู้ว่าราชการจังหวัด phu wa ratchakan changwat), who is appointed by the central government.

The provinces and Administrative Areas[edit]

A clickable map of Thailand exhibiting its provinces.
Chiang Rai ProvinceChiang Mai ProvinceMae Hong Son ProvincePhayao ProvinceLampang ProvincePhrae ProvinceLamphun ProvinceNan ProvinceUttaradit ProvinceBueng Kan ProvinceNong Khai ProvinceUdon Thani ProvinceNakhon Phanom ProvinceSakon Nakhon ProvinceKalasin ProvinceMukdahan ProvinceLoei ProvinceKhon Kaen ProvinceNong Bua Lamphu ProvinceTak ProvinceSukhothai ProvincePhitsanulok ProvincePhichit ProvinceUthai Thani ProvinceKamphaeng Phet ProvinceNakhon Sawan ProvincePhetchabun ProvinceChaiyaphum ProvinceMaha Sarakham ProvinceRoi Et ProvinceYasothon ProvinceAmnat Charoen ProvinceUbon Ratchathani ProvinceSisaket ProvinceSurin ProvinceBuriram ProvinceNakhon Ratchasima ProvinceLopburi ProvinceChainat ProvinceSingburi ProvinceKanchanaburi ProvinceSuphan Buri ProvinceAng Thong ProvinceSaraburi ProvinceAyutthaya ProvinceNakhon Nayok ProvincePrachin Buri ProvincePathum Thani ProvinceNakhon Pathom ProvinceRatchaburi ProvinceSa Kaew ProvinceChachoengsao ProvinceChonburi ProvinceRayong ProvinceChanthaburi ProvinceTrat ProvincePhetchaburi ProvincePrachuap Khiri Khan ProvinceChumphon ProvinceRanong ProvinceSurat Thani ProvincePhang Nga ProvincePhuket Provinceกระบี่นครศรีธรรมราชตรังPhatthalung ProvinceSatun ProvinceSongkhla ProvincePattani ProvinceYala ProvinceNarathiwat ProvinceSamut Prakan ProvinceBangkokNonthaburi ProvinceSamut Sakhon ProvinceSamut Songkhram ProvinceA clickable map of Thailand exhibiting its provinces.
About this image
Seal Name Name (in Thai) Population (2020)[1] Area (km2)[2] Population density Namesake town/city HS[6] ISO[7] FIPS
Seal Bangkok.png  Bangkok
(special administrative area)
กรุงเทพมหานคร 5,787,932 1,565 3,620.6 Bangkok BKK TH-10 TH40
Seal Amnatcharoen.png  Amnat Charoen อำนาจเจริญ 378,438 3,161 119.7 Amnat Charoen ACR TH-37 TH77
Seal Ang Thong.png  Ang Thong อ่างทอง 279,654 968 288.9 Ang Thong ATG TH-15 TH35
Seal Bueng Kan.png  Bueng Kan บึงกาฬ 424,091 4,306 98.5 Bueng Kan BKN TH-38 TH81
Seal Buriram.png  Buriram บุรีรัมย์ 1,595,747 10,322 154.6 Buriram BRM TH-31 TH28
Seal Chachoengsao.png  Chachoengsao ฉะเชิงเทรา 720,113 5,351 134.6 Chachoengsao CCO TH-24 TH44
Seal Chainat.png  Chai Nat ชัยนาท 326,611 2,470 132.2 Chai Nat CNT TH-18 TH32
Seal Chaiyaphum.png  Chaiyaphum ชัยภูมิ 1,137,357 12,778 89.0 Chaiyaphum CPM TH-36 TH26
Seal Chanthaburi.png  Chanthaburi จันทบุรี 537,698 6,338 84.8 Chanthaburi CTI TH-22 TH48
Seal Chiang Mai.png  Chiang Mai เชียงใหม่ 1,779,254 20,107 88.5 Chiang Mai CMI TH-50 TH02
Seal Chiang Rai.png  Chiang Rai เชียงราย 1,298,304 11,678 111.2 Chiang Rai CRI TH-57 TH03
Seal Chonburi.png  Chonburi ชลบุรี 1,558,301 4,363 357.2 Chonburi CBI TH-20 TH46
Seal Chumphon.png  Chumphon ชุมพร 511,304 6,009 85.1 Chumphon CPN TH-86 TH58
Seal Kalasin.png  Kalasin กาฬสินธุ์ 983,418 6,947 141.6 Kalasin KSN TH-46 TH23
Seal Kamphaeng Phet.png  Kamphaeng Phet กำแพงเพชร 727,807 8,607 84.6 Kamphaeng Phet KPT TH-62 TH11
Seal Kanchanaburi.png  Kanchanaburi กาญจนบุรี 895,525 19,483 46.0 Kanchanaburi KRI TH-71 TH50
Seal Khon Kaen.png  Khon Kaen ขอนแก่น 1,802,872 10,886 165.6 Khon Kaen KKN TH-40 TH22
Seal Krabi.png  Krabi กระบี่ 476,739 4,709 101.2 Krabi KBI TH-81 TH63
Seal Lampang.png  Lampang ลำปาง 738,316 12,534 58.9 Lampang LPG TH-52 TH06
Seal Lamphun.png  Lamphun ลำพูน 405,075 4,506 89.9 Lamphun LPN TH-51 TH05
Seal Loei.png  Loei เลย 642,950 11,425 56.3 Loei LEI TH-42 TH18
Seal Lopburi.png  Lopburi ลพบุรี 755,556 6,200 121.9 Lopburi LRI TH-16 TH34
Seal Mae Hong Son.png  Mae Hong Son แม่ฮ่องสอน 284,138 12,681 22.4 Mae Hong Son MSN TH-58 TH01
Seal Maha Sarakham.png  Maha Sarakham มหาสารคาม 962,665 5,292 181.9 Maha Sarakham MKM TH-44 TH24
Seal of the Mukdahan Province.png  Mukdahan มุกดาหาร 353,174 4,340 81.4 Mukdahan MDH TH-49 TH78
Seal Nakhon Nayok.png  Nakhon Nayok นครนายก 260,751 2,122 122.9 Nakhon Nayok NYK TH-26 TH43
Seal Nakhon Pathom.png  Nakhon Pathom นครปฐม 920,030 2,168 424.4 Nakhon Pathom NPT TH-73 TH53
Seal Nakhon Phanom.png  Nakhon Phanom นครพนม 719,136 5,513 130.4 Nakhon Phanom NPM TH-48 TH73
Seal Nakhon Ratchasima.png  Nakhon Ratchasima นครราชสีมา 2,646,401 20,494 129.13 Nakhon Ratchasima NMA TH-30 TH27
Seal Nakhon Sawan.png  Nakhon Sawan นครสวรรค์ 1,059,887 9,598 110.4 Nakhon Sawan NSN TH-60 TH16
Seal Nakhon Si Thammarat.png  Nakhon Si Thammarat นครศรีธรรมราช 1,561,927 9,943 157.1 Nakhon Si Thammarat NRT TH-80 TH64
Seal Nan.png  Nan น่าน 478,227 11,472 41.7 Nan NAN TH-55 TH04
Seal Narathiwat.png  Narathiwat นราธิวาส 808,020 4,475 180.6 Narathiwat NWT TH-96 TH31
Seal Nong Bua Lamphu.png  Nong Bua Lamphu หนองบัวลำภู 512,780 3,859 132.9 Nong Bua Lam Phu NBP TH-39 TH79
Seal Nong Khai.png  Nong Khai หนองคาย 522,311 3,027 172.6 Nong Khai NKI TH-43 TH17
Seal Nonthaburi.png  Nonthaburi นนทบุรี 1,265,387 622 2,034.4 Nonthaburi NBI TH-12 TH38
Seal Pathum Thani.png  Pathum Thani ปทุมธานี 1,163,604 1,526 762.5 Pathum Thani PTE TH-13 TH39
Seal Pattani.png  Pattani ปัตตานี 725,104 1,940 373.8 Pattani PTN TH-94 TH69
Seal Phang Nga.png  Phang Nga พังงา 268,788 4,171 64.4 Phang Nga PNA TH-82 TH61
Seal Phatthalung.png  Phatthalung พัทลุง 524,865 3,424 153.3 Phatthalung PLG TH-93 TH66
Seal Phayao.png  Phayao พะเยา 472,356 6,335 74.6 Phayao PYO TH-56 TH41
Seal Phetchabun.png  Phetchabun เพชรบูรณ์ 992,451 12,668 78.3 Phetchabun PNB TH-67 TH14
Seal Phetchaburi.png  Phetchaburi เพชรบุรี 485,191 6,225 77.9 Phetchaburi PBI TH-76 TH56
Seal Phichit.png  Phichit พิจิตร 536,311 4,531 118.4 Phichit PCT TH-66 TH13
Seal Phitsanulok.png  Phitsanulok พิษณุโลก 865,247 10,816 80.0 Phitsanulok PLK TH-65 TH12
Seal Ayutthaya.png  Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya พระนครศรีอยุธยา 820,188 2,557 320.8 Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya AYA TH-14 TH36
Phrae seal.svg  Phrae แพร่ 441,726 6,539 67.6 Phrae PRE TH-54 TH07
Seal Phuket.png  Phuket ภูเก็ต 416,582 543 767.2 Phuket PKT TH-83 TH62
Seal Prachinburi.png  Prachinburi ปราจีนบุรี 494,680 4,762 103.9 Prachinburi PRI TH-25 TH74
Seal Prachuap Khiri Khan.png  Prachuap Khiri Khan ประจวบคีรีขันธ์ 554,116 6,368 87.0 Prachuap Khiri Khan PKN TH-77 TH57
Seal Ranong.png  Ranong ระนอง 193,370 3,298 58.6 Ranong RNG TH-85 TH59
Seal Ratchaburi.png  Ratchaburi ราชบุรี 873,101 5,196 168.0 Ratchaburi RBR TH-70 TH52
Seal Rayong.png  Rayong ระยอง 734,753 3,552 206.9 Rayong RYG TH-21 TH47
Seal Roi Et.png  Roi Et ร้อยเอ็ด 1,305,211 8,299 157.3 Roi Et RET TH-45 TH25
Seal of Sa Kaeo Province.png  Sa Kaeo สระแก้ว 566,303 7,195 78.7 Sa Kaeo SKW TH-27 TH80
Seal Sakon Nakhon.png  Sakon Nakhon สกลนคร 1,153,390 9,606 120.1 Sakon Nakhon SNK TH-47 TH20
Seal Samut Prakan.png  Samut Prakan สมุทรปราการ 1,344,875 1,004 1,339.5 Samut Prakan SPK TH-11 TH42
Seal Samut Sakhon.png  Samut Sakhon สมุทรสาคร 584,703 872 670.5 Samut Sakhon SKN TH-74 TH55
Seal Samut Songkhram.png  Samut Songkhram สมุทรสงคราม 193,305 417 463.6 Samut Songkhram SKM TH-75 TH54
Seal Saraburi.png  Saraburi สระบุรี 645,911 3,576 180.6 Saraburi SRI TH-19 TH37
Seal Satun.png  Satun สตูล 323,586 2,479 130.5 Satun STN TH-91 TH67
Seal Sing Buri.png  Sing Buri สิงห์บุรี 208,446 822 253.6 Sing Buri SBR TH-17 TH33
Seal Sisaket.png  Sisaket ศรีสะเกษ 1,472,859 8,840 166.6 Sisaket SSK TH-33 TH30
Seal Songkhla.png  Songkhla สงขลา 1,435,968 7,394 194.2 Songkhla SKA TH-90 TH68
Seal Sukhothai.png  Sukhothai สุโขทัย 595,072 6,596 90.2 Sukhothai (Sukhothai Thani) STI TH-64 TH09
Seal Suphanburi.png  Suphan Buri สุพรรณบุรี 846,334 5,358 158.0 Suphan Buri SPB TH-72 TH51
Seal Surat Thani.png  Surat Thani สุราษฎร์ธานี 1,068,010 12,891 82.8 Surat Thani SNI TH-84 TH60
Seal Surin.png  Surin สุรินทร์ 1,396,831 8,124 171.9 Surin SRN TH-32 TH29
Seal Tak.png  Tak ตาก 665,620 16,407 40.6 Tak TAK TH-63 TH08
Seal Trang.png  Trang ตรัง 643,164 4,918 130.8 Trang TRG TH-92 TH65
Seal Trat.png  Trat ตราด 229,958 2,819 81.6 Trat TRT TH-23 TH49
Seal Ubon Ratchathani.png  Ubon Ratchathani อุบลราชธานี 1,878,146 15,745 119.3 Ubon Ratchathani UBN TH-34 TH75
Seal Udon Thani.png  Udon Thani อุดรธานี 1,586,646 11,730 135.3 Udon Thani UDN TH-41 TH76
Seal Uthaithani.png  Uthai Thani อุทัยธานี 328,618 6,730 48.8 Uthai Thani UTI TH-61 TH15
Seal Uttaradit.png  Uttaradit อุตรดิตถ์ 453,103 7,839 57.8 Uttaradit UTD TH-53 TH10
Seal Yala.png  Yala ยะลา 536,330 4,521 118.6 Yala YLA TH-95 TH70
Seal of Yasothon Province.png  Yasothon ยโสธร 537,299 4,162 129.1 Yasothon YST TH-35 TH72
  • The total population of Thailand is 66,558,935 on 31 December 2019.[1]
  • The total land area of Thailand is 513,114 km2.[2]
  • HS - Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System.
  • FIPS-code is on 31 December 2014 replaced with ISO 3166.

Governance[edit]

Administrative divisions
of Thailand
Central division
Provincial division
Local division
Special governed cities

Thailand's national government organisation is divided into three types: central government (ministries, bureaus and departments), provincial government (provinces and districts) and local government (Bangkok, Pattaya, provincial administrative organisations, etc.).

A province, as part of the provincial government, is administered by a governor (ผู้ว่าราชการจังหวัด) who is appointed by the Minister of Interior. Bangkok, as part of the local government, is administered by a corporation called Bangkok Metropolitan Administration. The corporation is led by the Governor of Bangkok (ผู้ว่าราชการกรุงเทพมหานคร) who is directly elected by the citizens of Bangkok.

The provinces are named by their original main city, which is not necessarily still the most populous city within the province today. Also, in several provinces the administration has been moved into a new building outside the city.

History[edit]

Before 1892[edit]

Many provinces date back to semi-independent local chiefdoms or kingdoms, which made up the Ayutthaya Kingdom. The provinces were created around a capital city (mueang), and included surrounding villages or satellite towns. The provinces were administered either by a governor, who was appointed by the king or by a local ruling family, who were descendants of the old kings and princes of that area and had been given this privilege by the central king. De facto the king did not have much choice but to choose someone from the local nobility or an economically strong man, as against these local power groups the administration would have become impossible. The governor was not paid by the king, but instead financed himself and his administration by imposing local taxes himself. Every province was required to send an annual tribute to Bangkok.

The provinces were divided into four different classes. The first-class were the border provinces. The second-class were those that once had their own princely house. Third-class were provinces that were created by splitting them from other provinces. Fourth-class were provinces near the capital. Additionally tributary states like the principalities of Lan Na, the Laotian kingdoms of Vientiane and Luang Prabang, Cambodia, or the Malay sultanate Kedah were also part of the country, but with more autonomy than the provinces. In this Mandala system the semi-independent countries sometimes were tributary to more than one country.

New provinces were created when the population of an area outgrew the administration, but also for political reasons. If a governor became too dominant in a region former satellite cities were elevated to provincial status, as was the case with Maha Sarakham Province.

Reforms of the provincial administration started in the 1870s under increased pressure from the colonial states of the United Kingdom and France. Agents were sent, especially to border areas, to impose more control on the provinces or tributary states.

Administrative reform of 1892[edit]

Map of Siam in 1900

At the end of the 19th century King Chulalongkorn reformed the central government. In 1892 the ministry, which previously had many overlapping responsibilities, was reorganized with clear missions as in Western administrations. Prince Damrong Rajanubhab became minister of the Ministry of the North (Mahatthai), originally responsible for the northern administration. When the Ministry of the South (Kalahom) was dissolved in 1894, Prince Damrong became Minister of the Interior, responsible for the provincial administration of the whole country.

Starting in 1893 the already existing commissionaireships in some parts of the country were renamed "superintendent commissioner" (khaluang Thesaphiban), and their area of responsibility was called a monthon. In strategically important areas the monthon were created first, while in other areas the provinces kept their independence a bit longer. Several smaller provinces were reduced in status to a amphoe (district) or even lower to a tambon (sub-district) and included in a neighboring province, sometimes for administrative reasons, but sometimes to remove an uncooperative governor.

In some regions rebellions broke out against the new administrative system, usually induced by the local nobility fearing their loss of power. The most notable was the Holy Man Rebellion in 1902 in Isan. It was initially a messianic doomsday sect, but it also attacked government representatives in the northeast. The provincial town Khemarat was even burned by the rebels. After a few months the rebellion was beaten back.[8]

After 1916, the word changwat became common to use for the provinces, partly to distinguish them from the provincial capital city (mueang or amphoe mueang), but also to stress the new administrative structure of the provinces.[9]

When Prince Damrong resigned in 1915, the whole country was divided into 19 monthon (including the area around Bangkok, which was under the responsibility of another ministry until 1922), with 72 provinces.

In December 1915 King Vajiravudh announced the creation of regions (phak), each administered by a viceroy (upparat), to cover several monthon. Until 1922 four regions were established, however in 1925 they were dissolved again. At the same time several monthon were merged, in an attempt to streamline administration and reduce costs.

Since 1932[edit]

The monthons were dissolved when Thailand transformed from an absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy in 1932, making the provinces the top level administrative division again. Several smaller provinces were also abolished at that time. During World War II, several provinces around Bangkok were merged. These changes were undone after the war. Also the occupied area from French Indochina was organized into four provinces: Phra Tabong, Phibunsongkhram, Nakhon Champasak and Lan Chang. The current province of Sukhothai was at first known as Sawankhalok. It was renamed Sukhothai in 1939 (which is why the railway system goes to Sawankhalok city and not Sukhothai city). The province, Kalasin, was reestablished in 1947 after having been dissolved in 1932.

In 1972 Phra Nakhon and Thonburi Provinces were merged to form the special administrative area of Bangkok, which combines the tasks of the provinces with that of a municipality, including having an elected governor.

Starting in the second half of the 20th century some provinces were newly created by splitting them off from bigger provinces. In 1975, Yasothon Province was split off from Ubon Ratchathani. In 1977, Phayao province was created from districts formerly part of Chiang Rai. In 1982, Mukdahan was split off from Nakhon Phanom. In 1993 three provinces were created: Sa Kaeo (split from Prachinburi), Nong Bua Lamphu Province (split from Udon Thani), and Amnat Charoen (split from Ubon Ratchathani). The newest province is Bueng Kan, which was split off from Nong Khai effective 23 March 2011.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c รายงานสถิติจำนวนประชากรและบ้านประจำปี พ.ส.2563 [Statistics, population and house statistics for the year 2020]. Registration Office Department of the Interior, Ministry of the Interior. stat.bora.dopa.go.th (in Thai). 31 December 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  2. ^ a b c Thailand Human Development Report 2014 by UNDP Table 0, Basic Data
  3. ^ "Administrative information". Department of Provincial Affairs (DOPA). Provincial Affairs Bureau. 21 April 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  4. ^ "ประกาศสำนักทะเบียนกลาง เรื่อง จำนวนราษฎรทั่วราชอาณาจักร ตามหลักฐานการทะเบียนราษฎร ณ วันที่ 31 ธันวาคม 2558" [Announcement of the Central Registry. The number of people throughout the Kingdom. The evidence of registration as of 31 December 2015]. Department of Provincial Administration (DOPA). Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  5. ^ "The World Factbook: Thailand". U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  6. ^ "What is the Harmonized System (HS)?". World Customs Organization.
  7. ^ "ISO 3166-2:TH".
  8. ^ Tej Bunnag (1969). The Provincial Administration of Siam from 1892 to 1915. p. 273ff.
  9. ^ ประกาศกระทรวงมหาดไทย เรื่อง ทรงพระกรุณาโปรดเกล้า ฯ ให้เปลี่ยนคำว่าเมืองเรียกว่าจังหวัด (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 33 (0 ก): 51–53. 1916-05-28.

Further reading[edit]

  • Tej Bunnag (1977). The Provincial Administration of Siam, 1892–1915: the Ministry of the Interior under Prince Damrong Rajanubhab. Kuala Lumpur; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-580343-4.

External links[edit]