Provisional Government of Belgium

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Voorlopig Bewind (Dutch)
Gouvernement provisoire (French)
Horizontal tricolor (red, yellow, black)
Belgium before the Treaty of London (1839).
Belgium before the Treaty of London (1839).
GovernmentProvisional government
• 1830–1831
Charles Rogier
LegislatureNational Congress
Historical eraLate modern period
• Formation
27 September 1830
25 February 1831
Preceded by
Succeeded by
United Kingdom of the Netherlands
Members of the provisional government, from left to right:
Gendebien, Jolly, Rogier, de Potter, Van de Weyer, de Coppin de Falaën, de Mérode, Van der Linden, van der Linden d'Hooghvorst.

The Provisional Government (Dutch: Voorlopig Bewind; French: Gouvernement provisoire) was the first iteration of the Belgian state, formed in the midst of the Belgian Revolution. After Dutch forces were expelled from Brussels on 27 September 1830, the recently-created Revolutionary Committee transformed into the Provisional Government. The independence of Belgium as a state was officially declared on 4 October.

On 7 February 1831, the Constitution of Belgium was proclaimed and Erasme Louis Surlet de Chokier was declared regent. With Belgium now under a constitutional monarchy, the Provisional Government was dissolved.


As the Belgian Revolution raged in Brussels, William I of the Netherlands attempted to forcefully end the revolt. An army under William's son, Prince Frederick, occupied the city on 23 September. A Revolutionary Committee was formed by the Belgians to organize a revolt against the occupying force, and the Dutch began their retreat on the 26th.[2][3]

On 27 September the Revolutionary Committee assumed the title of Provisional Government, and two days later on 28 September it set up a Central Committee. This Central Committee proclaimed the independence of the "provinces of Belgium" on 4 October 1830.[4] Afterwards, the term Provisional Government was increasingly used to refer to the Central Committee. Apart from the Central Committee, there also were Special Committees for War, Internal Affairs, Finance, Justice, Public Safety, and Diplomacy; each of these had distinct ramifications for the history of Belgium.[5]

The Provisional Government exercised both executive and legislative power until 10 November 1830, when the National Congress met for the first time.[4] On 12 November it formally returned its powers to the National Congress, which subsequently decided to entrust executive power to the Provisional Government. It was dissolved on 25 February 1831 after Erasme, Baron Surlet de Chokier was appointed Regent by the National Congress, beginning the modern Kingdom of Belgium.

Members of the Provisional Government[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Van den Bussche, E., Chief of Protocol, Belgian Federal Department of the Interior (2008). Noble Belgique, ô Mère chérie – Le Protocol en Belgique (Protocol in Belgium) (in French). Editions UGA. ISBN 978-90-6768-935-9.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ "The Rebellion". Retrieved 20 September 2023.
  3. ^ Marteel, Stefaan (2018). The Intellectual Origins of the Belgian Revolution. Cham: Springer International Publishing. p. 269. ISBN 978-3319894263. Retrieved 20 September 2023.
  4. ^ a b The Provisional Government and the National Congress,
  5. ^ Al-Janabi, Laith Muhammad Ibrahim; Ahbabi, Asmaa Hafez Ahmed Al (2023). "Belgian Provisional Government (1830–1831)". Iraqi Academic Scientific Journals. Retrieved 20 September 2023.