Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea

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Provisional Government of the
Republic of Korea

대한민국 임시정부 / 大韓民國 臨時政府
Daehanminguk Imsijeongbu
Motto: "대한독립만세!" (Korean)
"Long Live Korean Independence!"
Anthem: "Aegukga"[1]
Seal of the Provisional Government
Seal of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.svg
Map of the Korean Peninsula showing the government's territorial claims; controlled and occupied by Japan.
Map of the Korean Peninsula showing the government's territorial claims; controlled and occupied by Japan.
StatusGovernment in exile
CapitalHanseong 1945–1948 (de jure)
Capital-in-exileShanghai 1919–1932
Chungking 1940–1945
Common languagesKorean
GovernmentPresidential (1919–1925)
Parliamentary (1925–1940)
Presidential (1940–1948)
(All 3 Formed a Provisional Government)
President 
• 1919–1925
1947–1948
Syngman Rhee
• 1925–1925
Park Eunsik
• 1925–1926
Lee Sang Ryong
• 1935–1940
Yi Dongnyeong
• 1926–1927
1940–1947
Kim Gu
Prime Minister 
• 1919–1921
Yi Donghwi
• 1924–1925
Park Eunsik
• 1944–1945
Kim Kyu-sik
LegislatureProvisional Assembly
Independence 
1 March 1919
• Constitution
1919
17 March (Vladivostok)
11 April (Shanghai)
23 April (Seoul)
• Government Unified
11 September 1919
29 April 1932
• Declaration of War against Axis
9 December 1941
15 August 1945
15 August
CurrencyWon
ISO 3166 codeKR
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Korea
Japanese Korea
South Korea
Today part ofChina (exile)
North Korea
South Korea
Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationDaehanmin(-)guk Imsijeongbu
McCune–ReischauerTaehanmin'guk Imsijŏngbu
Part of a series on the
History of South Korea
A Taegeuk
Preludes to Division 1910–48
Japanese rule 1910–45
USAMGIK 1945–48
First Republic 1948–60
Korean War 1950–53
Syngman Rhee government 1948–60
April Revolution 1960
Second Republic 1960–61
Jang Myun cabinet 1960–61
May 16 coup 1961
Constitutional Vacuum 1961–63
Yun Bo-seon government 1961–62
Supreme Council for National Reconstruction 1961–63
Third Republic 1963–72
Park Chung-hee government 1963–79
Yushin Constitution 1972
Fourth Republic 1972–81
Assassination of Park Chung-hee 1979
December 12 coup 1979
May 17 coup 1980
Gwangju Uprising 1980
Fifth Republic 1981–88
Chun Doo-hwan government 1981–87
June Democratization Movement 1987
Sixth Republic 1988–present
Roh Tae-woo government 1988–93
Kim Young-sam government 1993–98
1997 Asian financial crisis 1997–2001
Kim Dae-jung government 1998–2003
Roh Moo-hyun government 2003–2008
Lee Myung-bak government 2008–2013
Park Geun-hye government 2013–2016
Moon Jae-in government 2017–present
Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea portal

The Korean Provisional Government (KPG), formally the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, was a partially recognized Korean government-in-exile based in Shanghai, China, and later in Chungking, during the Japanese colonial rule of Korea.

On April 11, 1919, a provisional constitution providing for a democratic republic named the "Republic of Korea" was enacted. It introduced a presidential system and three branches (legislative, administrative and judicial) of government. The KPG inherited the territory of the former Korean Empire. It[who?] actively supported and supported the independence movement under the provisional government, and received economic and military support from the Kuomintang of China, the Soviet Union and France.[citation needed]

After the surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945, figures such as Kim Gu returned. On August 15, 1948, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was dissolved. Syngman Rhee, who was the first president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, became the first President of the Republic of Korea in 1948. The current South Korean government claims through the 1987-amended constitution of South Korea that there is continuity between the KPG and the current South Korean state, though this has been criticized by some historians as constituting revisionism.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

The government was formed on April 13, 1919, shortly after the March 1st movement of the same year during the Imperial Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula.[2] Key members in its establishment included An Changho and Syngman Rhee, both of whom were leaders of the Korean National Association at that time. Changho played an important part in making Shanghai the center of the liberation movement and in getting KPG operations underway. As acting premier, he helped reorganize the government from a parliamentary cabinet system to a presidential system.

The government resisted the colonial rule of Korea that lasted from 1910 to 1945. They coordinated armed resistance against the Imperial Japanese Army during the 1920s and 1930s, including at the Battle of Chingshanli in October 1920, and the assault on Japanese military leadership in Shanghai's Hongkou Park in April 1932.

This struggle culminated in the formation of the Korean Liberation Army in 1940, bringing together many if not all Korean resistance groups in exile. The government duly declared war against the Axis powers, Japan and Germany, on December 9, 1941, and the Liberation Army took part in allied action in China and parts of Southeast Asia.

During World War II, the Korean Liberation Army was preparing an assault against the Imperial Japanese forces in Korea in conjunction with the American Office of Strategic Services, but the Japanese surrender prevented the execution of the plan. The government's goal was achieved with the Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945. However, the Korean Liberation Army were not approved by other governments as a member of the allied nations, who signed the peace treaty with Japan in San Francisco.

The sites of the Provisional Government in Shanghai and Chongqing (Chungking) have been preserved as museums.

Formation[edit]

The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 as part of the March 1st Movement. On January 21, 1919, rumors that Emperor Gojong was poisoned by the Japanese imperial family came to light. This culminated in a demonstration that took place at the Emperor's funeral on March 1. Among the 20 million Koreans present, 3.1 million people participated in the demonstration, about 2.20 million, 10% of the total population.3.1 million people participated in the demonstration, about 2.20 million, 10% of the total population.[citation needed] There were 7,500 deaths, 16,000 injured, and 46,000 arrested and detained. The protests, which began in March and continued until May, included 33 people who had signed the Declaration of Independence, but were in fact held by the Japanese police.

The independence movement's popularity grew quickly both locally and abroad. After the March 1, 1919, campaign, a plan was set up at home and abroad to continue expanding the independence movement. However, some were hesitant due to their obedience to the occupying powers. At that time, many independent activists were gathered in Shanghai. Those who set up independent temporary offices repeatedly discussed ways to find new breakthroughs in the independence movement. First, the theory of provisional government was developed, and it was generally argued that the government should organize a government in exile against the Chosun governor's office. However, it was argued that the party was not sufficiently equipped to form a government.

Shanghai was a transportation hub and also a center of support for the Guangdong government led by Wu Yuan. In addition, there were delegates from Britain, France, Germany, and the United States, which allowed them to escape the influence of Japan. For this reason, independent offices flocked to Shanghai.

Independence movements in Shanghai moved more aggressively in the summer of 1919. Seo Byeong-ho, Seung-hyung Cho, Dong-ho Cho, Park Chan-ik, and Sun Woo-hyuk met with the governments from Korea, Manchuria, the Russian Maritime Province and the Americas. Shanghai's independent offices provided accommodation for people from outside the country, centering on the French settlement, and organizing social gatherings for Koreans to create a close network. Around this time, the highly respected independent branch offices of Manchu and the Maritime provinces, such as Dongying, Lee, Shim, Kim DongSam, Shin Chae Ho, Cho Sung Hwan and Chaosang, came to Shanghai and were sent to Korea.

The Shinhan Young Youth Party wanted a promise of an independence in Korea at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference and dispatched Kim Kyu-sik as a delegate. Since his childhood, he had been studying at the Underwood Academy, where he received a Western education in English, Latin, theology, mathematics, and science. He was multilingual able to speak English, French, German, Russian, Mongolian and Sanskrit as well as Korean, Chinese and Japanese. He delivered the Korean Independence petition to President Woodrow Wilson in the name of the Shinhan Young Youth Party, and went to Paris, France, in January 1919 to submit a petition in the name of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. However, he was not allowed to attend the Peace Conference because the provisional government had not yet been established. Kim subsequently formed a provisional government to receive the credentials of officially representing the Korean government. Kim's trip to the conference became the motivation for the March 1st Movement and the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.

Before his departure, Kim ordered the Shinhan Youth Party members to hold an independent demonstration, saying: "Even if sent to Paris, Westerners do not know who I am. To expose and propagate the Japanese rule, one must declare independence in Korea. The person to be dispatched will be sacrificed, but what happens in Korea will fulfill my mission well."[This quote needs a citation]

Kim Gyu-sik communicated with the Shinhan Young Youth Club in Paris by radio, and they raised money for the lobby effort. Inspired by Kim Gyu-sik's arguments, the Shinhan Young Youth Party sent people to Korea and met with national leaders such as Ham Tae-young and Cho Man Sik. Kim Gyu-sik's order for independence demonstrations was the moment when the March 1, 1919 campaign began.

Participants at the time of the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea were Kim Gyu-sik, representative of the Shinhan Youth Group, Yeon Un Hyung, Son Soo Jung, Kim Cheol, Sun Woo Hyuk, Han Jin Kyu, Shin Seok Woo, and Hyun Soon, Shin Ik Hee. There were 30 people including Kim Dae Ji, Nam Hyung Woo, Lee Sihyoung, Dong Nyeong, Cho Wan Gu, Shin Chae Ho, Jin Hee Chang, Shin Chul Lee, Younggeun Lee. In addition, Kim Gu, Dong Nyeon participated in the establishment, and Ahn Chang Ho, Dong Hui Lee, and Seung Man Lee were appointed as the Emperor of Shanghai from April to September 1919 and entered Shanghai.

Former empire personnel also participated in the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. Kim Gajin, who served as an observer of Hwanghae Province and Chungcheongnam-do during the reign of the empire, was a high-ranking official who was defeated in 1910 by the Japanese after being deprived of his country. He formed a secret independent organization called Daedong Dan after the March 1st Movement began in 1919, and served as governor. He was exiled to the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai, China in October 1919, and served as a provisional government adviser and general counsel to Kim Ji-jin's adviser to the North Korean government.

Kim Gajin, the fifth son of Emperor Gojong of the Korean Empire and one of the prime candidates for the prince, prepared a plan to escape to the Korean Provisional Government. The Wang Wang Wang River[who?] sent a letter and indicated his intention to participate in the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. In November 1919, the Pious King of the River went to Andong, Manchuria, to escape to the provisional government in Shanghai, but was arrested after being apprehended by the Japanese army and forced to return home. The contents of the book, which was sent to the Provisional Government by the King, were published in an independent newspaper article on November 20, 1919.

On April 10, 1919, 1,000 Chinese and Shinhan young people became the main actors in the "Kim Shin-ro," a French tribe in Shanghai. On April 11, 1919, the National Assembly was established as the Republic of Korea, and the Republic of Korea adopted the Provisional Charter of the Republic of Korea as a democratic republic. After appointing Lee Myung-man as the prime minister in charge of the administration, he appointed six ministers, including Ahn Chang-ho and Kim Gyu-sik to the foreign ministry, Dongwook Lee to the secretary of the army, and Choi Jae-hyung as treasurer. On November 11, the government announced its establishment. On April 22, 57 representatives of the 2nd Uijeongwon attended and representatives of the eight Korean provinces with representatives of Russia, China, and the Americas. The chairman was Dong-nyung. The Uijeongwon had the same function as the National Assembly, such as the resolution of bills and the election of a temporary president.

Prior to this, on March 17, 1919, the Provisional Government of the Korean People's Congress was established in the Russian Maritime Province, followed by the establishment of the Hanseong Provisional Government in Kyungsang (Seoul) on April 23. The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai raised the issue of integration. Negotiations proceeded between the Korean National Assembly and the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea. Won Sehun, who was selected as representative of the National Assembly of Korea, came to Shanghai and negotiated. Both argued that the center of the government should be placed in the area, but that only the departments of the subordinate should be placed on both sides. Despite the two arguments, they were eager to establish a single government as well. Finally, on September 11, 1919, the Korean National Assembly of the Russian Maritime Province and the Hansung Provisional Government of Kyungsung (Seoul) were incorporated into the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in Shanghai, China. As a result, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was able to develop into a single unified government representing various independence movements scattered in Korea, China and Russia, as well as domestic and foreign Koreans.

Foreign relations[edit]

In 1919, when US President Woodrow Wilson advocated for national self-determination, Rhee promoted the League of Nations mandate in the United States, and Kim Kyu-sik pushed for independence under the approval of a victorious country in Paris.[3][4] The provisional government gained approval from China and Poland through its diplomatic efforts.[5] Meanwhile, in 1944, the government received approval from the Soviet Union.[6] Jo So-ang, the head of the KPG's diplomatic department, met with the French ambassador in Chongqing and was quoted as saying that the French government would give unofficial approval to the government in April 1945.[7][5] However, the government did not gain formal recognition from the US, UK, and other world powers.[8][9]

Transition of power[edit]

The Korean government in exile was established to lead the independence movement on the Korean Peninsula against colonial rule. It was established on April 11, 1919, in Shanghai, China. On September 11 of the same year, it established a single government in Shanghai by integrating temporary governments such as those of Seoul and Russia's Maritime Province.

The Provisional Constitution was enacted to form the Republic of Korea as a democratic republic. It introduced the presidential system and established separate legislative, administrative and judicial branches. It succeeded the territory of the Korean Empire. Interim president Rhee was impeached and succeeded by Kim Gu. Under the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, he actively supported the independence movement, including the conscription of Yong Bong-gil and the organization of the Korean Liberation Army, and received economic and military support from the Chinese Nationalists, the Soviet Union, France, the United Kingdom and the United States.

After the liberation on August 15, 1945, temporary government factors such as Kim Guu returned to Korea. On August 15, 1948, the Korean exile government and the KPG were dissolved. Rhee, who was the first president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, became the first President of the Republic of Korea in 1948. The current South Korean government through the national constitution revised in 1987 states that the South Korean people inherited the rule of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, though this has been criticized by some historians as constituting revisionism.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

List of presidents[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ListenOnRepeat.com. "National Anthem of Korea (1919-1948)". ListenOnRepeat.
  2. ^ Sources of Korean Tradition, vol. 2, From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries, edited by Yŏngho Ch'oe, Peter H. Lee, and Wm. Theodore de Bary, Introduction to Asian Civilizations (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 336.
  3. ^ 이승만 [Rhee Syngman]. Encyclopedia of Korean culture (in Korean). Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  4. ^ Eckert, Carter J., Lee, Ki-baik, Lew, Young Ick, Robinson, Michael & Wagner, Edward W. (1990). Korea old and new. Seoul: Ilchokak.
  5. ^ a b Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs (국가보훈처) (1997). 대한민국임시정부의 법통과 역사적 재조명 [Legitimacy and Historical Review of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea] (in Korean). Daejeon: National Archives of Korea. pp. 167–169.
  6. ^ 대한민국임시정부수립기념일 [Day to celebrate the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea]. Encyclopedia of Korean folk culture (in Korean). National Folk Museum of Korea.
  7. ^ PRC Documents, F. 1864 / 1394 / 23
  8. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, 1944, The Near East, South Asia, and Africa, The Far East, Volume V - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov.
  9. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, 1944, The Near East, South Asia, and Africa, The Far East, Volume V - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov.
  10. ^ Myers, Brian Reynolds (21 February 2018). "Constitutional Reform and Inter-Korean Relations: Part 2". Sthele Press. Sthele Press. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  11. ^ Myers, Brian Reynolds (July 26, 2018). "Confederation (Again)". Sthele Press. Sthele Press. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  12. ^ Myers, Brian Reynolds (April 7, 2019). "South Korea's Nationalist-Left Front". Sthele Press. Sthele Press. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  13. ^ Myers, Brian Reynolds (4 March 2019). "On That March First Speech". Sthele Press. Sthele Press. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  14. ^ Myers, Brian Reynolds (August 11, 2017). "Low-Level Confederation and the Nuclear Crisis (in 2 parts)". Sthele Press. Sthele Press.
  15. ^ "YouTube". YouTube.
  16. ^ Myers, Brian Reynolds (March 4, 2019). "On that March First Speech". Sthele Press. Sthele Press. Retrieved June 26, 2019x.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 37°32′N 126°59′E / 37.533°N 126.983°E / 37.533; 126.983