Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea

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Provisional Government of the
Republic of Korea

대한민국 임시정부 / 大韓民國 臨時政府
Daehanminguk Imsijeongbu
Motto: "대한독립만세!" (Korean)
"Long Live Korean Independence!"
Anthem: "Aegukga"[1]
Map of the Korean Peninsula showing the government's territorial claims; controlled and occupied by Japan.
Map of the Korean Peninsula showing the government's territorial claims; controlled and occupied by Japan.
StatusGovernment in exile
CapitalHanseong 1945–1948 (de jure)
Common languagesKorean
GovernmentPresidential (1919–1925)
Parliamentary (1925–1940)
Presidential (1940–1948)
(All 3 Formed a Provisional Government)
• 1919–1925
Syngman Rhee
• 1925–1925
Park Eunsik
• 1935–1940
Yi Dongnyeong
• 1926–1927
Kim Gu
Prime Minister 
• 1919–1921
Yi Donghwi
• 1924–1925
Park Eunsik
• 1944–1945
Kim Kyu-sik
LegislatureProvisional Assembly
Historical eraEarly 20th century
1 March 1919
• Constitution
17 March (Vladivostok)
11 April (Shanghai)
23 April (Seoul) 1919
• Unified Provisional Government
11 September 1919
29 April 1932
• Declaration of War against Japan and Germany
9 December 1941
15 August 1945
• First Republic of Korea established
15 August 1948
ISO 3166 codeKP
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Japanese Korea
South Korea
Today part of China (exile)
 North Korea
 South Korea
Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
Revised RomanizationDaehanmin(-)guk Imsijeongbu
McCune–ReischauerTaehanmin'guk Imsijŏngbu
Part of a series on the
History of South Korea
A Taegeuk
Prelude to Division 1919–48
Korean Provisional Government 1919–48
USAMGIK 1945–48
First Republic 1948–60
Korean War 1950–53
Rhee Syng-man government 1948–60
April Revolution 1960
Interim system 1960
Second Republic 1960–61
Jang Myeon cabinet 1960–61
May 16 coup 1961
Constitutional Vacuum 1961–63
Yoon Bo-seon government 1961–62
SCNR 1961–63
Third Republic 1963–72
Park Jeong-hui government 1963–72
October Restoration 1972
Fourth Republic 1972–81
Assassination of Park Chung-hee 1979
Crisis Management government 1979–80
December 12 coup 1979
May 17 coup 1980
Gwangju Uprising 1980
Fifth Republic 1981–88
Jeon Doo-hwan government 1981–87
June Struggle 1987
Sixth Republic 1988–present
Roh Tae-woo government 1988–93
Civilian government 1993–98
National Moratorium 1997–2001
Nations' government 1998–2003
Participation government 2003–2008
Go Geon system 2004
Lee Myung-bak government 2008–2013
Park Geun-hye government 2013–2016
Impeachment of Park 2016–2017
Hwang Gyo-an system 2016–2017
Moon Jae-in government 2017–present
Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea portal

The Korean Provisional Government (KPG), formally the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a partially recognized Korean government-in-exile, based in Shanghai, China, and later in Chungking, during the Japanese colonial rule of Korea.

On April 11, 1919, the provisional constitution was enacted, and the national sovereignty was called "Republic of Korea" and the political system was called "Democratic Republic". Introduced the presidential system and established three separate systems of legislative, administrative and judicial separation, the KPG inherited the territory of the former Korean Empire and stated that he favored the former imperial court. It actively supported and supported the independence movement under the provisional government, and received economic and military support from the Kuomintang of China, the Soviet Union and France.

After the Surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945, figures such as Kim Gu returned. On August 15, 1948, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was dissolved. Rhee, who was the first president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, became the first President of the Republic of Korea in 1948. The Constitution of South Korea, which was amended in 1987, stated that the Korean people inherited the rule of the KPG.


The government was formed on April 13, 1919, shortly after the March 1st movement of the same year during the Imperial Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula.[2] Key members in its establishment included An Changho and Syngman Rhee, both of which were leaders of the Korean National Association at that time. An Changho played an important part in making Shanghai the center of the liberation movement and in getting KPG operations underway. As acting premier, he would help reorganize the government from a parliamentary cabinet system to a presidential system.

The government resisted the colonial rule of Korea that lasted from 1910 to 1945. They coordinated the armed resistance against the Japanese imperial army during the 1920s and 1930s, including the Battle of Chingshanli in October 1920 and the assault on Japanese military leadership in Shanghai's Hongkou Park in April 1932.

This struggle culminated in the formation of Korean Liberation Army in 1940, bringing together many if not all Korean resistance groups in exile. The government duly declared war against the Axis powers Japan and Germany on December 9, 1941, and the Liberation Army took part in allied action in China and parts of Southeast Asia.

During World War II, the Korean Liberation Army was preparing an assault against the Imperial Japanese forces in Korea in conjunction with American Office of Strategic Services, but the Japanese surrender prevented the execution of the plan. The government's goal was achieved with Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945, but they were not approved by other governments as a member of allied nations, who signed peace treaty with Japan in San Francisco.

The sites of the Provisional Government in Shanghai and Chongqing (Chungking) have been preserved as museums.

Foreign relations[edit]

In 1919, when U.S. President Woodrow Wilson ruled for national self-determination, Rhee Syng-man promoted the League of Nations mandate in the United States, and Kim Kyu-sik pushed for independence under the approval of a victorious country in Paris.[3][4] The provisional government gained approval from China and Poland through diplomatic efforts.[5] Meanwhile, in 1944, the government received approval from the Soviet Union.[6] Jo So-ang, the head of diplomatic department of provisional government, met with the French ambassador in Chongqing and was quoted as saying that French government would give unofficial and substantively approve the government in April 1945.[7][5] However, The government did not gain formal recognition from United States, United Kingdom and other world powers.[8][9]

List of presidents[edit]


See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ Sources of Korean Tradition, vol. 2, From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries, edited by Yŏngho Ch'oe, Peter H. Lee, and Wm. Theodore de Bary, Introduction to Asian Civilizations (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 336.
  3. ^ 이승만 [Rhee Syngman]. Encyclopedia of Korean culture (in Korean). Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
  4. ^ Eckert, Carter J., Lee, Ki-baik, Lew, Young Ick, Robinson, Michael & Wagner, Edward W. (1990). Korea old and new. Seoul: Ilchokak.
  5. ^ a b Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs (국가보훈처) (1997). 대한민국임시정부의 법통과 역사적 재조명 [Legitimacy and Historical Review of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea] (in Korean). Daejeon: National Archives of Korea. pp. 167–169.
  6. ^ 대한민국임시정부수립기념일 [Day to celebrate the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea]. Encyclopedia of Korean folk culture (in Korean). National Folk Museum of Korea.
  7. ^ PRC Documents, F. 1864 / 1394 / 23
  8. ^ The Ambassador in China ( Gauss ) to the Secretary of State No. 2583 Chungking , May 19, 1944.(Received June 2.)
  9. ^ The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in China ( Gauss )Washington , June 12, 1944—9 p.m.

External links[edit]