Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
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Provisional Government of the
Republic of Korea
대한민국 임시정부 / 大韓民國 臨時政府
Motto: "대한독립만세!" (Korean)
"Long Live Korean Independence!"
|Status||Government in exile|
|Capital||Hanseong 1945–1948 (de jure)|
Presidential (1940–1948) (All 3 Formed a Provisional Government)
|Historical era||Early 20th century|
|1 March 1919|
|17 March (Vladivostok) |
11 April (Shanghai)
23 April (Seoul) 1919
• Unified Provisional Government
|11 September 1919|
|29 April 1932|
• Declaration of War against Japan and Germany
|9 December 1941|
|15 August 1945|
|15 August 1948|
|ISO 3166 code||KP|
|Today part of|| China (exile)|
|Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea|
|Revised Romanization||Daehanmin(-)guk Imsijeongbu|
Part of a series on the
|History of Korea|
|Later Three Kingdoms|
|Unitary dynastic period|
|Division of Korea|
The Korean Provisional Government (KPG), formally the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a partially recognized Korean government-in-exile, based in Shanghai, China, and later in Chungking, during the Japanese colonial rule of Korea.
On April 11, 1919, the provisional constitution was enacted, and the national sovereignty was called "Republic of Korea" and the political system was called "Democratic Republic". Introduced the presidential system and established three separate systems of legislative, administrative and judicial separation, the KPG inherited the territory of the former Korean Empire and stated that he favored the former imperial court. It actively supported and supported the independence movement under the provisional government, and received economic and military support from the Kuomintang of China, the Soviet Union and France.
After the Surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945, figures such as Kim Gu returned. On August 15, 1948, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was dissolved. Rhee, who was the first president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, became the first President of the Republic of Korea in 1948. The Constitution of South Korea, which was amended in 1987, stated that the Korean people inherited the rule of the KPG.
The government was formed on April 13, 1919, shortly after the March 1st movement of the same year during the Imperial Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula. Key members in its establishment included An Changho and Syngman Rhee, both of which were leaders of the Korean National Association at that time. An Changho played an important part in making Shanghai the center of the liberation movement and in getting KPG operations underway. As acting premier, he would help reorganize the government from a parliamentary cabinet system to a presidential system.
The government resisted the colonial rule of Korea that lasted from 1910 to 1945. They coordinated the armed resistance against the Japanese imperial army during the 1920s and 1930s, including the Battle of Chingshanli in October 1920 and the assault on Japanese military leadership in Shanghai's Hongkou Park in April 1932.
This struggle culminated in the formation of Korean Liberation Army in 1940, bringing together many if not all Korean resistance groups in exile. The government duly declared war against the Axis powers Japan and Germany on December 9, 1941, and the Liberation Army took part in allied action in China and parts of Southeast Asia.
During World War II, the Korean Liberation Army was preparing an assault against the Imperial Japanese forces in Korea in conjunction with American Office of Strategic Services, but the Japanese surrender prevented the execution of the plan. The government's goal was achieved with Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945, but they were not approved by other governments as a member of allied nations, who signed peace treaty with Japan in San Francisco.
In 1919, when U.S. President Woodrow Wilson ruled for national self-determination, Rhee Syng-man promoted the League of Nations mandate in the United States, and Kim Kyu-sik pushed for independence under the approval of a victorious country in Paris. The provisional government gained approval from China and Poland through diplomatic efforts. Meanwhile, in 1944, the government received approval from the Soviet Union. Jo So-ang, the head of diplomatic department of provisional government, met with the French ambassador in Chongqing and was quoted as saying that French government would give unofficial and substantively approve the government in April 1945. However, The government did not gain formal recognition from United States, United Kingdom and other world powers.
List of presidents
- Syngman Rhee (September 11, 1919 - March 21, 1925) - Impeached by the provisional assembly
- Park Eun-sik (March 24, 1925 – September 1925)
- Yi Yu-pil (September 1925)-Acting
- Yi Sang-ryong (September 1925 – January 1926)
- Yang Gi-tak (January 1926 - April 29, 1926)
- Yi Dongnyeong (April 29, 1926 – May 3, 1926)
- Ahn Chang-ho (May 3, 1926 - May 16, 1926)
- Yi Dong-nyeong (May 16, 1926 - July 7, 1926)
- Hong Jin (July 7, 1926 – December 14, 1926)
- Kim Koo (December 14, 1926 – August 1927)
- Yi Dongnyeong (August 1927 – June 24, 1933)
- Song Byeong-jo (June 24, 1933 - October 1933)
- Yi Dongnyeong (October 1933 - March 13, 1940) - Died in office
- Kim Koo (1940 - March 1947)
- Syngman Rhee (March 1947 - August 15, 1948) - Became the first president of South Korea, from July 24, 1948 to April 26, 1960
The museum in Chongqing, China.
- Sources of Korean Tradition, vol. 2, From the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries, edited by Yŏngho Ch'oe, Peter H. Lee, and Wm. Theodore de Bary, Introduction to Asian Civilizations (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 336.
- 이승만 [Rhee Syngman]. Encyclopedia of Korean culture (in Korean). Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- Eckert, Carter J., Lee, Ki-baik, Lew, Young Ick, Robinson, Michael & Wagner, Edward W. (1990). Korea old and new. Seoul: Ilchokak.
- Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs (국가보훈처) (1997). 대한민국임시정부의 법통과 역사적 재조명 [Legitimacy and Historical Review of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea] (in Korean). Daejeon: National Archives of Korea. pp. 167–169.
- 대한민국임시정부수립기념일 [Day to celebrate the establishment of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea]. Encyclopedia of Korean folk culture (in Korean). National Folk Museum of Korea.
- PRC Documents, F. 1864 / 1394 / 23
- The Ambassador in China ( Gauss ) to the Secretary of State No. 2583 Chungking , May 19, 1944.(Received June 2.)
- The Secretary of State to the Ambassador in China ( Gauss )Washington , June 12, 1944—9 p.m.