Prunus × yedoensis

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Prunus × yedoensis
Yoshino Sakura Tidal Basin DC.jpg
Yoshino cherry tree in flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Prunus
Subgenus: Cerasus
Species: P. × yedoensis
Binomial name
Prunus × yedoensis
Matsum.

Prunus × yedoensis, Prunus × yedoensis 'Somei-yoshino' or Yoshino cherry (Japanese: 染井吉野 Somei Yoshino) (synonym Cerasus × yedoensis) is a hybrid cherry of between Prunus speciosa (Oshima zakura) as father plant and Prunus pendula f. ascendens (Edo higan) as mother.[1][2] It occurs as a natural or artificial hybrid in Japan and is now one of the most popular and widely planted cultivated flowering cherries (sakura) in temperate climates worldwide.[3][4] It is a clone from a single tree and propagated by grafting to all over the world.[5][6]

Names[edit]

Yoshino cherry is initially believed to be native to Yoshino District, Nara. In 1900, Kimei Fujino gave Yoshino cherry a name Somei-yoshino after the famous place of cultivation Somei village (current day Toshima).[7] In 1901, Yoshino cherry was given a scientific name Prunus Yedoensis by Ninzo Matsumura.[8] However, after Ernest Henry Wilson suggested Yoshino cherry is a hybrid between Prunus subhirtella var. ascendens (Edo higan) and Prunus lannesiana (Oshima zakura) in 1916,[9] Yoshino cherry became to be called Prunus × Yedoensis. As for the Korean native cherry called king cherry (왕벚나무) which was given a scientific name Prunus yedoensis var. nudiflora by a German botanist Bernhard Adalbert Emil Koehne in 1912 continues to be called Prunus yedoensis.[10][11]

Yoshino cherry has no scientific cultivar name because it is the original cultivar of this hybrid species Prunus × edoensis. A new name, 'Somei-yoshino' is proposed in accordance with other cultivars of Prunus × edoensis.[12]

Description[edit]

Prunus × yedoensis is a small, deciduous tree that at maturity grows to be 5 to 12 metres (16–39 ft) (rarely 15 metres (49 ft)) tall. It grows well in hardiness zones 5–8 and does well in full sun and moist but well drained soil. The leaves are alternately arranged, 6 to 15 centimetres (2.4–5.9 in) long and 4 to 7 centimetres (1.6–2.8 in) broad, with a serrated margin; they are often bronze-toned when newly emerged, becoming dark green by summer.

The flowers emerge before the leaves in early spring; they are fragrant, 3 to 3.5 centimetres (1.2–1.4 in) in diameter, with five white or pale pink petals. The flowers grow in clusters of five or six together.

The fruit, a small cherry, is a globose drupe 8 to 10 millimetres (0.31–0.39 in) in diameter; they are an important source of food for many small birds and mammals, including robins and thrushes. The fruit contain little flesh and much concentrated red juice, which can stain clothing and brick. The fruit is only marginally sweet to the human palate.[3][4]

Cultivation[edit]

Some yoshino blossoms

Because of its fragrant, light pink flowers, manageable size, and elegant shape, the Yoshino cherry is often used as an ornamental tree. Many cultivars have been selected; notable examples include 'Akebono', 'Ivensii', and 'Shidare Yoshino'.[3]

From the Edo period to the beginning of the Meiji period, gardeners and craftsman who made the village at Somei in Edo (now Komagome, Toshima ward, Tokyo) grew someiyoshino. They first offered them as Yoshinozakura, but in 1900, they were renamed someiyoshino by Dr. Fujino.[13] This is sometimes rendered as 'Somei-Yoshino'.

The Yoshino cherry was introduced to Europe and North America in 1902.[14] This tree, along with the cultivar Kwanzan (derived from the related Prunus serrulata), is responsible for the spectacular pink show each spring in Washington D.C. and other cities. Several of 2000 Japanese cherry trees given to the citizens of Toronto by the citizens of Tokyo in 1959 were planted in High Park.

Putative parental species[edit]

Most studies show that Yoshino cherry is a hybrid between Prunus speciosa (Oshima zakura) and Prunus pendula f. ascendens (Edo higan).

  • In 1916, Ernest Henry Wilson concluded that Yoshino cherry strongly suggests a hybrid between Prunus subhirtella var. ascendens Wilson (Edo higan) and Prunus lannesiana Wilson (Oshima zakura). It has many characters of the latter and in its venation, pubescence and shape of the cupula resembles the former[9]
  • In 1963, Takenaka assumed that Yoshino cherry is a hybrid between Prunus lannesiana var. speciose (Oshima zakura) and Prunus subhirtella var. pendula form ascendens (Edo higan).[15]
  • In 1986, Takafumi Kaneko et al. carried out restriction endonuclease analysis on chloroplast ctDNA. Yoshino cherry showed no interplant variation of ctDNA and had the same ctDNA as P. pendula (Edo higan), differing from P. lannesiana (Oshima zakura) by a single HindIII restriction site. This findings suggests that P. pendula is female parent of P. yedoensis.[16]
  • In 1995, Hideki Innan et al. conducted DNA fingerprinting study using different kinds of probes, M13 repeat sequence and (GACA)4 synthetic oligonucleotide and concluded that Yoshino cherry was produced only once through hybridization between Prunus lannesiana (Oshima zakura) and Prunus pendula (Edo higan) and that this particular hybrid plant has been spread vegetatively all over Japan,[5]
  • In 2014, Shuri Kato et al. conducted molecular analysis using nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR) polymorphisms to trace cultivar origins and Bayesian clustering based on the STRUCTURE analysis using SSR genotypes revealed that Yoshino cherry is a hybrid between Prunus pendula f. ascendens (Edo higan) and Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa (Oshima zakura) although there was also a small and nonsignificant association with Prunus jamasakura. The proportion of each species is Edo higan 47%, Oshima zakura 37%, and jamasakura 11%.[17]
  • In 2015, Ikuo Nakamura et al. analyzed sequences of intron 19 and exon 20 of PolA1. One of two exon 20 sequences found in Yoshino cherry was the same as that of P. pendula (Edo higan), whereas the other sequence was shared with several taxa in seven wild species, including P. jamasakura (Yamazakura) and P. lannesiana (Oshima zakura). Yoshino cherry contained two different haplotypes of the intron 19 sequences; one was the same as that of Oshima zakura. While another haplotype of Yoshino cherry was different from that of Edo higan by two SNPs but identical to one of two haplotypes of P. pendula ‘Komatsuotome,’ which is a cultivar of Edo higan. These results indicated that Yoshino cherry probably originated by the hybridization of cultivars derived from Edo higan and Oshima zakura.[18]

Origin debates[edit]

  • In 1908, a French missionary Taquet discovered a native cherry in Jeju islands, Korea and in 1912 a German botanist Koehne gave it a scientific name Prunus yedoensis var. nudiflora.[19] Although this species called Eishu zakura is a variation of Yoshino cherry, from then it was misrepresented that Yoshino cherry was growing naturally in Jeju Island.[20]
  • In 1933, the Japanese botanist Gen'ichi Koizumi reported that Yoshino cherry originated on Jeju island, South Korea.[20]
  • In 1962, Yo Takenaka ruled out the possibility of Korean origin by the morphological study.[15][21]
  • In 1995 DNA fingerprinting technology was used to conclude that Yoshino cherry grown in many parts of Japan under the name Prunus × yedoensis is indeed clonally propagated from the same hybrid offspring of Prunus lannesiana (Oshima zakura) and Prunus pendula (Edo higan),[5] which confirms the 1991 conclusion given by Iwasaki Fumio that Prunus × yedoensis originated around 1720–1735 by artificial crossing of these species in Edo (Tokyo).[22] Oshima zakura is an endemic species found only around Izu Islands, Izu and Bōsō Peninsulas not around Korean Peninsula.[23][24]
  • In 2007, a study conducted on the comparison of Japanese Yoshino cherry and Korean king cherry concluded that the trees native to these two places can be categorized as distinct species.[11]

However, in Korea, Korean native king cherry is still believed to be the same species as Japanese Yoshino cherry.[25]

Other cultivars[edit]

Prunus × yedoensis has many cultivars other than ‘Yedoensis’ (Somei-yoshino).[17]

  • ‘Amagi-yoshino’ (天城吉野)
  • ‘America’ (アメリカ)
  • ‘Candida’ (薄毛大島, Usuge-oshima)
  • ‘Funabara-yoshino’ (船原吉野)
  • ‘Hayazaki-oshima’ (早咲大島)
  • ‘Izu-yoshino’ (伊豆吉野)
  • ‘Kichijouji’ (吉祥寺)
  • ‘Kurama-zakura’ (鞍馬桜)
  • ‘Mikado-yoshino’ (御帝吉野)
  • ‘Mishima-zakura’ (三島桜)
  • ‘Morioka-pendula’ (盛岡枝垂, Morioka-shidare)
  • ‘Naniwa-zakura’ (浪速桜)
  • ‘Pendula’ (枝垂大臭桜), Shidare-ookusai-zakura
  • ‘Perpendens’ (枝垂染井吉野, Shidare-somei-yoshino)
  • ‘Pilosa’ (毛大島桜, Ke-oshima-zakura)
  • ‘Sakabai’ (仙台吉野, Sendai-yoshino)
  • ‘Sakuyahime’ (咲耶姫)
  • ‘Sasabe-zakura’ (笹部桜)
  • ‘Shouwa-zakura’ (昭和桜)
  • ‘Somei-higan’ (染井彼岸)
  • ‘Somei-nioi’ (染井匂)
  • ‘Sotorihime’ (衣通姫)
  • ‘Suruga-zakura’ (駿河桜)
  • ‘Syuzenzi-zakura’ (修善寺桜)
  • ‘Waseyoshino’ (早生吉野)
  • ‘Somei-beni’ (染井紅)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Satoshi Ohta, Shinsuke Osumi, Toshio Katsuki, Ikuo Nakamura, Toshiya Yamamoto and Yo-Ichiro Sato (2006). "Genetic characterization of flowering cherries (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) using rpl16-rpl14 spacer sequences of chloroplast DNA". 園芸雑誌(J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci.). 75 (1): 72–78. Retrieved 2011-04-06. 
  2. ^ Online Resource 5. Inferences, from morphological classification and STRUCTURE analysis, on the origins of Japanese flowering cherry cultivars p.7 ‘Yedoensis’/染井吉野 (Cer194) 、STRUCTURE analysis (K = 11)、 Tree Genetics & Genomes Volume 10, Issue 3(2014) , pp 477-487、30 Jan. 2014、Supplementary Material (5) 11295_2014_697_MOESM5_ESM.pdf (318KB)
  3. ^ a b c Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  4. ^ a b Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  5. ^ a b c H. Innan, R.Terauchi, NT Miyashita, K Tsunewaki (1995). "DNA fingerprinting study on the intraspecific variation and the origin of Prunus yedoensis (Someiyoshino).". Japanese Journal of Genetics. 70 (2): 185–196. doi:10.1266/jjg.70.185. PMID 7605671. 
  6. ^ Iketani, H.; et al. (2007). "Analyses of clonal status in 'Somei-yoshino' and confirmation of geneaogical record in other cultivars of Prunus ×yedoensis by microsatellite markers". Breeding Science. 57: 1–6. 
  7. ^ Fujino, Kimei (1900). "上野公園桜花の性質" [Characteristics of flowering cherry in Ueno Park]. 日本園芸会雑誌 [Journal of Japan Horticulture Society] (in Japanese). 日本園芸会 [Japan Horticulture Society]. 92: 1–19. 
  8. ^ Matsumura, Ninzo (1901). "Cerasi Japonicæ duæ Species novæ". Botanical Magazine, Tokyo (Shokubutsugaku Zasshi) (in Latin). The Botanical Society of Japan. 15: 99–101. 
  9. ^ a b Wilson, E. H. (1916). "The Cherries of Japan". Publications of the Arnold Arboretum. Harvard University Press (7): 16. 
  10. ^ Koehne, Von E. (1912). "95 Prunus yedoensis var. nudiflora, nov. var.". Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis. Herausgebers. 10: 507. 
  11. ^ a b Roh, M.S., Cheong, E.J., Choi, I-Y and Young, Y.H. (2007). "Characterization of wild Prunus yedoensis analyzed by inter-simple sequence repeat and chloroplast DNA.". Scientia Horticulturae. 114 (2): 121–128. doi:10.1016/J.scientia2007.06.005. Retrieved 2011-04-19. 
  12. ^ Iketani, Hiroyuki; et al. (April 2006). "Prunus × yedoensis 'Somei-yoshino', a Correct Cultivar Name for Yoshino Cherry". The Journal of Japanese Botany. Tsumura & Co. 83 (2): 123–125. 
  13. ^ 染井吉野 (in Japanese). 語源由来辞典. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  14. ^ Mitchell, A. F. (1974). A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-212035-6
  15. ^ a b Takenaka, Yo (1963). "The Origin of the Yoshino cherry tree". Journal of Heredity. 54: 207-211. I visited the (Quelpart) island in 1933 and observed that the tree, which was growing wild, showed differences from P. yedoensis; the hairs on calyx lobes and on the lower side of leaves were less numerous, and the peduncles were shorter. I concluded that it could not be P. yedoensis. I assumed that it might be a hybrid between P. subhirtella var. pendula form ascendens (Edo-higan) and P. quelpartensis (Tanna-Yamazakura; perhaps a form of P. verecunda) or some other cherry species 
  16. ^ Kaneko, Takafumi (1986). "Studies on the origin of crop species by restriction endonuclease analysis of organellar DNA. II. Restriction analysis of ctDNA of 11 Prunus species". The Japanese Journal of Genetics. 61 (2): 157–168. doi:10.1266/jjg.61.157. 
  17. ^ a b Kato, Shuri; et al. (June 2014). "Origins of Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus subgenus Cerasus) cultivars revealed using nuclear SSR markers" (PDF). Tree Genetics & Genomes. 10 (3): 477–487. doi:10.1007/s11295-014-0697-1.  Online Resource 5 [1]
  18. ^ Nakamura, Ikuo; et al. (2015). "Origin of Prunus × yedoensis 'Somei-yoshino' based on sequence analysis of PolA1 gene". Advances in Horticultural Science. 29 (1): 17–23. 
  19. ^ Koehne, Von E. (1912). "95 Prunus yedoensis var. nudiflora, nov. var.". Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis. Herausgebers. 10: 507. 
  20. ^ a b Koidzumi, Gen-ichi (June 1932). "雑録 – 染井吉野桜の天生地分明かす" [Adversaria – Prunas yedoensis MATSUM. is a native of Quelpaert!]. 植物分類・地理 [Acta phytotaxonomica et geobotanica] (in Japanese). 植物分類地理學會 [The Japanese Society for Plant Systematics]. 1 (2): 177–179. ...此時以來ソメヰヨシノザクラは濟州島に自生すと誤り傳へられ,... ... されば現今ソメヰヨシノザクラの原産地は濟州島なり。... 
  21. ^ Iketani, Hiroyuki; et al. (2007). "Analyses of Clonal Status in 'Somei-yoshino' and Confirmation of Genealogical Record in Other Cultivars of Prunus × yedoensis by Microsatellite Markers" (PDF). Breeding Science. 57: 1–6. natural hybridization either in the Izu peninsula, on Izu-oshima Island or on Cheju-do Island in Korea, although the possibility of the latter location was ruled out by Takenaka (1962) 
  22. ^ ソメイヨシノとその近縁種の野生状態とソメイヨシノの発生地. 筑波大農林研報 (1991), 3:95–110.
  23. ^ Nakamura, Ikuo; et al. (2014). "Diversity and breeding of flowering cherry in Japan". Advances in Horticultural Science. 28 (4): 236–143. While Edohigan is distributed in most areas of Japan, Oshimazakura (of the Yamazakura group) is an endemic species found around the Izu and Boso Peninsulas. 
  24. ^ Kato, Shuri (2011). "Genetic structure of island populations of Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa revealed by chloroplast DNA, AFLP and nuclear SSR loci analyses". Journal of Plant Research. 124 (1): 11–23. doi:10.1007/s10265-010-0352-3. The wild flowering cherry Prunus lannesiana var. speciosa is highly geographically restricted, being confined to the Izu Islands and neighboring peninsulas in Japan 
  25. ^ "[취재후] 꽃의 전쟁…벚꽃의 원산지는?" [Flower war...Origin of Cherry tree?] (in Korean). KBS. April 11, 2014.