Prussian National Monument for the Liberation Wars

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National Monument for the Liberation Wars
Nationaldenkmal für die Befreiungskriege
Viktoriapark monument.jpg
Seen from north
Prussian National Monument for the Liberation Wars is located in Berlin
Prussian National Monument for the Liberation Wars
Location of the monument in Berlin
Coordinates 52°29′15.64″N 13°22′53.39″E / 52.4876778°N 13.3814972°E / 52.4876778; 13.3814972
Location Kreuzberg, Berlin, Germany
Designer Karl Friedrich Schinkel
Type War memorial
Material Cast iron
Height 18.83 m (61.8 ft)
+ 8 m (26 ft) of socket
Beginning date 19 September 1818
Completion date 17 June 1826
Opening date 30 March 1821
Dedicated to People of Prussia

The Prussian National Monument for the Liberation Wars (German: Preußisches Nationaldenkmal für die Befreiungskriege) is a war memorial in Berlin, Germany, dedicated in 1821. Built by the Prussian king during the sectionalism before the Unification of Germany it is the principal German monument to the Prussian soldiers and other citizens who died in or else dedicated their health and wealth for the Liberation Wars (Befreiungskriege) fought at the end of the Wars of the Sixth and in that of the Seventh Coalition against France in the course of the Napoleonic Wars. Frederick William III of Prussia initiated its construction and commissioned the Prussian Karl Friedrich Schinkel who made it an important piece of art in cast iron, his last piece of Romantic Neo-Gothic architecture and an expression of the post-Napoleonic poverty and material sobriety in the liberated countries.[1]

The monument is located on the Kreuzberg hill in the Victoria Park in the Tempelhofer Vorstadt, a region within Berlin's borough of Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg. The monument was conceived at a time of deteriorating relations between the reactionaries and the reformers of the civic movement within Prussia. The monument is of cast iron, a technique en vogue at the time. Its younger socket brick building is faced with grey Silesian granite and was designed by the Prussian architect Heinrich Strack and realised by the Prussian engineer Johann Wilhelm Schwedler. Its centerpiece is a tapering turret of 60 Prussian feet (18.83 m (61.8 ft)), resembling the spire tops of Gothic churches.[2]

Dedication[edit]

On the eastern side of the monument under the memorial inscription for the Battle of Großgörschen (aka Lützen) there is the dedication: "The King Frederick William III of Prussia dedicated to the people, which at his call magnanimously offered its wealth and health for the fatherland, to the fallen in memoriam, to the living with acknowledgement, to the future generations for emulation."[3] This dedication is authored by August Boeckh, who was member of the philosophical class of the Prussian Academy of Sciences, commissioned to write it.[4] Frederick William III had rejected three alternative proposals by the philosophical class.[4] This dedication is difficult, because it was not the king, who had called his people, it were stubborn people, commoners and rather second rank bureaucrats, militaries and aristocrats who had stolen a march on the king.

People, who had earlier welcomed and benefited from Napoleon's reforms and the like more in other nations inspired by the ideals of emancipating commoners as citizens, started to resist when he betrayed these ideals, levied heaviest compulsory contributions for his insatiable expansionist warfare, impoverished the people, let alone the many men whose deathes he caused in action.[5] In the same time the blocus, a measurement against free trade, provided French industry with the continent, being a reservation unreachable for British competitors, and delivering the other nations also to French economic supremacy.[5]

In 1813 the defeated and intimidated king, forced into a coalition with France since 1812,[6] refrained to take his chance to shake off the French supremacy in the wake of Napoleon's defeats in Russia. Ludwig Yorck, commanding the Prussian units supporting the French, had declared their neutrality towards the Russians without royal accord. In early 1813 irregular units, guerrillas lacking royal accord, formed who swore their allegiance to the fatherland, but not to the king.[7] And on 7 February 1813 the East Prussian estates unanimously voted for financing, recruiting and equipping a militia army (Landwehr) of 20,000 men, plus 10,000 in reserve, out of their funds following a proposal designed by Yorck, Clausewitz and Stein. The hesitant king could not stop this anymore, but only approve it on March 17 in his address An mein Volk (To my people).[8][6]

However, this civic act of initiating Prussia's participation in the War of the Sixth Coalition was not thanked by the monarch, who again and again protracted his promise of 22 May 1815 to introduce a parliament and a constitution for all the monarchy.[7] However, by the German Federal Act of 8 June 1815, establishing the German Confederation, the assembled monarchs had even conceded themselves the privilege to suppress the civic rights again and to reverse all reforms which had done away with feudalism.[7] So on 21 March 1819, Frederick Willam III even forbade his subjects to address any further petitions as to fulfilling his promise.[7] The dedication mentions the magnanimosity of the people which stood in blatant contrast to the king's reluctance. The reaction prevailed.

Alternative names[edit]

The ponderous officialese name evoked many alternative names developed for the monument. Other names are Nationaldenkmal zur Erinnerung an die Befreiungskriege/Freiheitskriege (i.e. national monument in memory of the liberation/liberty wars, a more extended version), Befreiungsdenkmal (i.e. liberation monument), Kreuzbergdenkmal (i.e. Kreuzberg monument, however, there are at least five more monuments on the Kreuzberg sparsed in Victoria Park, which covers most of that hill), Kriegsdenkmal auf dem Kreuzberge (war monument on the Kreuzberg, somewhat indifferentiated), National-Monument, Schinkeldenkmal (i.e. Schinkel monument, however, it is not a monument of Schinkel, but one by Schinkel), Siegesdenkmal (i.e. victory monument), Volksdenkmal auf dem Tempelhofer Berge (people's monument on the Tempelhof hill, however, it was the king's monument, with statues displaying the faces of many royal siblings, and the hill had been renamed by the king into Kreuzberg in 1821).[citation needed]

Location[edit]

Map with the National Monument within the Victoria Park

The monument is located on the 66-metre high (217 ft) top of the Kreuzberg in the Tempelhofer Vorstadt. Between 1888 and 1894 the Victoria Park (Viktoriapark) was laid out around the monument. The monument, topped by an iron cross, became name-giving for the hill it stands on, before mostly called Tempelhofer Berg, but also denoted by many other names in its history. Hundred years after the inauguration of the monument, the VIth borough of Berlin, established on 1 October 1920 and provisionally named Hallesches Tor, was renamed into Kreuzberg on 27 September 1921.[9]

History[edit]

Schinkel's sketch for a memorial church.

The monument by Karl Friedrich Schinkel has been called the «relatively modest outcome of grandiose plans».[10] This is because the monument resembles the spire top of an earlier project by Schinkel, a national memorial church with the working title Nationaldom designed in summer 1814, and a second draft in January 1815.[11] However, like many other projects the memorial church never materialised due to lacking money. The compulsory contributions to France (thaler 41.73 million [=154.5 million Francs] alone by the Treaty of Tilsit[12]), levied during its supremacy, which Prussia could mostly only raise by way of credit from various creditors, French and of other nations, heavily weighed as debts to be amortised and serviced on the budgets of municipalities, cities, states and other corporations until the 1870s.

Already in late 1813 other projects for monuments had been launched by Ernst Moritz Arndt, Karl Sieveking, Johann Heinrich von Dannecker, Leo von Klenze, Friedrich Weinbrenner.[13] Schinkel considered for his project to ask the magistrate (city government) of Berlin to build a memorial.[14] So like jumping the ship also the initiative for a war memorial did not originate with the king.[15]

On 17 March 1813, when the king had jumped on the bandwagon for the liberation wars, he established the military decoration of the Iron Cross, backdated to March 10, late Queen Louise's birthday.[8] He commissioned Schinkel to design the Iron Cross after a royal sketch.[16] The Iron Cross was a decoration of a new kind, available for every soldier, who had turned from subjects of different estate status into citizens by the establishment of the Prussian citizenship in 1810, therefore there were no status barriers to get the Iron Cross.[17]

On 26 June 1818 Schinkel commissioned the Royal Prussian Iron Foundry (Königlich Preußische Eisengießerei) to cast the pieces for the monument, including its statues.[18] The foundry estimated costs of thaler 20,646.[18] After negotiations on 27 August 1818 the merchant Gottfried Wilhelm August Tietz, the farming burgher Johann Friedrich Götze and Christian Weimar (Weymann) sold the top of the Götze'scher Berg (today's Kreuzberg) measuring 1.5 Prussian Morgen (2,839.83 m2 (30,567.7 sq ft)) and an access road branching off from Methfesselstraße.[19] On 4 September 1818 the king approved the stipulated price of thaler 1,100 and an additional 400 as compensation for fixtures.[19] The adjacent land, measuring 72 Morgen (18.38 ha (45.4 acres)), remained property of Götze, Tietz and Weimar.[19] The king confirmed the price.[19]

The monument lengthwise.

Duke Charles of Mecklenburg arranged the laying of the foundation stone for 19 September 1818, attended - among others - by Tzar Alexander I, Christian Daniel Rauch and Schinkel.[20] An iron cast memorial medal was issued on that occasion and the proceeds were used for war invalids.[21] A bit northeast of the monument, deeper on the slope thus not blocking the view, a guard's house was erected after Schinkel's design in 1821.[22][23] It was a brick structure in Gothic Revival style adorned with a Lombard band all around beneath the eaves of the flat pyramidal roof.[7] On 1 January 1822 the invalid Martin Herborn moved in, employed to guard the monument.[23] By the end of the 19th century a milk bar (Milchkuranstalt) moved in.[23] The abandoned building was demolished in the 1950s, its site is now used by a ball playing cage.[23]

For the inauguration of the monument Frederick William III chose the 30 March 1821, the seventh anniversary of the conquest of the Montmartre in the Battle of Paris.[24] The inauguration was attended by the royal family, the Prussian generality, the senior pastors of all Protestant congregations of Berlin, and as guests by Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia and his wife Alexandra Feodorovna (Charlotte of Prussia), as well as by thousands of other spectators.[24] Court preacher Bishop Rulemann Friedrich Eylert held an inaugural prayer.[25]

The national monument is crowned by an Iron Cross.[26] On the occasion of the inauguration the king renamed Götze'scher Berg into Kreuzberg (i.e. cross mountain) after the Iron Cross topping the monument.[26] The monument is adorned with twelve statues symbolising twelve major battles of the Liberation Wars, however, at the inauguration only two of the statues had been installed, and two others were represented by plaster models painted like cast iron.[27] On December 27 altogether six statues had been installed, the other followed over time (two on 15 January 1823, one on 22 December 1823, another on 10 March 1825, on 17 June 1826 the last two.[28] The monument's front side was directed northeastwards to the Hallesches Tor (Halle Gate).[18]

View with the monument and the greyish-turquoise pyramidal roof of the guard's house (lower centre), 1829 by Hintze

On 1 December 1829 Frederick William III asked Schinkel for proposals how to improve the visibility of the monument.[29] Schinkel's ideas, a socket or an encircling structure were never realised.[29] Schinkel had proposed to enlarge the tiny monument's plot (a radius of 53 Prussian feet; 16.634 m (54.57 ft)) by buying an additional circular spread of 150 to 200 Prussian feet (47.08 to 62.77 m (154.5 to 205.9 ft)) around the monument, however, all rejected as too costly.[30] The southerly adjacent land had meanwhile been bought by the Gericke brothers, who planned to develop the area and opened the amusement park Tivoli right south of the monument.[31][32][33] On 6 August 1848 people gathered at the monument demonstrating for the unification of Germany, rendering homage to Archduke John of Austria as regent of the to-be-unified Empire, flagging the monument with the union tricolour of Black-Red-Gold, much opposed by the various Prussian nationalist formations.[34]

Strack's outside staircase

Between 1857 and 1859 Tivoli brewery established on the site of the former amusement park south of the monument and its access from Methfesselstraße.[35]

In 1875 Johann Heinrich Strack proposed a socket building to elevate the monument, and King William I of Prussia, in personal union also German Emperor, ordered its realisation in 1878.[30] Johann Wilhelm Schwedler carried out the plans.[30] On 29 August 1878 he elevated the monument, weighing 3,800 Zentner (1,900 kilograms (4,200 lb)), with hydraulical pumps.[30] On 3 September the monument was turned by 21° with its front into the axis of the Großbeerenstraße, before on 25 October the monument was set to rest on the new socket building.[36] The octagonal, 8-metre high (26 ft), crenellated bastion-like socket building is adorned with Silesian granite and sandstone covering the brick substructures.[37] A northerly outside staircase provides the access to the elevated level.[37] However, Strack's projected flight of stairs from the monument all the way down to Großbeerenstraße was again refused as too costly.[37]

In 1879 Guido von Madai, president of the royal police, decreed a maximum height of buildings in the adjacent streets to uphold the visibility of the monument. The ordinance, however, was annulled by the groundbreaking 1882 "Kreuzberg judgement" of the Prussian Royal administrative court, stating that the police had exceeded its authority to ensure public security.[38] On 14 December 1887 the city of Berlin acquired 8.5 hectares (21 acres) of unbuilt land from several owners, mostly north and west of the monument.[39] Right adjacent to the south the brewery (merged into Schultheiss in 1891), and in the east and northeast villas remained.[40] On 28 June 1888 the city parliament decided for City Garden Director Hermann Mächtig's design for Victoria Park, including a waterfall between monument and Großbeerenstraße.[39]

The monument was included in the Nazi plans for rebuilding Berlin, but only preparations materialised. Ernst Sagebiel oriented his Tempelhof Airport building towards the monument so that the central hall's front on the forecourt of the airport and one edge of the monument's octagonal groundplan are parallel. As seen from the monument today's Platz der Luftbrücke in front of the airport opens as a square, encircled by buildings of similar heights except for the taller central hall of the airport (mostly realised). The then planned axis consisting of a promenade and series of waterfalls cascading down the Kreuzberg hill towards the square was never realised, the interjacent block of houses remained untouched.[41]

In 1944 British bombing left behind a wake of devastation leading from one block north up the Großbeerenstraße, over the waterfall to the monument, blasting away the southern edge of the octagonal socket structure then used as a safe place for casts of various sculptures, such as the Quadriga of the Brandenburg Gate.[42] Also the villas northeast of the monument were destroyed. The casts were relocated from the open socket building in the late 1940s.[43]

In November 1958 the smashed southern edge of the socket octagon was reconstructed.[44] Starting in 1979 the monument was renovated and reopened on 31 October 1986 before the 750th anniversary of the first mention of Berlin in 1987.[45] It underwent a thorough restoration between 1995 and 2000.[46] The brick building of an abandoned public toilet was refurbished and opened in 2011 as a little café.

Design[edit]

A Greek cross resembling the groundplan of the monument with its arms being of equal length but shorter than the width of their ends

It is said that due to the influence of Crown Prince Frederick William (IV) Schinkel's design in Gothic Revival style prevailed over another in rather classicist forms.[47] The monument was decided to be made from cast iron.[48] The Royal Prussian Iron Foundry (de), renowned for its Berlin Iron Jewellery (Eisenkunstguss, Fer de Berlin) produced all the parts of the monument.[48] Frederick William III popularised cast iron by using it himself for decoration and table ware.[48]

The groundplan of the monument is a Greek cross with its arms being of equal length but shorter than the width of their ends. Its twelve edges are each dedicated to one battle of the Liberation Wars. The somewhat wider ends of the four arms are reserved for the four main battles with golden inscriptions.[27] Each of the twelve outward edges bears an inscription with the name and date of the battle topped by a little socket displaying an Iron Cross. Above each socket is a niche with the iron cast statue of a genius symbolising with their decoration and accessories the respective battle. The niches are in the actual structure of the monument tapering off to the top crowned again by an Iron Cross.

Originally Christian Daniel Rauch and Christian Friedrich Tieck had been commissioned to design and model each six statues. However, both were too busy and partially not in Berlin so that the creation of the statues was always on delay.[27] Therefore, Ludwig Wilhelm Wichmann was additionally appointed to model some of the genii after Rauch's and Tieck's designs.[27] As a guideline for the designs of the genii Schinkel recommended frescos by Pietro Perugino in the audience hall of the Collegio del Cambio in Perugia.[49]

Table of the genii[edit]

The informations in the table follow Nungesser.[50] The table starts with the genius shown on the front side, first seen when arriving on the monument platform, and then continues clockwise:

Inscription[51] Picture Statue Design by Modelled by Face resembling
Battle of Nations at Leipzig,
18 October 1813
Nationaldenkmal für die Befreiungskriege (18).JPG
centre
Genius in ancient Greek armour, crowned with an aureole, his left resting on a shield with the coats of arms of the three allies Prussia, Austria and Russia (l.t.r.), his reight pointing to the coats of arms of the three allies Rauch Wichmann Prince William (1783–1851), brother of the king
Battle of Dennewitz,
6 September 1813
Nationaldenkmal für die Befreiungskriege (14).JPG
right
Genius in the armour of a Landwehr soldier, in his left a sword held in front of his breast, in his right a laurel wreath held above his head Rauch Wichmann Baron Friedrich Wilhelm von Bülow, elevated to Count of Dennewitz
Battle of Culm,
30 August 1813
Nationaldenkmal für die Befreiungskriege (14).JPG
left
Genius in the shape of Hercules, wearing the hide of the Nemean lion, leaning with his left on the club, resting on the head of the Cretan bull, looking onto the laurel wreath held in his right Tieck Wichmann King Frederick William III
Battle of Großgörschen (aka Lützen),
2 May 1813, with the king's dedication inscription below
Nationaldenkmal für die Befreiungskriege (15).JPG
centre
Genius in ancient Greek armour with a sword and a laurel wreath Tieck Wichmann nobody, or Landgrave Leopold of Hesse-Homburg, killed in that battle, brother-in-law of William (1783–1851), according to different sources
Battle at the Katzbach near Wahlstatt,
26 August 1813
Nationaldenkmal für die Befreiungskriege (1).JPG
right
Genius in ancient Greek armour with a laurel wreath in his hands Wichmann Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, elevated to Prince of Wahlstatt, as a young man
Battle of Großbeeren,
23 August 1813
Nationaldenkmal für die Befreiungskriege (10).JPG
left
Youthful genius in Landsturm armour, with Berlin's coat of arms on his breast armour, his lance with sprouting laurel leaves rammed into the ground Tieck Prince Frederick William (IV), son of the king
Battle of La Belle Alliance (aka Waterloo),
18 June 1815
Kreuzbergdenkmal - Prinzessin Charlotte - Mutter Erde fec.jpg Genia in a tunic, symbolising the Peace of Paris as the fruit of this last battle, her right lifted, her left holding an olive branch, on the vertical hem of the tunica miniatures of all the other eleven genii Rauch Tzarina Alexandra, daughter of the king
Battle of Laon,
9 March 1814
Nationaldenkmal für die Befreiungskriege (11).JPG
right
Genius in old German armour and cloak, stabbing a dragon cranking beneath his feet Tieck Prince William (1783–1851), brother of the king
Battle of Bar-sur-Aube,
27 February 1814
Kreuzberg-Denkmal, Wilhelm I - Mutter Erde fec.jpg Youthful genius in ancient Greek armour with a lance and a shield with the Prussian coat of arms Wichmann Prince William (I), son of the king
Battle of Paris,
30 March 1814
Kreuzbergdenkmal2- Mutter Erde fec.jpg
centre
Genia, laureated, in her left a scepter topped by an Iron Cross within a laurel wreath and with a Prussian eagle on top, in her right the quadriga of the Brandenburg Gate, the recaptured war booty of the French, quadriga, wreath with cross and eagle not in iron, but in bronze Rauch Queen Louise, the consort
Battle of La Rothière,
1 February 1814
Kreuzbergdenkmal3 - Mutter Erde fec.jpg
centre
Genius in Nordic armour, striding forwards, in his left a laurel branch, his right erected Rauch Wichmann Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher
Battle of Wartenburg,
3 October 1813
Kreuzbergdenkmal2- Mutter Erde fec.jpg
left
Genius in ancient Greek armour, stepping into a bark as part of a bridge of boats, waiving the Prussian banner Rauch Wichmann Ludwig Yorck, elevated Count of Wartenburg, where he crossed the Elbe by a pontoon bridge

Other Prussian Monuments for the Liberation Wars[edit]

Since early 1817 a series of, partially pyramidal, war monuments, each topped by an Iron Cross had been already realised in Großbeeren, Dennewitz, Großgörschen, at the Katzbach near Wahlstatt (all in 1817), as well as in Haynau and La Belle Alliance (both in 1818).[52] The National Monument for the Liberation Wars, though built later than the others, was considered the mother of all other earlier memorials for the Liberation Wars,[25] More monuments for the Liberation Wars topped by an Iron Cross, not always from cast iron, but sandstone followed in Greifswald, Krefeld, Minden, Elsfleth, Breslau and on the Drachenfels (1857).[53]

Other monuments on the Kreuzberg[edit]

The rare haul by Herter, 1896, however, not on, but at the foot of the Kreuzberg.

Other monuments on the Kreuzberg are:

  • Two herms of "poets and singers of German patriotism".[54]
    • Monument of Heinrich von Kleist, 1898 by Karl Pracht, aluminum replica on the Kreuzberg, marble original preserved in the schoolyard of Leibniz-Gymnasium
    • Monument of Friedrich Rückert, 1899 by Ferdinand Lepcke, replica on the Kreuzberg (meanwhile stolen), original preserved in the schoolyard of Leibniz-Gymnasium[55]
  • Monument of Robert Zeller (1892–1898 lord mayor of Berlin[34]), 1904 by Otto Lessing, with the pertaining bust lost in WW II[56]
  • Memorial for the eastern German Homeland (Mahnmal für die ostdeutsche Heimat, Ostlandkreuz; August 1952), a 8-metre tall (26 ft) cross of pine wood with a crown of thorns of barbed wire[57]
  • Memorial stone for the 17 June 1953 (Gedenkstein 17. Juni 1953), set in August 1953 at the Homeland memorial cross, in honour of the victims of the communist suppression of the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany.[58]

There are more monuments in the park, but rather on street level, and not on the Kreuzberg, such as the well known The rare haul (1896 by Ernst Herter), a herm to Ludwig Uhland (1899 by Max Kruse, aluminum replica) or the monument to the raped women.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sibylle Badstübner-Gröger, Michael Bollé, Ralph Paschke et al., Handbuch der Deutschen Kunstdenkmäler / Georg Dehio, see references for bibliographical details, p. 267. ISBN 3-422-03071-9.
  2. ^ "Gross gedacht und klein geraten: Berlins Kreuzbergdenkmal wurde deshalb zum eindrucksvollen Zeugnis deutscher und preußischer Geschichte", in: monumente, Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz (ed.), No. 1/2 (1997), p. 30.
  3. ^ In the German original: "Der Koenig dem Volke | das auf seinen Ruf hochherzig | Gut und Blut dem Vater= | lande darbrachte den Gefal= | lenen zum Gedaechtniß den | Lebenden zur Anerken= | nung den künftigen Geschlech= | tern zur Nacheiferung". Cf. Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 48. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  4. ^ a b Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 50. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  5. ^ a b Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 20. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  6. ^ a b Ferdinand Pflug, "Aus den Zeiten der schweren Noth. Nr. 8. Der Landtag zu Königsberg und die Errichtung der Landwehr", in: Die Gartenlaube (1863), Heft 3-4, pp. 44–56, here p. 44.
  7. ^ a b c d e Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 21. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  8. ^ a b Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 29. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  9. ^ Klaus-Dieter Wille, Spaziergänge in Kreuzberg, see references for bibliographical details, p. 21. ISBN 3-7759-0287-2.
  10. ^ In the German original «relativ bescheidene Ergebnis grandioser Planungen» cf. Berlin: Kunstdenkmäler und Museen, Eva Börsch-Supan, Helmut Börsch-Supan, Günther Kühne and Hella Reelfs, Stuttgart: Reclam, 21977, (=Reclams Kunstführer Deutschland; vol. 7), p. 301. ISBN 3-15-010265-0
  11. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 22. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  12. ^ Peter Brandt in collaboration with Thomas Hofmann, Preußen: Zur Sozialgeschichte eines Staates; eine Darstellung in Quellen, edited on behalf of Berliner Festspiele as catalogue to the exhibition on Prussia between 15 May and 15 November 1981, Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt, 1981, (=Preußen; vol. 3), p. 80. ISBN 3-499-34003-8
  13. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 24. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  14. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 26. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  15. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 25. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  16. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, pp. 22 and 29. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  17. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 30. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  18. ^ a b c Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 46. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  19. ^ a b c d Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 38. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  20. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, pp. 39 and 52. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  21. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, pp. 39seq. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  22. ^ Die Tempelhofer Berge nebst ihrer Erhebung dem Kreuzberge anno 1286 bis 1986, see references for bibliographical details, p. 13. No ISBN.
  23. ^ a b c d Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 51. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  24. ^ a b Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 41. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  25. ^ a b Report on the inauguration, in: Berlinische Nachrichten, 31 March 1821, reprinted in: Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 124. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  26. ^ a b Walther Oschilewski, Kreuzberg: Ein Berliner Bezirk gestern und heute, see references for bibliographical details, p. 19. No ISBN.
  27. ^ a b c d Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 52. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  28. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 55. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  29. ^ a b Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 68. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  30. ^ a b c d Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 73. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  31. ^ Die Tempelhofer Berge nebst ihrer Erhebung dem Kreuzberge anno 1286 bis 1986, see references for bibliographical details, pp. 13 and 15. No ISBN.
  32. ^ Kathrin Chod, Herbert Schwenk and Hainer Weißpflug, Berliner Bezirkslexikon: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, see references for bibliographical details, p. 28. ISBN 3-7759-0474-3.
  33. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, pp. 70 and 73. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  34. ^ a b Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 82. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  35. ^ Kathrin Chod, Herbert Schwenk and Hainer Weißpflug, Berliner Bezirkslexikon: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, see references for bibliographical details, p. 332. ISBN 3-7759-0474-3.
  36. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, pp. 73 and 75. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  37. ^ a b c Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 75. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  38. ^ Cf. details on the suit "M. vs royal police department in Berlin", in: Entscheidungen des Königlichen Oberverwaltungsgerichts: 106 vols., Berlin: Heymann, 1877–1941, vol. 9 (2nd ed., 1887), Ludwig Jacobi, Wilhelm Jebens and Gottlieb von Meyeren (eds.), pp. 345seqq.
  39. ^ a b Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 87. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  40. ^ In 1993 the brewery was closed and its compound is redeveloped as a residential area named Victoria Quarter.
  41. ^ See Christine Heeb, "A multifaceted monument - the complex heritage of Tempelhof Central Airport", Master of Arts thesis in World Heritage Studies, Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, 2007 (pdf), pp. 23-24.
  42. ^ The casts were taken in 1942, survived the cracking of the socket building rather intact, so that the original Quadriga almost completely destroyed in the Second World War could be replaced by a replica cast in West Berlin in 1957. Cf. Rike Fischer, Auf dem Gipfel von Berlin – Ein Spaziergang durch den Viktoriapark in Kreuzberg, see references for bibliographical details, p. 28. ISBN 3-935810-07-5.
  43. ^ Rike Fischer, Auf dem Gipfel von Berlin – Ein Spaziergang durch den Viktoriapark in Kreuzberg, see references for bibliographical details, p. 29. ISBN 3-935810-07-5.
  44. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 95. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  45. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 7. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  46. ^ Denk mal Kreuzberg! Ein Architekturführer der kommunalen Baudenkmale im Bezirk Kreuzberg, see references for bibliographical details, p. 21. No ISBN
  47. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 27. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  48. ^ a b c Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 28. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  49. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 66. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  50. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, pp. 48, 55 and 58. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  51. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 48. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  52. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, pp. 27 and 77. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  53. ^ Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 77. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  54. ^ Klaus-Dieter Wille, Spaziergänge in Kreuzberg, see references for bibliographical details, p. 23. ISBN 3-7759-0287-2.
  55. ^ A third surviving monument of a poet is that of Ludwig Uhland (1899 by Max Kruse), with its aluminum replica being located on street level at the foot of the Kreuzberg. The monuments of Max von Schenkendorf (1899 by Alfred Reichel), Ernst Moritz Arndt (1899 by Hans Latt) and of Theodor Körner (1899 by Ernst Wenck) were all destroyed in the Second World War and not reconstructed. Cf. Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, see references for bibliographical details, p. 92. ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  56. ^ Rike Fischer, Auf dem Gipfel von Berlin – Ein Spaziergang durch den Viktoriapark in Kreuzberg, see references for bibliographical details, p. 67. ISBN 3-935810-07-5.
  57. ^ Rike Fischer, Auf dem Gipfel von Berlin – Ein Spaziergang durch den Viktoriapark in Kreuzberg, see references for bibliographical details, p. 64. ISBN 3-935810-07-5.
  58. ^ Rike Fischer, Auf dem Gipfel von Berlin – Ein Spaziergang durch den Viktoriapark in Kreuzberg, see references for bibliographical details, p. 65. ISBN 3-935810-07-5.

References[edit]

  • Sibylle Badstübner-Gröger, Michael Bollé, Ralph Paschke et al., Handbuch der Deutschen Kunstdenkmäler / Georg Dehio: 22 vols., revis. and ext. new ed. by Dehio-Vereinigung, Berlin and Munich: Deutscher Kunstverlag, 22000, vol. 8: Berlin, ISBN 3-422-03071-9.
  • Baedekers Berlin-Kreuzberg: Bezirksführer (11977), Ostfildern/Kemnat and Munich: Baedeker, 21988, ISBN 3-87954-091-8.
  • Kathrin Chod, Herbert Schwenk and Hainer Weißpflug, Berliner Bezirkslexikon: Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg, Berlin: Haude & Spener / Edition Luisenstadt, 2003, ISBN 3-7759-0474-3.
  • Denk mal Kreuzberg! Ein Architekturführer der kommunalen Baudenkmale im Bezirk Kreuzberg, Bezirksamt Kreuzberg von Berlin / Hochbauamt and Untere Denkmalschutzbehörde (eds.), Berlin: no publ., 1998, no ISBN.
  • Die Tempelhofer Berge nebst ihrer höchsten Erhebung dem Kreuzberge anno 1286 bis 1986, Geschichtskreis im Wasserturm auf dem Tempelhofer Berg (ed.), Berlin: Bloch & Partner, 1986, no ISBN.
  • Rike Fischer, Auf dem Gipfel von Berlin – Ein Spaziergang durch den Viktoriapark in Kreuzberg, Verein zur Erforschung und Darstellung der Geschichte Kreuzbergs and Bezirksmuseum Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg (eds.), Berlin: Kreuzberg-Museum, 2007, ISBN 3-935810-07-5.
  • Ilse Nicolas, Kreuzberger Impressionen (11969), Berlin: Haude & Spener, 21979, (=Berlinische Reminiszenzen; vol. 26), ISBN 3-7759-0205-8.
  • Michael Nungesser, Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel, ed. on behalf of the Bezirksamt Kreuzberg von Berlin as catalogue of the exhibition „Das Denkmal auf dem Kreuzberg von Karl Friedrich Schinkel“ in the Kunstamt Kreuzberg / Künstlerhaus Bethanien Berlin, between 25 April and 7 June 1987, Berlin: Arenhövel, 1987, ISBN 3-922912-19-2.
  • Walther Oschilewski, Kreuzberg: Ein Berliner Bezirk gestern und heute, Bezirksamt Kreuzberg von Berlin (ed.), Berlin: Arani, 1965, no ISBN.
  • Herbert Schwenk, Lexikon der Berliner Stadtentwicklung, Berlin: Haude & Spener / Edition Luisenstadt, 2002, ISBN 3-7759-0472-7.
  • Stadt_Raum Kreuzberg: Kunst- und Sonderobjekte im städtischen Raum, Bezirksamt Kreuzberg von Berlin / Hochbauamt and Untere Denkmalschutzbehörde (eds.), Berlin: no publ., 2000, no ISBN.
  • Lothar Uebel, Am Berg gebaut – Über hundert Jahre Chamissokiez, Mieterrat Chamissoplatz (ed.), Berlin: no publ., 1994, no ISBN.
  • Klaus-Dieter Wille, Spaziergänge in Kreuzberg, Berlin: Haude & Spener, 1986, (=Berliner Kaleidoskop: Schriften zur Berliner Kunst- und Kulturgeschichte; vol. 32), ISBN 3-7759-0287-2.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 52°29′15.58″N 13°22′53.27″E / 52.4876611°N 13.3814639°E / 52.4876611; 13.3814639