|Gmina||Przeworsk (urban gmina)|
|• Mayor||Leszek Kisiel|
|• Total||21.98 km2 (8.49 sq mi)|
|Elevation||200 m (700 ft)|
|• Density||720/km2 (1,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Przeworsk [ˈpʂɛvɔrsk], (Ukrainian: Переворськ Perevors'k, Yiddish: פּרשעוואָרסק Prshevorsk) is a town in south-eastern Poland with 15,675 inhabitants, as of 2 June 2009. Since 1999 it has been in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship, and is the capital of Przeworsk County. The ancient Przeworsk culture was named after the town.
Przeworsk was a settlement since the 10th century, though evidence of human settlement in the general area is even older. It is first mentioned in historical records from the 13th century, and was granted its town charter in 1394. From 1772 the town was part of the Habsburg Monarchy where it remained until 1918 when an independent Poland was created. Przeworsk is located on the European route E40, it also is an important railway junction, with trains going into three directions - east (towards Przemyśl), west (towards Rzeszów) and north (towards Stalowa Wola).
Przeworsk has some 60 historic buildings, including two defensive Gothic abbeys, a town hall, a Classicistic Lubomirski Palace, Baroque monastery, and an open-air museum (skansen). The town has the area of 22 square kilometres (8.5 square miles).
In the 13th century Ruthenian documents, Przeworsk was spelled Pereworesk. In the 14th and 15th centuries, it was called Preworsko, Przeworsko, Przeworszko, Przeworscho, Przeiworsko, Przyworsko and Prziborsko. Since the 15th century, the name Przeworsko was most often used.
In the early Middle Ages, a defensive gord existed here. It was first mentioned in documents from 1280, when, after the Battle of Gozlice (23 February 1280) between Lesser Polish and Ruthenian-Tatar forces, Duke Leszek II the Black raided Kingdom of Russia (Kingdom of Ruthenia), capturing and burning the city of "Perevoresk" (Переворескъ).
- Въ лѣт̑ 6789 (1281) Иде Льстько на Лва и взѧ оу него городъ Переворескъ и исъсѣче и люди в нем̑ вси ѿ мала и до велика и город̑ зажьже и поиде назадъ во своӕси"
- In a year 6789 (meaning 1281) Leszek attacked Leo I of Galicia and took his city of Perevoresk and killed in it all people from young to old and burnt the city to the ground and left afterwards.
After the Galicia–Volhynia Wars in the mid-14th century, territory of Kingdom of Russia (Kingdom of Ruthenia) was annexed by the Kingdom of Poland and transformed into Ruthenian Voivodeship. Soon Polish settlers came to the deserted border areas, and in November 1387, King Władysław II Jagiełło presented Przeworsk to Voivode of Sandomierz, Jan of Tarnow (Leliwa coat of arms). Przeworsk grew fast, and on 25 February 1393, Jagiello granted town charter to it.
Until the 18th century, Przeworsk was private property of several noble families, such as the Tarnowski, Ostrogski and Lubomirski. Since 1470, it was seat of a land court for western areas of Ruthenian Voivodeship’s Przemysl Land. Przeworsk was the second biggest city of this land, prospering in the period known as Polish Golden Age. The town was situated on a round hill, 212 metres (696 feet) above sea level. Its center was protected by a rampart and a moat, with a town hall built in the 15th century.
Since Crimean Tatars often raided southeastern corner of Poland, in 1510 construction of a defensive wall was initiated. The defences of Przeworsk consisted of three main elements: a fortified Bernardine monastery in the east, a fortified Order of the Holy Sepulchre monastery in the west, and the town with its three gates in the middle. These fortifications turned out to be inadequate, as in both in 1612 and 1624, Przeworsk was captured by Tatars. Furthermore, the town was captured by Cossacks (1672, 1677), Swedes (1702) and Russians during the Great Northern War. On 22/23 March 1656, Charles X Gustav of Sweden spent one night here, during his failed raid of south-central Poland. Furthermore, Przeworsk frequently burned in several fires (1712, 1717, 1739, 1740, 1759). All these events contributed to the deep decline of the town.
In 1772 (see Partitions of Poland), Przeworsk was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, remaining in Austrian Galicia until November 1918. In the late 18th century, Austrian authorities pulled down obsolete defensive wall with gates. The town remained in decline until the late 19th century, when it became a railroad junction, and a center of sugar production, with Przeworsk Sugar Refinery (1895). In 1859, Przeworsk received rail connection with Kraków; in 1902 with Rozwadow, and in 1904, a narrow gauge line to Dynow was completed. The population began to grow, new houses were built, together with a monument dedicated to Wladyslaw Jagiello (1910), but World War One brought destruction to Przeworsk.
Przeworsk was captured by the Wehrmacht on 9 September 1939. German occupation lasted until 27 July 1944.
- Basilica, built in the 15th century with a unique chapel - Tomb of Jesus Christ (the same as in Jerusalem)
- Church of the Bernardine Order
- Palace and park of Lubomirski family
- The only truly "vivid" open-air museum in Poland, with wooden houses from Przeworsk and the surrounding region.
- The Wąskotorówka Train (narrow gauge railway) going from Przeworsk to Dynów.
Twin towns — Sister cities
Przeworsk is twinned with:
- "Population. Size and structure by territorial division" (PDF). © 1995-2009 Central Statistical Office 00-925 Warsaw, Al. Niepodległości 208. 2009-06-02. Retrieved 2009-06-22. External link in
- Ruthenian chronicle after the Hypatian list, Galicia-Volhynian chronicle