Psalm 100

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Psalm 100
Hymn psalm
DurhamCassiodorusDavidVictor.JPG
Miniature of David, in the 8th-century psalter Cassiodorus Durham, Northumbria
Other name
  • Mizmor le-Toda
  • Psalm 99 (Vulgate)
  • Jubilate
  • Old 100th
  • "Make a joyful noise unto the Lord, all ye lands"
LanguageHebrew (original)

Psalm 100 is the 100th psalm of the Book of Psalms, generally known in English by its first verse, in the King James Version: "Make a joyful noise unto the Lord, all ye lands". The Book of Psalms is the third section of the Hebrew Bible,[1] and a book of the Christian Old Testament. In the Greek Septuagint version of the bible, and in its Latin translation in the Vulgate, this psalm is Psalm 99 in a slightly different numbering system. In Latin, it is known as "Jubilate Domino omnis terra", or simply Jubilate.[2] The psalm, a hymn psalm, is a regular part of Jewish, Catholic, Anglican and Protestant liturgies. It is also known as Old 100th, Mizmor le-Toda (מִזְמוֹר לְתוֹדָה) and "Psalm of gratitude confession",[3]

The psalm was paraphrased in hymns, and has been set to music often, being a regular part of Catholic Lauds services. In the Anglican church, it may be used as a canticle in the Anglican liturgy of Morning Prayer, when it is referred to by its incipit as the Jubilate or Jubilate Deo, and has been set in Te Deum and Jubilate compositions, such as Handel's Utrecht Te Deum and Jubilate in English. In 1844, Felix Mendelssohn set the psalm using the German translation by Martin Luther, Jauchzet dem Herrn, alle Welt. Max Reger composed a choral symphony on the same text, Der 100. Psalm, in 1909. The psalm, sung in Hebrew, constitutes the bulk of the first movement of Leonard Bernstein's Chichester Psalms.

Text[edit]

Hebrew[edit]

The Hebrew text of the psalm comprises 5 verses. Unusually for a Biblical poem, it solely comprises tricolons, verses 1 and 2 (a monocolon and a bicolon respectively) combining into a tricolon, and the remaining verses all being tricolons. (One scholar, Jan P. Fokkelman, dissents and takes verse 4 to be two bicolons.) It is usually divided into two strophes, verses 1–3 and verses 4–5.[4] (See the translation notes section below for an explanation of the bracketed part of verse 3.)

  1. מזמור לתודה הריעו ליהוה כל הארץ
  2. עבדו את יהוה בשמחה באו לפניו ברננה
  3. דעו כי יהוה הוא אלהים הוא עשנו ולא [ולו] אנחנו עמו וצאן מרעיתו
  4. באו שעריו בתודה חצרתיו בתהלה הודו לו ברכו שמו
  5. כי טוב יהוה לעולם חסדו ועד דר ודר אמונתו

King James Version[edit]

  1. Make a joyful noise unto the Lord, all ye lands.
  2. Serve the Lord with gladness: come before his presence with singing.
  3. Know ye that the Lord he is God: it is he that hath made us, and not we ourselves; we are his people, and the sheep of his pasture.
  4. Enter into his gates with thanksgiving, and into his courts with praise: be thankful unto him, and bless his name.
  5. For the Lord is good; his mercy is everlasting; and his truth endureth to all generations.

Geddes[edit]

The 1807 translation by Alexander Geddes includes the title in the first verse:[5]

  1. A EUCHARISTIC PSALM.
    CELEBRATE Jehovah, all ye lands !
  2. with joyfulness worship Jehovah !
    Come into his presence with exultation.
  3. Know that Jehovah is the only God :
    It was he who made us, and his we are ;
    his own people, and the flock of his pasture.
  4. With thanksgiving enter into his gates ;
    into his courts with songs of praise.
    To him be thankful, and bless his name :
  5. For good is Jehovah ! everlasting his bounty !
    and his veracity from generation to generation.

Driver and BCP[edit]

Samuel Rolles Driver's Parallel Psalter has the Prayer Book translation of psalm 100 on a verso page.[6] It is identical to the Jubilate Deo, sans Gloria, from the Book of Common Prayer, intentionally retaining the use of "O" for the vocative amongst other things:[7]

  1. O be joyful in the Lord, all ye lands : serve the Lord with gladness, and come before his presence with a song.
  2. Be ye sure that the Lord he is God : it is he that hath made us, and not we ourselves; we are his people, and the sheep of his pasture.
  3. O go your way into his gates with thanksgiving, and into his courts with praise : be thankful unto him, and speak good of his Name.
  4. For the Lord is gracious, his mercy is everlasting : and his truth endureth from generation to generation.

The beginning of verse 1 here is the same as Psalm 66 verse 1 and Psalm 98 verse 4.[6]

His own 1898 translation is on a facing recto page.[8] It exhibits several of the differences in modern translations that are explained in the below translation notes section.

  1. Shout unto Jehovah, all the earth.
  2. Serve Jehovah with gladness ;
    come before his presence with a ringing cry.
  3. Know ye that Jehovah he is God :
    it is he that hath made us, and we are his ;
    (we are) his people, and the flock of his pasture.
  4. O enter into his gates with thanksgiving,
    (and) into his courts with praise :
    give thanks unto him, bless his name.
  5. For Jehovah is good, his kindness (endureth) for ever,
    and his faithfulness unto all generations.

For "pasture" in verse 3 he gives "shepherding" as an alternative, and for "thanksgiving" in verse 4 "a thank-offering".[8]

Psalm 100 was one of the fixed psalms in the older Anglican liturgy for office of lauds on Sundays, and the Prayer Book translation given by Driver (with an added Gloria) is a part of the order of morning prayer in the Book of Common Prayer under the title "Jubilate Deo".[9] As such, it has been set to music by many composers, including Benjamin Britten, Charles Villiers Stanford, John Rutter,[10] and Herbert Howells. Henry Purcell in his Te Deum and Jubilate and George Frideric Handel in his Utrecht Te Deum and Jubilate both took the approach of one movement for each verse, Handel splitting the BCP verse 1 back into its constituent two original Hebrew verses, with one movement each.[11]

Ralph Vaughan Williams composed two settings of the psalm, The Hundredth Psalm a choral cantata in 1929 using the BCP translation, and The Old Hundredth Psalm Tune in 1952 using Kethe's translation (discussed next), which was used for the coronation of Elizabeth II and had parts for SATB, organ, orchestra, and congregation.[12][13]

Kethe[edit]

William Kethe's translation is in long metre, and formed part of a collection of psalms translated into metrical form in English, the 1562 expanded 150-psalm edition of Thomas Sternhold's and John Hopkins's 1549 metrical psalter.[14] First appearing in Fourscore and Seven Psalms of David (the so-called Geneva Psalter) the year before,[15] it divides the verses in the same way as the Book of Common Prayer:

  1. All people that on earth do dwell, sing to the Lord with cheerful voice: him serve him fear, his praise forth tell, come ye before him and rejoice!
  2. The Lord, ye know, is God indeed, without our aid he did us make; we are his flock he doth us feed, and for his sheep he doth us take.
  3. O enter then his gates with praise, approach with joy his courts unto; praise, laud, and bless his Name always, for it is seemly so to do.
  4. For why? the Lord our God is good, his mercy is for ever sure; his truth at all times firmly stood, and shall from age to age endure.

Of all of the psalms in the Sternhold and Hopkins psalter, Kethe's translation is the most famous and lasting, it being a popular hymn usually set to the tune "Old 100th". Hannibal Hamlin, a professor of English, observes that it suffers from common ailments of strophic song settings, that the first verse fits a tune better than subsequent verses and that the phrasing has a tendency towards the convoluted. Hamlin holds up "him serve with fear", with an unusual object-verb-object ordering for the imperative in English (which would in colloquial English more usually be "serve him with fear"), followed by a similarly unusual word order in "his praise forth tell", as examples of the latter. The former is exemplified by the drawn-out end of the second line of the tune "Old 100th" fitting "cheerful voice" better than it does "courts unto" and "ever sure".[16]

Luther[edit]

Martin Luther translated the psalm into German, including the Hebrew title in the first verse (like Geddes) with the psalm under the title Der 100. Psalm:[17]

  1. Ein Dankpsalm. Jauchzet dem Herrn, alle Welt.
  2. Dienet dem Herrn mit Freuden; kommt vor sein Angesicht mit Frohlocken.
  3. Erkennet, daß der Herr Gott ist. Er hat uns gemacht, und nicht wir selbst zu seinem Volk, und zu Schafen seiner Weide.
  4. Gehet zu seinen Toren ein mit Danken, zu seinen Vorhöfen mit Loben; danket ihm, lobet seinen Namen.
  5. Denn der Herr ist freundlich, und seine Gnade währet ewig, und seine Wahrheit für und für.

Felix Mendelssohn set this to music as Jauchzet dem Herrn, alle Welt, composed in 1844 and published posthumously in 1855.[18] Max Reger entitled his setting of Luther's translation simply "Der 100. Psalm".

Translation notes[edit]

Verse 3 contains an instance of Qere and Ketiv in the Masoretic Text. In the body of the text is the Hebrew word אל‎, lo' meaning "not" whereas the marginalia has the substitute ול‎, meaning "to him". The KJV translation "and not we ourselves" is based upon the ketiv, and agrees with the Septuagint and Vulgate translations; the New American Standard Bible and the Darby Bible also agreeing. More modern translations such as those of the New International Version and the English Standard Version are based upon the qere, and read "and we are his".[19][20] Geddes opined in a footnote to his translation that the KJV/Septuagint translation is "totally inadmissable".[5] Wilhelm Martin Leberecht de Wette, in his German translation of the Psalm, likewise gave the translation "und sein sind wir", noting that the ketiv translation "und nicht wir" (as given by Luther) is "ganz unschicklich".[21]

Lost in the English translation is that all of the imperative verbs in the Hebrew are in the plural.[22] The phrase "make a joyful noise" is significantly longer that the Hebrew, which is just one word (as is the Latin); and translators aiming to preserve the text more literally use verbs such as "acclaim", "hail", or "shout" (as Driver did).[23][8] Also lost in most English translations is the use of the vocative, although the Book of Common Prayer translation retained this by use of "O", as did the original Prayer Book translation that Driver gave.[24][23][25] Hermann Gunkel translated the end of verse 1 as "all the land", i.e. all of the land of Israel, rather than the more generally accepted modern translation of "all the Earth", i.e. everyone; a point upon which James Luther Mays commented that "Gunkel's historicism led him astray".[24][23]

Uses[edit]

Judaism[edit]

Scroll of the Psalms

Psalm 100, known by its first two words, Hebrew: מזמור לתודה, Mizmor le Toda, "Song of Thanksgiving", is part of the daily prayer service, being recited as part of the Songs of thanksgiving (Pesukei dezimra).[26][27] Psalm 100 is representative of the Thanksgiving offering, which thanks God for having been saved from dangers we face every day. A person always faces danger in his daily routine, even though he may be unaware of it.

Psalm 100 is omitted on Shabbat and festivals because the Thanksgiving offering was not offered on these days in the Temple. Only communal offerings were brought on these days. It is also omitted on the day before Pesach and during Chol HaMoed Pesach because the Thanksgiving offering is composed of a loaf of bread, which is chametz that may not be consumed during Pesach. It also is omitted the day before Yom Kippur because no food is consumed at all on Yom Kippur.[28][29]

Catholic Church[edit]

Traditionally, this psalm was chanted in abbeys during the celebration of matins on Fridays,[30][31] according to the schema of St. Benedict of Nursia.[32] As one of the most important psalm, Psalm 100 (99) was similarly sung for the solemn office of Lauds on Sunday.[33]

In the 1970 reform of the Liturgy of the Hours, Psalm 100 is one of four Invitatory psalms which can introduce the daily office hours. It is recited at Lauds on Friday of the first[34] and third weeks of the Psalter. Psalm 100 is also present among the readings of the office of the Mass: found on January 5 after the Octave of Christmas, and on the fourth Sunday of Eastertide. It also appears six times in Ordinary Time: Thursday of the 8th week, the Friday of the 22nd week, Tuesday and Friday of the 24th week, the Monday of the 29th week, and on Thursday of the 34th week of Ordinary Time.

Because of its text and its subject, this psalm is still one of the most important liturgical chants, during the celebration of the Jubilee every 25 years in Rome.[35] It is sung when the bishop opened the Door of Mercy.[36]

Musical settings[edit]

Melody for Psalm 100, attributed to Loys Bourgeois, from a 1628 publication

Traditionally, Psalm 100 has been set to music frequently for vespers services, sometimes even several times by the same composer. Hymns paraphrasing Psalm 100 include "Nun jauchzt dem Herren, alle Welt" by David Denicke (1646). The first movement of Bach's Christmas Oratorio, Jauchzet, frohlocket!, sets a paraphase of the psalm.

Classical music[edit]

Contemporary classical music[edit]

Judaism[edit]

Verse 2, "Ivdu es-Hashem b'simcha" (Serve the Lord with joy) is a popular inspirational song in Judaism.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mazor 2011, p. 589.
  2. ^ Parallel Latin/English Psalter / Psalmus 99 (100) Archived 7 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine medievalist.net
  3. ^ Samson Raphael Hirsch: Sidur tefilot Yisrael, Israels Gebete, (סדור תפלות ישראל). I. (Kauffmann, Frankfurt a.M. 1921), OCLC 18389019, p. 55.
  4. ^ van der Lugt 2014, pp. 101–103.
  5. ^ a b Geddes 1807, p. 184.
  6. ^ a b Driver 1904, p. 290.
  7. ^ Driver 1904, p. xxvii.
  8. ^ a b c Driver 1904, p. 291.
  9. ^ Blunt 1872, pp. 17,314.
  10. ^ Rosewall 2007, p. 417.
  11. ^ Burrows (2005), p. 94.
  12. ^ Gillingham 2012, p. 298.
  13. ^ Rosewall 2007, p. 480.
  14. ^ Holladay 1995, p. 200.
  15. ^ Knowles & Partington 1999, p. 87.
  16. ^ Hamlin 2004, pp. 48–49.
  17. ^ BuaB 1877, p. 76.
  18. ^ Todd 2004, p. 171.
  19. ^ Mariottini 2013, pp. 99–100.
  20. ^ Kohlenberger III 2008, p. 50.
  21. ^ de Wette 1856, p. 493.
  22. ^ Hayes 1985, p. 25.
  23. ^ a b c Alden 1955, p. 123.
  24. ^ a b Mays 1994, p. 68.
  25. ^ Driver 1904, pp. xxvii,290–291.
  26. ^ B. Posen: Die Schabbos-Vorschriften. Hilchos Schabbos. Morascha, Basel 2005, OCLC 694996857, p.55:„An Schabbat und Feiertagen, an Erew Jom Kippur und Pesach, sowie an Chol Hamo'ed Pessach wird der Psalm nicht gesprochen.“
  27. ^ Hochspringen ↑ Raw B. Posen: Die Schabbos-Vorschriften. Hilchos Schabbos. Morascha, Basel 2005, OCLC 694996857, p. 53 (s. Google Books). Ps. 100. מזמור לתודה: „Todah ist sowohl Bekenntnis einer Dankverpflichtung, als eines Schuldbewusstseins
  28. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur page 64
  29. ^ Raw B. Posen: Die Schabbos-Vorschriften. Hilchos Schabbos. Morascha, Basel 2005, OCLC 694996857, S. 53 (auch einsehbar bei Google Books). Ps. 100. מזמור לתודה: „Todah ist sowohl Bekenntnis einer Dankverpflichtung, als eines Schuldbewusstseins“.
  30. ^ Psautier latin-français du bréviaire monastique, p. 355, 1938/2003
  31. ^ "La distribution des Psaumes dans la Règle de Saint Benoît | Mont de Cats". abbaye-montdescats.fr. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  32. ^ Règle de saint Benoît, chapitre XVIII, traduction de Prosper Guéranger, p. 46, Abbaye Saint-Pierre de Solesmes, réimpression 2007
  33. ^ Psautier latin-français du bréviaire monastique, p. 117.
  34. ^ The main cycle of liturgical prayers takes place over four weeks.
  35. ^ a b "Don Fernando de Las Infantas, teólogo y músico. Estudio crítico biobibliográfico". archive.org. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  36. ^ Tablettes historiques du Velay. 1872. p. 449. Retrieved 2016-03-29.
  37. ^ Jean-Baptiste Lully: [http://data.bnf.fr/14815830/jean-baptiste_lully_jubilate_deo__lwv_77_16/ Jubilate Deo . LWV 77/16 motet]
  38. ^ Bach Digital Work 1471 at www.bachdigital.de
  39. ^ "Ivdu עִבְדוּ". Zemirot Database. Retrieved January 20, 2019.

Cited sources[edit]

  • Mazor, Lea (2011). Berlin, Adele; Grossman, Maxine (eds.). Book of Psalms. The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-973004-9.
  • Mariottini, Claude F. (2013). "Psalm 100:3: In search of a better translation". Rereading the Biblical Text: Searching for Meaning and Understanding. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN 9781630870355.
  • Kohlenberger III, John R. (2009). "The textual sources of the King James Bible". In Burke, David G. (ed.). Translation that Openeth the Window: Reflections on the History and Legacy of the King James Bible. Society of Biblical Lit. ISBN 9781589833562.
  • Geddes, Alexander (1807). A New Translation of the Book of Psalms: From the Original Hebrew; with Various Readings and Notes. J. Johnson. (A New Translation of the Book of Psalms at the Internet Archive)
  • Hayes, John (1985). Preaching the new common lectionary: after Pentecost, Part 3. Abingdon Press. ISBN 9780687338504.
  • Mays, James Luther (1994). The Lord Reigns: A Theological Handbook to the Psalms. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664255589.
  • de Wette, Wilhelm Martin Leberecht (1856). Commentar über die Psalmen: nebst beigefügter Uebersetzung (5th ed.). Heidelberg: J.C.B. Mohr. (Commentar über die Psalmen (1836 edition) at the Internet Archive)
  • Alden, Robert (1955). "Psalm 100". Psalms Volume 2. Everyman's Bible Commentaries. Moody Publishers. ISBN 9781575678450.
  • Driver, Samuel Rolles (1904). The Parallel Psalter (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Holladay, William L. (1995). The Psalms Through Three Thousand Years: Prayerbook of a Cloud of Witnesses. Fortress Press. ISBN 9781451420302.
  • Knowles, Elizabeth M.; Partington, Angela, eds. (1999). "William Kethe". The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198601739.
  • van der Lugt, Pieter (2014). "Psalm 100". Cantos and Strophes in Biblical Hebrew Poetry III: Psalms 90–150 and Psalm 1. Oudtestamentische Studiën. BRILL. ISBN 9789004262799.
  • Hamlin, Hannibal (2004). Psalm Culture and Early Modern English Literature. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521832700.
  • Blunt, John Henry (1872). The Annotated Book of Common Prayer (6th ed.). London: Rivingtons.
  • Burrows, Donald (2005). Handel and the English Chapel Royal. Oxford studies in British church music. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198162285.
  • Gillingham, Susan (2012). Psalms Through the Centuries. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470674901.
  • Rosewall, Michael (2007). "Vaughan Williams, Ralph". Directory of Choral-orchestral Music. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780415980043.
  • Luther, Martin (1877). Die Psalmen Davids: nach M. Luthers übersetzung. Britische und ausländische Bibelgesellschaft.
  • Todd, R. Larry (2004). "On Mendelssohn's sacred music, real and imaginary". In Mercer-Taylor, Peter (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Mendelssohn. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521533423.

External links[edit]