Psalm 150

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Psalm 150
Praise ye the LORD.
Hymn psalm
Jerusalem Tomb of David BW 1.JPG
Psalm 150 embroidered in Hebrew
on David's Tomb
Other name
  • Laudate Dominum in sanctis eius
LanguageHebrew (original)

Psalm 150 is the 150th and final psalm of the Book of Psalms, generally known in English by its first verse, in the King James Version, "Praise ye the LORD. Praise God in his sanctuary". The Book of Psalms is the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament. In Latin, it is known as "Laudate Dominum in sanctis eius".[1] The psalmist urges the congregation to praise God with music and dancing, naming nine types of musical instruments. For this reason, Psalm 150 is also called "the musicians' psalm".

Psalm 150, a hymn psalm, is a regular part of Jewish, Catholic, Anglican, and Protestant liturgies. As one of the Laudate psalms, it was part of the Lauds, a Catholic morning service. It has been paraphrased in hymns and has been set to music often. Composers have written settings throughout the centuries, in various languages, including Bruckner's German setting, Psalm 150, from 1892; the third movement of Stravinsky's Symphony of Psalms in Latin; and the third movement, Tehillim, in Hebrew in the Gloria by Karl Jenkins in 2010.

Background and themes[edit]

Like Psalms 146, 147, 148, and 149, Psalm 150 begins and ends in Hebrew with the word Hallelujah.[2] Further, Guzik notes that each of the five books of Psalms ends with a doxology, with Psalm 150 representing the conclusion of the fifth book as well as the conclusion of the entire work.[3] Henry notes that this final psalm parallels the first psalm in that they have the same number of verses.[4]

According to the Kabbalah, the ten expressions of praise in this psalm correspond to the ten sefirot (divine emanations).[5] Additionally, the word hallel (Hebrew: הלל, praise) can be found thirteen times in the psalm, correlating to the Thirteen Attributes of Mercy.[5] The directive hallelu (Hebrew: הללו, "you praise") is seen twelve times, corresponding to the twelve new moons that occur in a Hebrew calendar year. When this psalm is recited during the Jewish prayer service (see below), verse 6 is repeated, adding a thirteenth expression of hallelu which alludes to the thirteenth new moon in a leap year.[5][6]

Psalm 150 names nine types of musical instruments to be used in praise of God.[7] While the exact translation of some of these instruments is unknown, the Jewish commentators have identified the shofar, lyre, harp, drum, organ, flute, cymbal, and trumpet.[8] Saint Augustine observes that all human faculties are used in producing music from these instruments: "The breath is employed in blowing the trumpet; the fingers are used in striking the strings of the psaltery and the harp; the whole hand is exerted in beating the timbrel; the feet move in the dance".[2]

In verse 6, according to the Midrash, the Hebrew words kol ha-neshamah (Hebrew: כל הנשמה, which literally mean "Let all souls [praise God]", can also be vowelized as kol ha-neshimah, "Let every breath [praise God]". The Midrash expounds, "For each and every breath a person takes, he must praise God".[9][10]

Text[edit]

Hebrew Bible version[edit]

Chagall window at Chichester Cathedral, based on Psalm 150

Following is the Hebrew text of Psalm 150:

Verse Hebrew
1 הַ֥לְלוּיָ֨הּ הַֽלְלוּ־אֵ֥ל בְּקָדְשׁ֑וֹ הַֽ֜לְ֗לוּהוּ בִּרְקִ֥יעַ עֻזּֽוֹ
2 הַֽלְלוּהוּ בִּגְבֽוּרֹתָ֑יו הַֽ֜לְל֗וּהוּ כְּרֹ֣ב גֻּדְלֽוֹ
3 הַֽלְלוּהוּ בְּתֵ֣קַע שׁוֹפָ֑ר הַֽ֜לְל֗וּהוּ בְּנֵ֣בֶל וְכִנּֽוֹר
4 הַֽלְלוּהוּ בְתֹ֣ף וּמָח֑וֹל הַֽ֜לְל֗וּהוּ בְּמִנִּ֥ים וְעֻגָֽב
5 הַֽלְלוּהוּ בְּצִֽלְצְלֵי־שָׁ֑מַע הַֽ֜לְל֗וּהוּ בְּצִלְצְלֵ֥י תְרוּעָֽה
6 כֹּ֣ל הַ֖נְּשָׁמָה תְּהַלֵּ֥ל יָ֜֗הּ הַֽלְלוּיָֽהּ

King James Version[edit]

  1. Praise ye the LORD. Praise God in his sanctuary: praise him in the firmament of his power.
  2. Praise him for his mighty acts: praise him according to his excellent greatness.
  3. Praise him with the sound of the trumpet: praise him with the psaltery and harp.
  4. Praise him with the timbrel and dance: praise him with stringed instruments and organs.
  5. Praise him upon the loud cymbals: praise him upon the high sounding cymbals.
  6. Let every thing that hath breath praise the LORD. Praise ye the LORD.

Uses[edit]

Judaism[edit]

Psalm 150 is the fifth of five consecutive psalms (Psalms 146, 147, 148, 149, and 150) which comprise the main part of Pesukei dezimra in the daily morning service.[11][12] When recited in this prayer, verse 6 is repeated, indicating the conclusion of the main part of Pesukei dezimra.[13] This repetition of the final verse, which concludes the entire Book of Psalms, mirrors the way the final verse at the end of a Book of the Torah is repeated during the Torah reading in the synagogue.[5]

The entire psalm is recited during the Shofrot section of the Mussaf Amidah on Rosh Hashanah, and during Kiddush Levanah.[12][14][15]

Verse 3 is included in a piyyut recited by the Hazzan and congregation on the first day of Rosh Hashanah when that day coincides with a Shabbat.[16]

In Perek Shirah, an ancient Jewish text that ascribes scriptural verses to each element of creation as their way of praising God,[17] the spider says verse 5 of this psalm and the rat says verse 6.[12][18]

Psalm 150 is one of the ten psalms of the Tikkun HaKlali of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov.[19][20]

Catholicism[edit]

Psalm 150 is one of the Laudate psalms, the others being Psalm 148 (Laudate Dominum) and Psalm 149 (Cantate Domino).[21] All three were traditionally sung, in the sequence 148, 149 and 150, during Lauds, a morning service from the canonical hours.[21]

Musical settings[edit]

With its focus on musical instruments, Psalm 150 has been called "the musicians' psalm",[22] and also "praise beyond words".[23] It has inspired many composers to musical settings, from paraphasing hymns to use in extended symphonic works:

Original cover page of "Psalm 150 for Choir and Orchestra" by Robert Schumann

Stamps[edit]

  • Joyous Festivals 5716 Stamps of Israel, with the inscriptions on tab from Psalm 150

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Parallel Latin/English Psalter / Psalmus 1500 Archived 7 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine medievalist.net
  2. ^ a b Spurgeon, Charles (2019). "Charles H. Spurgeon's Treasury of David – Psalm 150". Christianity.com.
  3. ^ Guzik, David (2018). "Psalm 150 – Let All Things Praise the Lord". Enduring Word. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  4. ^ Henry, Matthew (2019). "Psalms 150". Bible Study Tools. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d Nulman 1996, p. 151.
  6. ^ Munk 2007, pp. 129-130.
  7. ^ Abramowitz, Rabbi Jack (2019). "The Final Psalm". Orthodox Union. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  8. ^ Scherman 2003, p. 75.
  9. ^ Munk 2003, p. 81.
  10. ^ Wagschal 1991, p. 53.
  11. ^ Scherman 2003, pp. 70-75.
  12. ^ a b c Brauner, Reuven (2013). "Shimush Pesukim: Comprehensive Index to Liturgical and Ceremonial Uses of Biblical Verses and Passages" (PDF) (2nd ed.). p. 51.
  13. ^ Scherman 2003, p. 75n.
  14. ^ Nulman 1996, pp. 150–151.
  15. ^ Scherman 1985, p. 464-465.
  16. ^ Scherman 1985, p. 324-325.
  17. ^ Heller 2010, p. 861.
  18. ^ Slifkin, Nosson (2002). "Perek Shirah" (PDF). Zoo Torah. pp. 10, 14. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  19. ^ Weintraub, Rabbi Simkha Y. (2018). "Psalms as the Ultimate Self-Help Tool". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  20. ^ Greenbaum, Rabbi Avraham (2007). "The Ten Psalms: English Translation". azamra.org. Retrieved June 10, 2019.
  21. ^ a b Brown 2017, p. 265.
  22. ^ Voto, Mark De (4 January 2015). "The Hemlines of César Franck's Critics". classical-scene.com. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  23. ^ Human, Dirk J. (January 2011). "'Praise beyond Words': Psalm 150 as grand finale of the crescendo in the Psalter". scielo.oeg. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  24. ^ "Jan Dismas Zelenka: Chvalte Boha silného". AllMusic. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  25. ^ Pamela Dellal Bach Motet Translations / BWV 225 - "Singet dem Herrn ein neues Lied" Emmanuel Music
  26. ^ List of works by Robert Schumann. IMLSP Petrucci Music Library. Accessed March 4, 2019.
  27. ^ Daverio, John (1997). Robert Schumann: Herald of a "New Poetic Age". Oxford University Press. p. 23. ISBN 9780198025214. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  28. ^ Grasberger, Franz. Rickett, Richard, translator. "Foreword", Anton Bruckner: Sämtliche Werke: Band 20 Teil 6: Psalm 150: Studienpartitur, Musikwissenschaftlicher Verlag der Internationalen Bruckner-Gesellschaft, Vienna, 1964.
  29. ^ Free scores of Hymn of Praise (complete) (Felix Mendelssohn) in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
  30. ^ Mortensen, Scott (2002). "Sacred Choral Works". MusicWeb International.
  31. ^ "Psaume 150 (Franck, César)". Petrucci Music Library.
  32. ^ "Zoltán Kodály: Geneva Psalm 150 (A 150. genfi zsoltár), for chorus". AllMusic.
  33. ^ "Psalm 150 (Lewandowski, Louis)". Petrucci Music Library.
  34. ^ "Three Psalms [music] : op. 61 : for low voice with pianoforte accompaniment / Edmund Rubbra". National Library of Australia.
  35. ^ Dibble, Jeremy (2002). Charles Villiers Stanford: Man and Musician. Oxford University Press. p. 470. ISBN 978-0198163831.
  36. ^ Service, Tom (January 21, 2014). "Symphony guide: Stravinsky's Symphony of Psalms". The Guardian.
  37. ^ Lavezzoli, Peter (2001). The King of All, Sir Duke: Ellington and the Artistic Revolution. A&C Black. p. 133. ISBN 978-0826414045.
  38. ^ Hodgson, Peter J. (2013). Benjamin Britten: A Guide to Research. Routledge. p. 100. ISBN 978-1135580308.
  39. ^ "Billboard Album Reviews". Billboard: 74. November 21, 1970. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  40. ^ "Salmo 150 (ssa)". Earthsongs. 2019.
  41. ^ "P.O.D.: The Fundamental Elements of Southtown". AllMusic. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  42. ^ "Psalm 150". Discogs. 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  43. ^ "Ronald Corp". Radio Swiss Classic. 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  44. ^ "Ronald Corp". classical-music.com. November 21, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  45. ^ "III - The Psalm: Tehellim - Psalm 150". Discogs. 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  46. ^ "Vashawn Mitchell – Created4This". Discogs. 2019. Retrieved August 18, 2019.

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