|"Why do the heathen rage"|
Beginning of Psalm 2, in a miniature from Musée Condé. David is represented thanking God who appears in a halo.
Psalm 2 is the second psalm of the Book of Psalms, generally known in English by its first verse, in the King James Version, "Why do the heathen rage". In Latin, it is known as "Quare fremuerunt gentes". Psalm 2 does not identify its author with a superscription. Acts 4:24–26 in the New Testament attributes it to David. According to the Talmud, Psalm 2 is a continuation of Psalm 1.
Background and themes
According to the Talmud (Berakhot 10b), Psalm 2 is a continuation of Psalm 1. Saadia Gaon in his commentary on Psalms notes that Psalm 1 begins with the word "Happy" and the last verse of Psalm 2 ends with the word "Happy", joining them thematically.
According to the Talmud and commentators such as Saadia Gaon, Abraham ibn Ezra, and the Karaite Yefet ben Ali, this psalm is messianic, referring to the advent of the Jewish Messiah who will be preceded by the wars of Gog and Magog. In this vein, the "king" of Psalm 2 is interpreted not as David but as the future King Messiah from the Davidic line, who will restore Israel to its former glory and bring world peace. The Talmud teaches (Sukkah 52a):
Our Rabbis taught: The Holy One, blessed be He, will say to the Messiah, the son of David (May he reveal himself speedily in our days!), "Ask of me anything, and I will give it to you", as it is said, "I will tell of the decree ... this day have I begotten thee. Ask of me and I will give the nations for your inheritance" (Psalms 2:7–8).
Similarly, the Midrash Tehillim teaches:
R. Jonathan said: "Three persons were bidden, 'Ask'—Solomon, Ahaz, and the King Messiah. Solomon: 'Ask what I shall give thee' (I Kings 3:5). Ahaz: 'Ask thee a sign' (Isaiah 7:11). The King Messiah: 'Ask of Me', etc. (Psalms 2:8)."
Rashi and Radak, however, identify the subject of this psalm as David, following his victory over the Philistines. Arenda suggests that Rashi's view was influenced by that of early Christian commentators who interpreted verse 7 as referring to Christ.
Christian writers such as Hermann Gunkel and Hans Joachin Kras see the psalm as a song of the Judean king himself at the festival of his accession, while Hossfeld sees the psalm as merely being influenced by the Egyptian and Hellenistic royal ideology.
Most Christian scholars interpret the subject of the psalm as Jesus Christ and his role as the Messiah. Matthew Henry interprets verses 1–6 are viewed as threats against Christ's kingdom, verses 7–9 as a promise to Christ to be the head of this kingdom, and verses 10–12 as counsel to all to serve Christ. Charles Spurgeon and Adam Clarke similarly interpret the psalm as referring to the opposition against Christ's rulership, the selection of Christ by God as his "own son", and the eventual victory and reign of Christ over his enemies.
Hebrew Bible version
Following is the Hebrew text of Psalm 2:
|1||לָמָּה רָֽגְשׁ֣וּ גוֹיִ֑ם וּ֜לְאֻמִּ֗ים יֶהְגּוּ־רִֽיק|
|2||יִֽתְיַצְּב֨וּ | מַלְכֵי־אֶ֗רֶץ וְרֽוֹזְנִ֥ים נֽוֹסְדוּ־יָ֑חַד עַל־יְ֜הֹוָה וְעַל־מְשִׁיחֽוֹ|
|3||נְֽנַתְּקָה אֶת־מֽוֹסְרוֹתֵ֑ימוֹ וְנַשְׁלִ֖יכָה מִמֶּ֣נּוּ עֲבֹתֵֽימוֹ|
|4||יוֹשֵׁ֣ב בַּשָּׁמַ֣יִם יִשְׂחָ֑ק אֲ֜דֹנָ֗י יִלְעַג־לָֽמוֹ|
|5||אָ֚ז יְדַבֵּ֣ר אֵלֵ֣ימוֹ בְאַפּ֑וֹ וּבַ֖חֲרוֹנ֥וֹ יְבַֽהֲלֵֽמוֹ|
|6||וַֽאֲנִֽי נָסַ֣כְתִּי מַלְכִּ֑י עַל־צִ֜יּ֗וֹן הַר־קָדְשִֽׁי|
|7||אֲסַפְּרָ֗ה אֶ֫ל חֹ֥ק יְהֹוָ֗ה אָמַ֣ר אֵ֖לַי בְּנִ֣י אַ֑תָּה אֲ֜נִ֗י הַיּ֥וֹם יְלִדְתִּֽיךָ|
|8||שְׁאַ֚ל מִמֶּ֗נִּי וְאֶתְּנָ֣ה ג֖וֹיִם נַֽחֲלָתֶ֑ךָ וַֽ֜אֲחֻזָּֽתְךָ֗ אַפְסֵי־אָֽרֶץ|
|9||תְּרֹעֵֽם בְּשֵׁ֣בֶט בַּרְזֶ֑ל כִּכְלִ֖י יוֹצֵ֣ר תְּנַפְּצֵֽם|
|10||וְעַתָּה מְלָכִ֣ים הַשְׂכִּ֑ילוּ הִ֜וָּֽסְר֗וּ שֹׁ֣פְטֵי אָֽרֶץ|
|11||עִבְד֣וּ אֶת־יְהֹוָ֣ה בְּיִרְאָ֑ה וְ֜גִ֗ילוּ בִּרְעָדָֽה|
|12||נַשְּׁקוּ־בַ֡ר פֶּן־יֶאֱנַ֚ף | וְתֹ֬אבְדוּ דֶ֗רֶךְ כִּֽי־יִבְעַ֣ר כִּמְעַ֣ט אַפּ֑וֹ אַ֜שְׁרֵ֗י כָּל־ח֥וֹסֵי בֽוֹ|
King James Version
- Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing?
- The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against his anointed, saying,
- Let us break their bands asunder, and cast away their cords from us.
- He that sitteth in the heavens shall laugh: the Lord shall have them in derision.
- Then shall he speak unto them in his wrath, and vex them in his sore displeasure.
- Yet have I set my king upon my holy hill of Zion.
- I will declare the decree: the Lord hath said unto me, Thou art my Son; this day have I begotten thee.
- Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession.
- Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron; thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel.
- Be wise now therefore, O ye kings: be instructed, ye judges of the earth.
- Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling.
- Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are all they that put their trust in him.
This psalm is also recited to alleviate a headache, and when caught in a sea gale.
Some verses of Psalm 2 are referenced in the New Testament:
- Verses 1-2: in Acts 4:25-26.
- Verse 7: in Acts 13:33; Hebrews 1:5; Hebrews 5:5.
- Verses 8-9: in Revelation 2:26,27; 12:5; 19:15.
According to the Rule of St. Benedict (530 AD), Psalm 1 to Psalm 20 were mainly reserved for the office of Prime. This psalm was chosen by St. Benedict of Nursia for Monday of the office of Prime, in the Rule of St. Benedict of 530 it was recited or sung between Psalm 1 and Psalm 6.
In the Liturgy of the Hours, Psalm 2 is sung or recited in the Office of Readings of the Sunday of the first week, with Psalm 1 and Psalm 3. Every Tuesday, the faithful of Opus Dei, after invoking their Guardian Angel and kissing the rosary, recite Psalm 2 in Latin.
Book of Common Prayer
In France, Pierre Robert compose one grand motet "Quare fremuerunt gentes", for La Chapelle Royale in the Louvre. Marc-Antoine Charpentier set around 1675 one " Quare fremuerunt gentes" H.168 - H.168 a, for soloists, double chorus, strings and continuo, another one, for 3 voices, 2 treble instruments and continuo H.184, around 1682. Michel-Richard de Lalande in 1706 made his grand motet (S70) on this Psalm. Jean-Baptiste Lully did the same.
References in Second Temple Jewish Literature
Dead Sea Scrolls
- 4Q174: This text, also called 4QFlorilegium, is an explanation (pesher) on several Messianic texts. It reads, “‘Why do the nations conspire, and the peoples plot in vain? The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together against the LORD and His anointed’ [Ps 2:1]. The meaning is that the nations shall set themselves and conspire vainly against the chosen of Israel in the Last Days."
- 1QSA: This reference is debated, and either states "When God has fathered [יולד] the Messiah among them" or "When God has caused the Messiah to come [יולך] among them." If the former, it is likely a reference to Ps 2:7.
There is 1 clear reference to Psalm 2 in 1 Enoch, found in 1En. 48:8-10. This text states that "downcast will be the faces of the kings of the earth" who have "denied the Lord of Spirits and his anointed one." The phrase "kings of the earth" and "Lord...and his anointed one" point back to Ps 2:2.
Psalms of Solomon
Psalm of Solomon 17 contains a number of shared themes and likely allusions to Psalm 2, including one clear reference to Psalm 2:9, found in Ps. Sol. 17:23-24. Those verses read, "To smash the arrogance of the sinner like a potter’s vessel, to shatter all their substance with an iron rod." Additionally, the phrase "the peoples of the nations to be subject to him under his yoke" may look back to Psalm 2:2.
English-speaking Protestant Christians commonly (but not always) translate verse 12 as "Kiss the son", as in the King James Version. The most common Jewish interpretation is "Embrace purity", an interpretation close to that of Catholics, who traditionally follow the Vulgate and translate the phrase as "Embrace discipline". To translate as "Kiss the son", the word "bar" must be read as Aramaic ("son", but in Hebrew, "son" is "ben") rather than Hebrew ("purity") or Septuagint and Vulgate "discipline", "training", "teaching". (The New American Bible reconciles by combining verses 11 and 12 of the other Bibles into a whole new verse 11.) Some Jewish authors have accused Protestant Christians of arbitrarily choosing to interpret the word as in a different language to give the text a meaning more favourable to Christians ("son", understood as Jesus). Protestants, however, cite other places in the Bible with isolated Aramaic words found in Hebrew like the same word "bar" occurring in Proverbs 31:2.
- "Parallel Latin/English Psalter / Psalmus 2". Archived from the original on 2017-09-30. Retrieved 2019-09-19.
- Acts 4:24–26
- Abramowitz, Rabbi Jack (2018). "Psalms – Chapter 2". Orthodox Union. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
- Aranda, Mariano Gomez (2018). "Medieval Jewish Exegesis of Psalm 2" (PDF). Journal of Hebrew Scriptures. 18. doi:10.5508/jhs.2018.v18.a3.
- Soncino Talmud edition. Online here
- Soncino Midrash Rabbah (vol. 1, pp. 365–366)
- "Midrash Tehillim / Psalms 2" (PDF). matsati.com. 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
- Gunkel, Hermann: Die Psalmen, (Göttingen 1926), p5.
- "Hans-Joachim Kraus, Psalmen 1–63. 1. Teilband, (Neukirchen-Vluyn 1972), p13f.
- siehe Hossfeld, Frank-Lothar und Erich Zenger: Die Psalmen, Bd. 1, Psalm 1–50, (Würzburg 1993), p50.
- Henry, Matthew (2019). "Psalms 2". Bible Study Tools. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
- Spurgeon, Charles (2019). "Psalm 2 Bible Commentary". Christianity.com. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
- "Adam Clarke Commentary: Psalms 2". Study Light. 2019. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
- Brauner, Reuven (2013). "Shimush Pesukim: Comprehensive Index to Liturgical and Ceremonial Uses of Biblical Verses and Passages" (PDF) (2nd ed.). p. 31. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
- "Illness, Travel". Daily Tehillim. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
- Kirkpatrick, A. F. (1901). The Book of Psalms: with Introduction and Notes. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Book IV and V: Psalms XC-CL. Cambridge: At the University Press. p. 838. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
- traduction par Prosper Guéranger,Règle de saint Benoît, (Abbaye Saint-Pierre de Solesmes, réimpression en 2007).
- The main cycle of liturgical prayers takes place over four weeks.
- De spiritu et de piis servandis consuetudinibus – (Del Espíritu y de las Costumbres, Roma, 1990) édition- n° 116.
- Church of England, Book of Common Prayer: The Psalter as printed by John Baskerville in 1762
- The Dead Sea scrolls : a new translation. Wise, Michael Owen, 1954-, Abegg, Martin G., Jr., Cook, Edward M., 1952- (Revised ed.). [San Francisco]. 2005-10-25. ISBN 006076662X. OCLC 60341070.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Collins, John J. (2009-01-01). "The Interpretation Of Psalm 2". Echoes from the Caves: Qumran and the New Testament: 49–66. doi:10.1163/ej.9789004176966.i-350.13. ISBN 9789047430407.
- 1 Enoch : the Hermeneia translation. Nickelsburg, George W. E., 1934-, VanderKam, James C. (rev. ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press. 2012. ISBN 9781451424379. OCLC 840417499.CS1 maint: others (link)
- Janse, Sam. You Are My Son. pp. 55–68.
- Psalms of Solomon 17:23-24, New English Translation of the Septuagint
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-21. Retrieved 2012-12-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Parsons, John J. "Psalm 2 in Hebrew". Hebrew for Christians.
- "12. Objections to 2nd and 22nd Psalm". truth.net.
- "Jewish Interpretations of "Bar" as "Son" in Psalm 2:12". Jews for Jesus. 1997.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Psalm 2.|
- Pieces with text from Psalm 2: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Psalm 2: Free scores at the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
- Text of Psalm 2 according to the 1928 Psalter
- Psalms Chapter 2 text in Hebrew and English, mechon-mamre.org
- Why do the nations protest and the peoples conspire in vain? text and footnotes, usccb.org United States Conference of Catholic Bishops
- Psalm 2:1 introduction and text, biblestudytools.com
- Psalm 2 – The Reign of the LORD‘s Anointed enduringword.com
- Psalm 2 / Refrain: The Lord is the strength of his people, a safe refuge for his anointed. Church of England
- Psalm 2 at biblegateway.com
- Hymns for Psalm 2 hymnary.org