- V. 2-9: Healing Historical Review.
- from 10-23: describing the current disaster.
- V. 24-27: Final request for termination of the disaster through the intervention of God.
In Jewish traditions, its viewed as suffering in the face of the golden past, all the more shows the plight of the current situation.
- Verse 9 is found in the repetition of the Amidah during Rosh Hashanah.
- Parts of verses 14 and 23 form a verse found in the long Tachanun recited on Mondays and Thursdays.
- Verse 27 is the sixth verse of Hoshia Et Amecha in Pesukei Dezimra.
This Psalm reflects each of five key elements of a lament, or complaint, Psalm:
- Address: Verse 1
"We have heard with our ears, O God, our ancestors have told us, what deeds you performed in their days, in the days of old" (44:1) In this case, the Psalmist is speaking directly to God.
- Complaint: verses 9-16, 17-19
In these verses, the Psalmist laments that God has been slow to act and has a responsibility to save these people from their enemies.
- Statement of trust in the reliability of God as known by the Psalmist or community: verses 4-8
The Psalmist recites a history of God's saving acts, which includes reference to God commanding victories for Jacob.
- Petition for God's active intervention: verses 23-26
These petitions can be quite specific. In verse 26, the Psalmist gives a direct command to God to "Rise up, come to our help."
- Vow of Thanksgiving: verse 8
This particular Psalm includes a brief vow of thanksgiving in verse 8, when the Psalmist writes "In God we have boasted continually, and we will give thanks to your name forever" (44:8)
A note about superscripts
Its superscript reads "To the Leader. Of the Korahites. A Maskil". It is addressed to the leader of the Korahites, who were likely a group of people who played a role in the music or worship of the temple. The term "Maskil" means "artistic song" and its inclusion in the superscript of this Psalm indicates that it was originally written with artistic skill.
- Commentaires sur les psaumes, d’Hilaire de Poitiers, (Paris, Éditions du Cerf, 2008), collection sources chrétiennes n°515,
- Commentaires of the Psalmes, by saint Johnn Chrysostome
- Discourse of the Psalmes, by Saint Augustin, vol.2,(Sagesses chrétiennes)
- Commentairy (jusqu’au psaume 54), by saint Thomas Aquinas, (Éditions du Cerf, 1273)
- Jean Calvin, Commentaire des psalmes, 1557
- So von Gianfranco Ravasi: Il libro dei Salmi. Bd. I, (Bologna 1981), p. 782.
- Erich Zenger: Die Psalmen I. Psalm 1–50 Echter-Verlag, (Würzburg 1993), p271,
- Peter Craigie: Psalms 1–50., (Waco 1983), p332.
- Hermann Gunkel: Die Psalmen, (61986), S. 186.
- The Complete Artscroll Machzor for Rosh Hashanah page 351
- D’après le Complete Artscroll Siddur, compilation des prières juives.
- The Complete Artscroll Siddur, page 133
- The Complete Artscroll Siddur, page 64
- Michael D. Coogan, A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament (New York: Oxford, 2009), 370
- Miller, P.D., Harper Collins Study Bible, 2006, 734-735
- Miller, 758