Psalm 51

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Psalm 51
"Have mercy upon me, O God"
Penitential Psalm
Holy Water Font.jpg
Latin text on a holy water font: see verse 9 below.
Other name
  • Psalm 50
  • "Miserere mei, Deus"
LanguageHebrew (original)

Psalm 51 is the 51st psalm of the Book of Psalms, in English known by its first verse in the King James Version, "Have mercy upon me, O God". In the Greek Septuagint version of the bible, and the Latin Vulgate, this psalm is Psalm 50 in a slightly different numbering system. In Latin, it is known as Miserere,[1] (Ancient Greek: ἐλέησόν με ὁ θεός, romanizedeléēsón me ho theós) in Ancient Greek:  Ἥ Ἐλεήμων, romanizedHḗ Eleḗmōn), especially in musical settings. Psalm 51 is one of the penitential psalms.[2] It is traditionally said[by whom?] to have been composed by David[3] as a confession to God after he sinned with Bathsheba.

The psalm is a regular part of Jewish, Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Protestant liturgies.

Background and themes[edit]

Psalm 51 is based on the incident recorded in 2 Samuel, chapters 11–12.[4] David's confession is regarded as a model for repentance in both Judaism and Christianity.[5][6][7]

The Midrash Tehillim states that one who acknowledges that he has sinned and is fearful and prays to God about it, as David did, will be forgiven. But one who tries to ignore his sin will be punished by God.[8] The Talmud (Yoma 86b) cites verse 5 in the Hebrew, "My sin is always before me", as a reminder to the penitent to maintain continual vigilance in the area in which he transgressed, even after he has confessed and been absolved.[9]

Spurgeon says Psalm 51 is called "The Sinner's Guide", as it shows the sinner how to return to God's grace.[10] Athanasius would recommend that this chapter be recited each night by some of his disciples.[10] According to James Montgomery Boice, this psalm was recited by both Thomas More and Lady Jane Grey at their executions.[4]

Verse 19 in the Hebrew states that God desires a "broken and contrite heart" more than he does sacrificial offerings. The idea of using brokenheartedness as a way to reconnect to God was emphasized in numerous teachings by Rebbe Nachman of Breslov.[11] In Sichot HaRan #41 he taught: "It would be very good to be brokenhearted all day. But for the average person, this can easily degenerate into depression. You should therefore set aside some time each day for heartbreak. You should isolate yourself with a broken heart before God for a given time. But the rest of the day you should be joyful".[11]

Parallels between Psalm 51 and the Ancient Egyptian ritual text Opening of the mouth ceremony have been pointed out by scholar Benjamin Urrutia. These include:[12]

  • Mentions of ritual washing with special herbs (verses 2, 7)
  • Restoration of broken bones (verse 8)
  • "O Lord, open my lips" (verse 15)
  • Sacrifices (verses 16, 17, 19)

Text[edit]

Following is the Hebrew text [13] of Psalm 51:[14]

Verse Hebrew Latin (Neo-Vulgate)
1 לַֽ֜מְנַצֵּ֗חַ מִזְמ֥וֹר לְדָוִֽד Magistro chori. Psalmus. David,
2 בְּב֣וֹא אֵ֖לָיו נָתָ֣ן הַנָּבִ֑יא כַּֽאֲשֶׁר־בָּ֜֗א אֶל־בַּת־שָֽׁבַע cum venit ad eum Nathan propheta, postquam cum Bethsabee peccavit
3 חָנֵּ֣נִי אֱלֹהִ֣ים כְּחַסְדֶּ֑ךָ כְּרֹ֥ב רַֽ֜חֲמֶ֗יךָ מְחֵ֣ה פְשָׁעָֽי Miserere mei, Deus, secundum misericordiam tuam; et secundum multitudinem miserationum tuarum dele iniquitatem meam
4 הֶֽרֶב כַּבְּסֵ֣נִי מֵֽעֲו‍ֹנִ֑י וּמֵ֖חַטָּאתִ֣י טַֽהֲרֵֽנִי Amplius lava me ab iniquitate mea et a peccato meo munda me
5 כִּֽי־פְ֖שָׁעַי אֲנִ֣י אֵדָ֑ע וְחַטָּאתִ֖י נֶגְדִּ֣י תָמִֽיד Quoniam iniquitatem meam ego cognosco, et peccatum meum contra me est semper.
6 לְךָ֚ לְבַדְּךָ֨ | חָטָ֗אתִי וְהָרַ֥ע בְּעֵינֶ֗יךָ עָ֫שִׂ֥יתִי לְמַעַֽן־תִּצְדַּ֥ק בְּדָבְרֶ֑ךָ תִּזְכֶּ֥ה בְשָׁפְטֶֽךָ Tibi, tibi soli peccavi et malum coram te feci, ut iustus inveniaris in sententia tua et æquus in iudicio tuo
7 הֵן־בְּעָו֥וֹן חוֹלָ֑לְתִּי וּ֜בְחֵ֗טְא יֶֽחֱמַ֥תְנִי אִמִּֽי Ecce enim in iniquitate generatus sum, et in peccato concepit me mater mea
8 הֵ֣ן אֱ֖מֶת חָפַ֣צְתָּ בַטֻּח֑וֹת וּ֜בְסָתֻ֗ם חָכְמָ֥ה תוֹדִיעֵֽנִי Ecce enim veritatem in corde dilexisti et in occulto sapientiam manifestasti mihi
9 תְּחַטְּאֵ֣נִי בְאֵז֣וֹב וְאֶטְהָ֑ר תְּ֜כַבְּסֵ֗נִי וּמִשֶּׁ֥לֶג אַלְבִּֽין Asperges me hyssopo, et mundabor; lavabis me, et super nivem dealbabor.
10 תַּשְׁמִיעֵנִי שָׂשׂ֣וֹן וְשִׂמְחָ֑ה תָּ֜גֵ֗לְנָה עֲצָמ֥וֹת דִּכִּֽיתָ Audire me facies gaudium et lætitiam, et exsultabunt ossa, quæ contrivisti
11 הַסְתֵּ֣ר פָּ֖נֶיךָ מֵֽחֲטָאָ֑י וְכָל־עֲוֹ֖נֹתַ֣י מְחֵֽה Averte faciem tuam a peccatis meis et omnes iniquitates meas dele
12 לֵ֣ב טָ֖הוֹר בְּרָא־לִ֣י אֱלֹהִ֑ים וְר֥וּחַ נָ֜כ֗וֹן חַדֵּ֥שׁ בְּקִרְבִּֽי Cor mundum crea in me, Deus, et spiritum firmum innova in visceribus meis.
13 אַל־תַּשְׁלִיכֵ֥נִי מִלְּפָנֶ֑יךָ וְר֥וּחַ קָ֜דְשְׁךָ֗ אַל־תִּקַּ֥ח מִמֶּֽנִּי Ne proicias me a facie tua et spiritum sanctum tuum ne auferas a me
14 הָשִׁ֣יבָה לִּ֖י שְׂשׂ֣וֹן יִשְׁעֶ֑ךָ וְר֥וּחַ נְדִיבָ֣ה תִסְמְכֵֽנִי Redde mihi lætitiam salutaris tui et spiritu promptissimo confirma me
15 אֲלַמְּדָ֣ה פֹֽשְׁעִ֣ים דְּרָכֶ֑יךָ וְ֜חַטָּאִ֗ים אֵלֶ֥יךָ יָשֽׁוּבוּ Docebo iniquos vias tuas, et impii ad te convertentur
16 הַצִּילֵ֚נִי מִדָּמִ֨ים | אֱֽלֹהִ֗ים אֱלֹהֵ֥י תְשׁוּעָתִ֑י תְּרַנֵּ֥ן לְ֜שׁוֹנִ֗י צִדְקָתֶֽךָ Libera me de sanguinibus, Deus, Deus salutis meæ, et exsultabit lingua mea iustitiam tuam
17 אֲדֹנָי שְׂפָתַ֣י תִּפְתָּ֑ח וּ֜פִ֗י יַגִּ֥יד תְּהִלָּתֶֽךָ Domine, labia mea aperies, et os meum annuntiabit laudem tuam
18 כִּ֚י | לֹא־תַחְפֹּ֣ץ זֶ֣בַח וְאֶתֵּ֑נָה ע֜וֹלָ֗ה לֹ֣א תִרְצֶֽה Non enim sacrificio delectaris; holocaustum, si offeram, non placebit
19 זִֽבְחֵ֣י אֱלֹהִים֘ ר֪וּחַ נִשְׁבָּ֫רָ֥ה לֵב־נִשְׁבָּ֥ר וְנִדְכֶּ֑ה אֱ֜לֹהִ֗ים לֹ֣א תִבְזֶֽה Sacrificium Deo spiritus contribulatus; cor contritum et humiliatum, Deus, non despicies
20 הֵיטִ֣יבָה בִֽ֖רְצֽוֹנְךָ אֶת־צִיּ֑וֹן תִּ֜בְנֶ֗ה חוֹמ֥וֹת יְרֽוּשָׁלִָֽם Benigne fac, Domine, in bona voluntate tua Sion, ut ædificentur muri Ierusalem
21 אָ֚ז תַּחְפֹּ֣ץ זִבְחֵי־צֶ֖דֶק עוֹלָ֣ה וְכָלִ֑יל אָ֚ז יַֽעֲל֖וּ עַל־מִזְבַּֽחֲךָ֣ פָרִֽים Tunc acceptabis sacrificium iustitiæ, oblationes et holocausta; tunc imponent super altare tuum vitulos

King James Version[edit]

  1. Have mercy upon me, O God, according to thy lovingkindness: according unto the multitude of thy tender mercies blot out my transgressions.
  2. Wash me throughly from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin.
  3. For I acknowledge my transgressions: and my sin is ever before me.
  4. Against thee, thee only, have I sinned, and done this evil in thy sight: that thou mightest be justified when thou speakest, and be clear when thou judgest.
  5. Behold, I was shapen in iniquity; and in sin did my mother conceive me.
  6. Behold, thou desirest truth in the inward parts: and in the hidden part thou shalt make me to know wisdom.
  7. Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean: wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.
  8. Make me to hear joy and gladness; that the bones which thou hast broken may rejoice.
  9. Hide thy face from my sins, and blot out all mine iniquities.
  10. Create in me a clean heart, O God; and renew a right spirit within me.
  11. Cast me not away from thy presence; and take not thy holy spirit from me.
  12. Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation; and uphold me with thy free spirit.
  13. Then will I teach transgressors thy ways; and sinners shall be converted unto thee.
  14. Deliver me from bloodguiltiness, O God, thou God of my salvation: and my tongue shall sing aloud of thy righteousness.
  15. O Lord, open thou my lips; and my mouth shall shew forth thy praise.
  16. For thou desirest not sacrifice; else would I give it: thou delightest not in burnt offering.
  17. The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit: a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise.
  18. Do good in thy good pleasure unto Zion: build thou the walls of Jerusalem.
  19. Then shalt thou be pleased with the sacrifices of righteousness, with burnt offering and whole burnt offering: then shall they offer bullocks upon thine altar.

Uses[edit]

Judaism[edit]

Several verses from Psalm 51 are regular parts of Jewish liturgy. Verses (in Hebrew) 3, 4, 9, 13, 19, 20, and 21 are said in Selichot. Verses 9, 12, and 19 are said during Tefillat Zakkah prior to the Kol Nidrei service on Yom Kippur eve. Verse 17, "O Lord, open my lips", is recited as a preface to the Amidah in all prayer services. Verse 20 is said by Ashkenazi Jews before the removal of the Sefer Torah from the ark on Shabbat and Yom Tov morning; it is also said in the Atah Horaisa ("You have been shown") prayer recited before opening the ark on Simchat Torah.[15] In the Sephardi liturgy, Psalm 51 is one of the additional psalms recited on Yom Kippur night.[16]

Verse 4 is part of the Ushpizin ceremony on Sukkot.[15]

In the Siddur Avodas Yisroel, Psalm 51 is the Song of the Day for Shabbat Parah and Shabbat Ki Tavo. This psalm is also said on Wednesday nights after the recital of Aleinu in Maariv.[15]

The entire psalm is part of Tikkun Chatzot.[17] It is also recited as a prayer for forgiveness.[18]

New Testament[edit]

Verse 4 is quoted in Romans 3:4[19]

Eastern Orthodox[edit]

The most frequently used psalm in the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches, Psalm 50 (Septuagint numbering) it is called in the Greek language  Ἥ Ἐλεήμων He Eleḯmon, and begins in Greek  Ἐλέησόν με, ὁ Θεός Eléïsón me, o Theós.

In the Daily Office it is recited in each of three aggregates (evening, morning and noonday).

In the Divine Liturgy it is recited by the deacon while he censing the entire church at the conclusion of the Proskomedie, which is also known as killing Satan. It is also a part of many sacraments and other services, notably, as a penitential psalm, during the Mystery of Repentance.

In the Agpeya, Coptic Church's book of hours, it is recited at every office throughout the day as a prayer of confession and repentance.

Catholic Church[edit]

In Western Christianity, Psalm 51 (using the Masoretic numbering) is also used liturgically.

In the Roman Catholic Church this psalm may be assigned by a priest to a penitent as a penance after Confession. Verse 7 of the psalm is traditionally sung as the priest sprinkles holy water over the congregation before Mass, in a rite known as the Asperges me, the first two words of the verse in Latin. This reference lends a striking significance to the Mass as Sacrifice, given that Hyssop was used for the smearing of blood on the lintels at the first Passover.

In the Divine Office, it was traditionally said at Lauds on all ferias; the 1911 reform restricted this use to the ferias of Advent and Lent. It is otherwise said as part of the weekly cycle on Wednesday at Matins. In the Liturgy of the Hours, it is prayed during Lauds (Morning Prayer) every Friday.

A section of verse 17 is often used as the invitatory antiphon the Liturgy of the Hours.

Parts of Psalm 51 are used as a responsorial psalm in both the Revised Common Lectionary and the Roman Catholic Lectionary on Ash Wednesday and on other days.

In English common law[edit]

The Miserere was used for centuries as a judicial test of reading ability. This practice began as a means by which a defendant could claim to be a clergyman, and thus subject only to ecclesiastical courts and not subject to the power of civil courts. This was called pleading the benefit of clergy. The Biblical passage traditionally used for the literacy test was the first verse of Psalm 51. Thus, an illiterate person who had memorized this psalm could also claim the benefit of clergy, and Psalm 51 became known as the "neck-verse" because knowing it could save one's neck by transferring one's case from a secular court, where hanging was a likely sentence, to an ecclesiastical court, where both the methods of trial and the sentences given were more lenient, for example, a sentence of penance.[20]

Musical settings[edit]

The Miserere was a frequently used text in Catholic liturgical music before the Second Vatican Council. Most of the settings, which are often used at Tenebrae, are in a simple falsobordone style. During the Renaissance many composers wrote settings. The earliest known polyphonic setting, probably dating from the 1480s, is by Johannes Martini, a composer working in the Este court in Ferrara.[21] The extended polyphonic setting by Josquin des Prez, probably written in 1503/1504 in Ferrara, was likely inspired by the prison meditation Infelix ego by Girolamo Savonarola, who had been burned at the stake just five years before. Later in the 16th century Orlande de Lassus wrote an elaborate setting as part of his Penitential Psalms, and Palestrina, Andrea Gabrieli, Giovanni Gabrieli, and Carlo Gesualdo also wrote settings.[22] Antonio Vivaldi may have written a setting or settings, but such composition(s) have been lost, with only two introductory motets remaining.

One of the best-known settings of the Miserere is the 17th century version by Roman School composer Gregorio Allegri.[23] According to a famous story, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, aged only fourteen, heard the piece performed once, on April 11, 1770, and after going back to his lodging for the night was able to write out the entire score from memory.[23] He went back a day or two later with his draft to correct some errors.[24] That the final chorus comprises a ten-part harmony underscores the prodigiousness of the young Mozart's musical genius. The piece is also noteworthy in having been transcribed erroneously by William Smith Rockstro as having numerous high Cs in the treble part.[25] This interpolated version is nevertheless extremely popular and widely recorded.

4 Settings were also written by Marc-Antoine Charpentier (H.157, H.173, H.219, H.193). Other contributions by Michel-Richard de Lalande, André Campra, Costanzo Festa, Johann Sebastian Bach, Giovanni Battista Pergolesi and Saverio Selecchy.

Modern composers who have written notable settings of the Miserere include Michael Nyman, Arvo Pärt, and James MacMillan. References in secular popular music include the Antestor song "Mercy Lord", from the album Martyrium (1994), "In Manus Tuas" (Salvation 2003) by the group Funeral Mist, "White As Snow" (Winter 2008) by Jon Foreman, the song "Restore To Me" by Mac Powell and Candi Pearson-Shelton from Glory Revealed (2007). Bukas Palad Music Ministry includes their version of "Miserere" in their album "Christify" (2010).

Verses 12-13 have been set to music as a popular Jewish inspirational song.[by whom?][year needed][26] Titled Lev Tahor ("A pure heart"), this song is commonly sung at Seudah Shlishit (the third Shabbat meal).[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Parallel Latin/English Psalter / Psalmus 50 for (51) Archived 7 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine medievalist.net
  2. ^ Freedman, David Noel, ed. (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. p. 1093. ISBN 9789053565032.
  3. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia". Catholic Online. Your Catholic Voice Foundation. Retrieved 11 November 2020.
  4. ^ a b Guzik, David (2018). "Psalm 51 – Restoration of a Broken and Contrite King". Enduring Word. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  5. ^ Conservative Yeshiva Online. "King David – A Model for Teshuva?". sefaria.org. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  6. ^ Wellman, Jack (23 September 2015). "Psalm 51 Commentary and Bible Study". Patheos. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  7. ^ "Luther on the Psalm 51 by Pless". logia.org. 10 April 2017. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  8. ^ "Midrash Tehillim / Psalms 51" (PDF). matsati.com. October 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  9. ^ Abramowitz, Rabbi Jack (2018). "Psalms – Chapter 51". Orthodox Union. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  10. ^ a b Spurgeon, Charles. "Psalm 51:1". Bible Study Tools. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  11. ^ a b "The Difference Between Heartbreak and Depression". breslov.org. 6 May 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  12. ^ Urrutia, Benjamin (1982), "Psalm 51 and the 'Opening of the Mouth' Ceremony", Scripta Hierosolymitana, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 28: 222–223
  13. ^ "The Complete Tanakh (Tanach) - Hebrew Bible - The Jewish Bible with a Modern English Translation and Rashi's Commentary". www.chabad.org. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
  14. ^ "Tehillim - Psalms - Chapter 51". Chabad.org. 2018. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  15. ^ a b c Brauner, Reuven (2013). "Shimush Pesukim: Comprehensive Index to Liturgical and Ceremonial Uses of Biblical Verses and Passages" (PDF) (2nd ed.). pp. 38–39.
  16. ^ Nulman, Macy (1996). The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer: The Ashkenazic and Sephardic Rites. Jason Aronson. p. 317. ISBN 1461631246.
  17. ^ Gonzales, Shmuel, ed. (December 2010). "Tikkun Chatzot - The Midnight Rite" (PDF). Open Siddur Project. p. 11. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  18. ^ "Repentance". Daily Tehillim. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  19. ^ Kirkpatrick, A. F. (1901). The Book of Psalms: with Introduction and Notes. The Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges. Book IV and V: Psalms XC-CL. Cambridge: At the University Press. p. 839. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  20. ^ See Mullaney v. Wilbur, 421 U.S. 684, 692-93, 44 L.Ed.2d 508, 515-16, 95 S.Ct. 1881, 1886; (1975).
  21. ^ Macey, p. 185
  22. ^ Caldwell, Grove
  23. ^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Allegri, Gregorio" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 690.
  24. ^ Sadie, Grove; Boorman, Grove
  25. ^ https://www.earlymusicsources.com/youtube/falsobordone Early Music Sources/Elam Rotem
  26. ^ Weintraub, Rabbi Simkha Y. (2018). "Psalms as the Ultimate Self-Help Tool". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  27. ^ "Lev Tahor". Zemirot Database. Retrieved November 27, 2018.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]