Psammosteidae

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Psammosteidae
Temporal range: 416–359 Ma
Early to Late Devonian
Drepanaspis gemuendina.jpg
Drepanaspis gemuendina and Tiaraspis subtilis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Class: Agnatha
Order: Heterostraci
Family: Psammosteidae
Genera

Psammosteidae is an extinct family of flattened, benthic heterostracan vertebrates that lived in marine and estuary environments in Europe, Russia & North America. They arose during the Early Devonian, with the first (and best) known genus, Drepanaspis from the Hunsrück lagerstätte. The Psammosteids were the only heterostracans that survived the Upper Frasnian extinction event during the Late Devonian, dying out in the extinction event at the very end of the Devonian.

Life reconstruction of Psammolepis venyukovi

Many of the Late Devonian genera, such as Psammolepis, were among the largest heterostracans ever, growing to be at least 1.5 metres in width.

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