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Pseudo-Plutarch is the conventional name given to the actual, but unknown, authors of a number of pseudepigrapha (falsely attributed works) attributed to Plutarch but now known to have not been written by him.

Some of these works were included in some editions of Plutarch's Moralia. Among these are:

  • the Lives of the Ten Orators (Ancient Greek: Βίοι τῶν δέκα ῥητόρων; Latin: Vitae decem oratorum), biographies of the Ten Orators of ancient Athens, based on Caecilius of Calacte, possibly deriving from a common source with the Lives of Photius
  • The Doctrines of the Philosophers (Ancient Greek: Περὶ τῶν ἀρεσκόντων φιλοσόφοις φυσικῶν δογμάτων; Latin: Placita Philosophorum)[1]
  • De Musica (On Music)
  • Greek and Roman Parallel Stories (Ancient Greek: Διηγήσεις Παράλληλοι Ἑλληνικαὶ καὶ Ῥωμαϊκαί), also known as the Parallela Minora[2] (Minor Parallels)
  • Pro Nobilitate (Noble Lineage)[3]
  • De fluviis[4] (On Rivers/About the Names of Rivers and Mountains; Greek: Περὶ ποταμῶν καὶ ὀρῶν ἐπωνυμίας)
  • De Homero (On Homer)
  • De Unius in Re Publica Dominatione (On the Rule of One in the Republic)
  • Consolatio ad Apollonium (Consolation to Apollonius)

These works date to slightly later than Plutarch, but almost all of them date to Late Antiquity (3rd to 4th century AD). D. Blank has recently shown that Pro Nobilitate was written by Arnoul Le Ferron (Arnoldus Ferronus) and first published in 1556.[3]

One pseudepigraphal philosophical work, De Fato (On Fate; included in editions of Plutarch's Moralia), is thought to be a 2nd-century Middle Platonic work.

Stromateis (Στρωματεῖς, "Patchwork"), an important source for pre-Socratic philosophy, is also falsely ascribed to Plutarch.[5]

Some works ascribed to Plutarch are likely of medieval origin, such as the "Letter to Trajan."


  1. ^ The writer of this work depended on the (lost) work of the Peripatetic philosopher Aetius (see John Burnet (3rd edition, 1920), Early Greek Philosophy: Section B: Note on the Sources Archived 2009-02-16 at the Wayback Machine).
  2. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch. The Parallela Minora (Parallela Graeca et Romana). republished online from Vol. IV of the Loeb Classical Library edition, 1936. Retrieved December 14, 2016. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help)
  3. ^ a b Blank, D. (2011). Martínez, J. (ed.). 'Plutarch' and the Sophistry of 'Noble Lineage'. Madrid: Ediciones Clásicas. pp. 33–60. ISBN 978-84-7882-725-1. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  4. ^ "Plutarch". The Mineralogical Record - Library. Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
  5. ^ Marietta, Don E. (1998). Introduction to Ancient Philosophy. M.E. Sharpe. p. 190. ISBN 9780765602152.


  • Aalders G. J. D. "Plutarch or Pseudo-Plutarch? The authorship of De unius in re publica dominatione" Mnemosyne XXXV (1982):72-83.
  • Boscherini, S. 1985 "A proposito della tradizione del Pro nobilitate pseudo-plutarcheo" in R. Cardini, E. Garin, L. C. Martinelli, G. Pascucci, eds., Tradizione classica e letteratura umanistica. Per Alessandro Perosa. Vol.I. II. (Humanistica.3.4.). (Roma): 651-660.
  • Conti Bizzarro, Ferruccio "Note a Ps.-Plutarch. de musica" MCr 29 (1994): 259-261.
  • Hillgruber, Michael 1994 Die pseudoplutarchische Schrift De Homero. (Stuttgart).
  • Jurado, E.A. Ramos "Quaestiones ps.-Plutarcheae" in Pérez Jimenez 1990:123-126.
  • Seeliger, Friedrich Konrad 1874 De Dionysio Halicarnassensi Plutarchi qui vulgo fertur in vitis decem oratorum auctore. Dissertation—Leipzig. (Budissae).
  • Smith, Rebekah M. 1992 "Photius on the ten orators" GRBS 33: 59-189.
  • Tieleman, Teun 1991 "Diogenes of Babylon and Stoic embryology: Ps. Plutarch, Plac. V 15.4 reconsidered." Mnemosyne 44:106-125.

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