Pseudo-anglicism

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Pseudo-anglicisms are words in languages other than English which were borrowed from English but are used in a way native English speakers would not readily recognize or understand. Pseudo-anglicisms often take the form of compound words, combining elements of multiple English words to create a new word that appears to be English but is unrecognisable to a native speaker of English. It is also common for a genuine English word to be used to mean something completely different from its original meaning.

Pseudo-anglicisms are related to false friends or false cognates. Many speakers of a language which employs pseudo-anglicisms believe that the relevant words are genuine anglicisms and can be used in English, which may cause misunderstandings.

When many English words are incorporated into many languages, language enthusiasts and purists often look down on this phenomenon, terming it (depending on the importing language) Denglisch, Franglais or similar neologisms.

In various languages[edit]

Multiple languages[edit]

  • Air-Condition (German, Greek, Serbo-Croatian, Swedish) – air conditioning
  • Apart (Japanese アパート, Korean 아파트) – apartment
  • Autostop (or in some languages stop) (Bulgarian, Czech, French, Greek, Hungarian, Italian,[1] Polish, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovak, Spanish, Turkish) – hitchhiking
  • Basket (Arabic, Danish, French, Indonesian, Italian,[2] Greek, Persian, Serbo-Croatian (one-hoop variant), Spanish, Swedish, Turkish) – basketball
  • Baskets (French, Romanian) – sneakers
  • Beamer (Dutch, German, Romanian) – (digital) video projector
  • Beefsteak (French bifteck, Spanish bistec, Serbo-Croatian, Turkish biftek) – from beefsteak, but steak in general
  • Beauty farm (Dutch, German Beauty-Farm and Beautyfarm, Italian[3]) – spa
  • Black Music (French, German) – urban music
  • Body (Hungarian, Turkish) – bodybuilding
  • Body (for dancing) (German, Finnish, French, Italian,[4] Romanian) – leotard
  • Body (for infants) (German, Finnish, French, Italian,[4] Polish, Spanish, Turkish badi, Serbo-Croatian bodi) – infant bodysuit
  • Body (Estonian, Serbo-Croatian, Swedish) – bodysuit
  • Box (for toddlers) (Dutch, Italian) – playpen
  • Box (for vehicles) (French, Italian) – garage
  • Box (in motorsports) (German, Italian, Croatian variety of Serbo-Croatian, Spanish) – place on a race track where pit stops are conducted
  • Break (French, Romanian brec) – station wagon (American English) or estate car (British English) – cf. shooting-brake
  • Camera (Greek, Vietnamese, Russian, Polish kamera) – camcorder
  • Camping (Croatian variety of Serbo-Croatian, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Italian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Spanish) – campsite
  • Camping-car (French, Japanese キャンピングカー) – campervan or "recreational vehicle"
  • Car (French, Swiss German) – coach, tour bus or inter-city bus
  • Catch (French; now considered old-fashioned in German and Italian) – professional wrestling
  • Classic music (Japanese クラシック音楽, Korean 클래식 음악, Turkish klasik müzik) – classical music
  • Clip (most languages) – short film
  • Closet (Serbo-Croatian, Russian, Turkish klozet) – watercloset
  • Coffee (some Arabic dialects) – café
  • Cornflakes (Arabic, Greek, Turkish) – any breakfast cereal
  • Cunning (Japanese カンニング, Korean 커닝) – cheating
  • Dancing (Belgian Dutch, French, Italian, Polish) – dance hall or dancing-house or nightclub
  • Discount (Diskont) (German, Polish, Serbo-Croatian) – a store
  • Dress (Estonian, Serbo-Croatian, Polish) – athletic garments
  • Evergreen (Dutch, German, Italian, Serbian variety of Serbo-Croatian, Swedish) – an enduringly popular song
  • Feeling (Brazilian Portuguese, French, Italian, Spanish) – personal chemistry, common bond[5]
  • Fitness (Brazilian Portuguese, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, Italian, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Turkish) – fitness training as a kind of gymnastics
  • Flipper (Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Brazilian Portuguese, Serbo-Croatian, Swedish) – pinball machine
  • Footing (French, Italian, Spanish) – jogging
  • Fotoshooting (German, Romanian) – photo session, photo shoot
  • Fotoshop (Brazilian Portuguese, Chinese, Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian, Russian, Turkish) – manipulated photo (from the name of Adobe Photoshop)
  • Frac (French, Italian, Serbian variety of Serbo-Croatian), from "frock coat" – evening tailcoat
  • Fuel (various languages) – Diesel fuel
  • Full (French, Hungarian, Italian, Serbo-Croatian, Turkish, Polish) – full house (in poker)
  • Full (Spanish, Slovenian) – 'very'
  • Goalman (German Goalmann, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian) – Goalkeeper
  • Handyphone (Indonesian, Korean 핸드폰) – mobile phone (compare German Handy)
  • Happy end (Brazilian Portuguese, Danish, Dutch, French, German Happyend and Happy End, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese ハッピーエンド, Korean 해피엔드, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian hepiend) – happy ending
  • Homepage (Danish, German, Japanese ホームページ Korean 홈페이지,H.P ) – website
  • Hometrainer (Dutch, German, Portuguese) – exercise bicycle or other low-level consumer fitness machine
  • IC (Chinese, Japanese, Korean) – interchange
  • Jolly (Italian, Romanian) – joker or wild card
  • Killer (Croatian variety of Serbo-Croatian, German, Italian, Polish, Russian) – hitman, contract killer
  • K-Way (French [kawe], Italian) – windbreaker
  • Lifting (Brazilian Portuguese, French, Swiss German, Greek, Italian, Polish, Romanian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Turkish, Russian) – facelift
  • Limousine or limousine bus (Japanese リムジンバス, Korean 리무진 버스) – airport shuttle
  • Limousine (some Arabic dialects) – taxi
  • Living (European Portuguese, Belgian Dutch, French, Japanese リビング, Romanian, Argentinian Spanish) – living room or set of living room furniture
  • Looping (French, German) – vertical loop in a roller coaster
  • Luna park (Greek, Hebrew, Italian, Polish, Serbian variety of Serbo-Croatian, Turkish, Russian) – amusement park (derived from the name of an amusement park in New York)
  • Mail (Danish, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Japanese メール, Norwegian, Spanish, Serbo-Croatian, Swedish mejl, Turkish, Russian) – email
  • Marketing (Arabic, German, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish) – advertising
  • Mobbing (German, Norwegian, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Swedish) – bullying
  • Montgomery (Greek, Italian) – duffle coat
  • MV (Chinese, Korean) – music video
  • Open space (French, Italian, Polish, Romanian, Russian) – open plan office
  • Overall (Czech, Dutch, German, Norwegian, Polish, Slovak, Spanish, Swedish) – a full body boilersuit or jumpsuit, but not an overall.
  • Panty or panti (Dutch, Spanish) – pantyhose
  • Parking (Arabic, Belgian Dutch, French, Swiss German, Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian паркинг, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish) – parking lot / car park
  • Peeling (French, Romanian, German, Russian, Polish, Portuguese, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Swedish) – facial or body scrub
  • Pickup (Dutch, Greek) – turntable
  • PK (Chinese) – play-kill (this term usually refers to a lighthearted competition/conflict and originates from arcade games)
  • Playback (Arabic, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish) – lip sync (in songs) / lip-synching in music
  • Poker (French, Hungarian, Italian [ˈpɔker], Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Russian) – either the game or straight flush
  • Pressing (Swiss German, Italian, Polish, Russian) – forcing (in sport)
  • Pullman (Greek, Italian) – motor coach, tour or inter-city bus, not a railway vehicle
  • Puzzle (Arabic, Croatian variety of Serbo-Croatian, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Swedish pussel, Spanish puzle, Turkish) – jigsaw puzzle (rather than puzzle in general)
  • Reality (Brazilian Portuguese, Danish, Greek, Italian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish) – reality show
  • Recordman (French, Greek, Italian, Romanian, Russian recordsman, Turkish) – record holder in sports*
  • Roastbeef (sometimes dropping the 't') (Danish, German, Portuguese, Serbian variety of Serbo-Croatian, Spanish rosbif) – cut of beef located roughly at the short loin (US) or sirloin (UK)
  • Rolling stonevagrant (from the proverb A rolling stone gathers no moss)
  • Scotch (French, Italian, Polish, Romanian, Russian) – clear adhesive tape of any brand
  • Service (Japanese サービス, Korean 서비스, Taiwanese sa-bi-su) – free, complimentary, from 'self service'
  • Sharp pencil (Japanese シャープペンシル, Korean 샤프펜슬) – mechanical pencil
  • Sig (French, Italian) – sigh (in cartoons)
  • Skilift (Croatian variety of Serbo-Croatian, German, Italian) – platter lift
  • Slip (Dutch, French, German, Greek, Italian, Spanish, Turkish) – briefs
  • Smoking (Danish, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian smoching, Russian смокинг, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish esmoquin, Swedish, Turkish) – dinner jacket or tuxedo, rather than a smoking jacket in the Edwardian sense
  • Speaker (French, Italian, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Turkish) – announcer, news anchor; also French feminine speakerine
  • String (Dutch, French, German, Greek, Polish, Russian стринги, Swedish, Turkish) – g-string
  • Strip (Dutch, Serbo-Croatian) – comics, comic book or comic strip
  • Telefilm (Croatian variety of Serbo-Croatian, Italian) – filmed TV series
  • Tennis (Portuguese tênis, Spanish tenis) – both the sport and tennis shoes, trainers, and sneakers
  • Toast (Croatian variety of Serbo-Croatian, Danish, Finnish, Greek, Italian [tɔst], Korean "토스트", Polish, Swedish, Turkish, Russian) – toasted sandwich
  • Top (for women) (most languages) – sports bra
  • Topfit (Dutch, German) – perfectly physically fit
  • Training (Hebrew טריינינג, Hungarian, Romanian, Korean "츄리닝") – tracksuit
  • Tramway (French, Russian трамвай, Serbo-Croatian tramvaj) – tram
  • Trench (French, Italian, Russian) – trench coat
  • Tuning (French, Portuguese, Italian, Russian) – car tuning
  • Videoclip (or in some languages clip) (Arabic, Brazilian Portuguese, Dutch, Greek, Italian, Indonesian, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian видеоклип, Serbo-Croatian, Turkish) – music video
  • Volley (Arabic, Brazilian Portuguese vôlei, Danish, French [vɔle], Greek, Italian [ˈvɔllei], Japanese バレー) – volleyball
  • Wellness (Croatian variety of Serbo-Croatian, German, Hungarian) – a holistic sense of mental and physical well-being; feeling well by expensive means, especially in a chic hotel near a spa
  • Zapping (French, German zappen (verb), Greek, Italian [ˈdzappiŋɡ], Dutch zappen, Swedish zappa) – (TV) channel-surfing, channel-hopping

Belarusian[edit]

Chinese[edit]

Czech[edit]

Danish[edit]

Dutch[edit]

Finnish[edit]

  • College – sweater/jumper

French[edit]

Note: In Europe, '-ing' (/ɪŋ/) is usually pronounced [iŋg].

  • Baby-foot (m, pronounced [ba.bi.fut]) – table football
  • Box (f) – internet access device, following the trend of brand naming initiated with Free Telecom's "Freebox", then imitated by others (Livebox, Neufbox...)
  • Brushing (m) – blow dry
  • Building (m) – skyscraper
  • Caddie (m, [kadi]) – shopping trolley, from a brand name
  • Clip (m) – short film
  • Dressing (m) – dressing room
  • Fashion – as an adjective rather than a noun
  • Foot (m) – Football (soccer) (In Canadian French, this would refer to Canadian football, or sometimes in context to American football. Association football is le soccer[citation needed].)
  • Forcing as in faire le forcing[6] or faire du forcing[7] – to pressure
  • de grand standing – high class (of property), luxury (flat, apartment)
  • Jogging (m) – Tracksuit (jogging suit)
  • Mailing (m) – direct mail advertising, email marketing (campaign)(replaced by publipostage)
  • Night shop (m, Belgium) – late-opening grocery shop
  • Paper board (m) – flip chart
  • People (sometimes spelled pipeuls, pipoles to reflect the pronunciation [pi.pœl] or [pi.pɔl]) – celebrities, also used as adjective (ex. "Il est très people"), derived from the US celebrity magazine People
  • Planning (m) – schedule, to-do list
  • Pressing (m) – dry cleaning shop
  • Pull (m, pronounced [pyl])– pullover, sweater
  • Punching ball (m) – punching bag
  • Recordman/Recordwoman – record holder in sports
  • Relooking (m) – makeover (also: relooker – give a makeover to)
  • Rollers (m) − Roller skates
  • Rosbif – English person, especially a man, mildly derogatory (from roast beef)
  • Rugbyman – rugby player
  • Self (m) – self-service restaurant
  • Shampooing (m, pronounced /ʃɑ̃.pwɛ̃/), also spelled shampoing – shampoo
  • Smoking (m) – dinner jacket
  • Star (f, even referring to a man) – a celebrity
  • Surf (m) – surfboard
  • Sweat (m, pronounced [swit] or [swɛt]) – sweater
  • Tennisman – tennis player
  • Top (adj.) – brilliant, great
  • Tramway (m) – tram
  • Warning(s) (m) – (car) hazard-lights
  • Zoning (Belgium) – industrial estate

German[edit]

Many of the following examples may be found in several words (Fun Sport), hyphenated (Fun-Sport), in one word (Funsport) or CamelCase (FunSport).

  • Basecap – baseball cap
  • Beamer – projector
  • Best Ager – a person over the age of 50 (German Wikipedia)
  • Body-Bag – a type of Messenger Bag. The bag which is slung across the midriff in English is called cross-body bag. In Germany, the term Body Bag was after its invention a registered trademark.[8]
  • Box – box, but also loudspeaker
  • Casting-Show – talent search television series
  • Catchen – wrestling
  • ContainernDumpster diving
  • Controllingmanagerial accounting or management control system
  • Cutter – film editor
  • Discounterdiscount store
  • DJane – female disc jockey
  • Dressman – male model
  • Drive-in – drive-through
  • Ego-Shooter — first-person shooter (FPS)
  • (to do) Fitness – workout in a gym
  • Fitness-Studio or Fitnessstudio – gym
  • Foil – PowerPoint slide
  • Fun-Sport – a sport primarily practised in leisure time and for fun without organized competitions or rules, especially when it is risky, extravagant, modern and suitable to express an independent young lifestyle, e.g. Free climbing, Snowboarding or Surfing
  • GospelGospel music
  • Handy – mobile phone, cell[ular] phone
  • Happy End or Happyend – a happy ending
  • Highboard – a table-high cupboard
  • Homeoffice – a place at one's home where one works for an employer (e.g. via internet)
  • Horrortripbad trip
  • Inboard-Kamera – onboard camera
  • Inliner – inline skates (shoes)
  • Kickertable football ("foosball" in American English, a variation on the German word "Fußball" (football))
  • Leader(innen)board – provisional ranking; in English leader board is only used in professional golf
  • Leader(s)box – Platform or site, where the provisional leader(s) of a current event is displayed to the public; in English leader's box stands for a collection of important rules and statements of a Christian sect—e.g., the United Church of Christ
  • Lifting – taking the ski lift uphill. Common term in Kühtai region in Austria
  • Logical – riddle/puzzle to be solved by logical thought (German Wikipedia)
  • Longseller – long-term (best)seller (German Wikipedia)
  • Lowlight – opposite of "highlight" (used in business environment in management reporting)
  • Lowrider – a pair of luggage carrier, which are fixed at both sides of a bicycles frontwheel near its axis (German Wikipedia)
  • Mailbox – voicebox
  • Musicbox/Musikbox – jukebox
  • No-Go – taboo
  • Pocketbook – paperback (derived from the German "Taschenbuch", "Tasche" = pocket, "Buch" = book)
  • Public Viewing – outdoor screening
  • Pullunder, often Pollunder or Polunder – sweater vest
  • Punker – a punk (dated: punker)
  • Shooting – photo or film shoot
  • Shootingstar – (successful) newcomer (sports, music, literature, business, politics...)
  • Slipper – lace-less shoes
  • Showmaster – show host
  • Sprayer – graffiti artist, tagger
  • Steadyseller – a book that sells consistently over a long term (variant of bestseller)
  • Tabletop – miniature wargame
  • Talkmaster – talk show host
  • Trainer – manager (in sports)
  • Training – without any specification it means to workout in a gym, synonym to do Fitness or Training; with a (implicitly) given specification it means exercising under practicing conditions even if the results of this have consequences for a following competition, e.g. Qualifikationstraining means Qualifying Session or Balltraining means exercises with a ball
  • Trainings- – in compound terms such as Trainingsanzug, -hose, and -jacke for tracksuit, -trousers, and -top
  • Trampen; Tramper – hitchhiking; hitchhiker
  • Twen – a person in his or her twenties, or the time period of one's twenties
  • Vote – a poll

Greek[edit]

Hebrew[edit]

  • Back-Axe (בק-אקס) – rear axle
  • Chaser (צ'ייסר) – small shot glass
  • Coacher (קואוצ'ר) – practitioner of life-coaching, a coach. ("Coacher" is a valid, but rare, English variant)
  • Combinator (קומבינטור) – a swindler/cheater/con-artist, but also less negatively just someone who's good at smooth talking and getting out of trouble, or finding quick-fix solutions to problems.
  • Front Back-Axe (פרונט בק-אקס) – front axle
  • Golf (גולף) – turtleneck sweater/jersey
  • Maniac (manyak מניאק) – an undesirable person, akin to "asshole" or "son of a bitch" in English. (Probably derived from Arabic, where it has some negative sexual connotation)
  • Money time (מאני טיים) – crunch time (in sports)
  • Nylon (ניילון) – any form of flexible plastic
  • Patent (patent פטנט) – an improvisation/innovation
  • Presenter (פרזנטור) – celebrity endorser
  • Punch (פאנצ׳) – a short joke, one-liner (not the punch line!)
  • Puncture (pancher פנצ'ר) – any mishap causing a delay
  • Scouter (סקאוטר) – talent scout. ("Scouter" is a valid, but rare, English variant)
  • Selector (סלקטור) – airport security screener, club bouncer
  • Snappling (snepling סנפלינג) – abseiling
  • Talkback (tokbek טוקבק) – A comment on a blog or an internet news site
  • V (וי) – check mark (✓). Used in the expression "לעשות וי" ("to do a V") meaning "to check off, indicate as done".

Hungarian[edit]

Indonesian[edit]

Italian[edit]

Japanese[edit]

Main article: Wasei-eigo
  • Live (ライブ raibu?) – any sort of performance-related live thing; e. g. a live band, live concert, live recording, etc.
  • Love hotel (ラブホテル rabu hoteru?) – a type of short-stay hotel
  • Lolicon (ロリコン rorikon?) – pedophile (adjective), portmanteau of "lolita" and "complex"
  • Mansion (マンション manshon?) – a condominium apartment
  • New-half (ニューハーフ nyūhāfu?) – a transgender or transsexual woman
  • OL or Office Lady (オフィスレディー ofisu redī?) – A female office worker
  • Revenge (リベンジ ribenji?) – to try again in spite of previous failure
  • Salaryman (サラリーマン sararīman?) – a white collar employee (salaried worker)
  • Style (スタイル sutairu?) – a woman's figure (particularly if slim or skinny)

Korean[edit]

Main article: Konglish
Further information: List of Konglish terms
  • Apart (아파트) – this word is used to mean not only individual suites, but "apartment building" or "apartment complex"[26]
  • Fighting (화이팅 or 파이팅) – a Korean cheer that can roughly be translated as "Victory!" but can also be used as a word of encouragement (a la "Courage!")[27][28]
  • Note (노트) – a notebook
  • Officetel (오피스텔) – this word is a portmanteau of "office" and "hotel" and means office and hotel combined
  • One room (원룸) – a bachelor-style studio apartment
  • One shot (원샷) – a form of toast, roughly equivalent to "bottoms up". It challenges the drinker to finish his drink in one gulp[29]
  • Skin scuba (스킨스쿠버) – scuba diving

Persian[edit]

Polish[edit]

Portuguese[edit]

Except when the English pronunciation is obviously indicated by widely known spelling rules, such as "ee", "ay", "oo", "ou" and "a+consonant+e" standing for [i], [eɪ], [u], [aʊ], and [eɪC] (only in Portugal; Brazilians will pronounce the vowels near-correctly but the consonants always in the way they would pronounce them in Portuguese), instead of the expected [ej], [aj], [ow], [ow], [aCi ~ aCɨ] (non-nasal consonant) and [ɜ̃Ci ~ ɐCɨ] (nasal), all Lusophone Latin Americans and Africans and most Portuguese and Macanese will invariably use spelling pronunciations for pseudo-anglicisms as those that know proper English pronunciation and spelling rules would naturally be expected to know that those words are not real English, so that soda and tuning come out as [ˈsɔðɐ] (roughly like "sawtha" or "soth-a") and [ˈtũɲĩ] (roughly like "toonyeen'"), much as English-like filler (used mainly in Brazil, in the context of anime episodes not derived from the storyline of the manga from which they derive) and nylon would be [ˈfileʁ] (roughly "feel-egh") and [ˈnajlõ] (roughly "nye lon'") in non-affected pronunciations, though tupperware is rather similar to a native form ([tɐpɐˈwɛɾ], [-ˈwɛʁ]).

Phonotactic and phonological rules of Portuguese or of certain Portuguese dialects, such as specific palatalization and vowel reduction patterns, also apply, so that while e.g. nice in São Paulo would become [ˈnajs], a native English form, in Rio de Janeiro it would become [ˈnajsi] (roughly "nicie") or [naj s̩] ("nye, sss!"), as [s] at the end of a syllable in the local dialect is non-existent – the local pronunciation of the archiphoneme /coda sibilant/ is palatalized [ɕ], the hushing second consonant in Japanese sushi. Brazilians, and some Africans and rural Portuguese with archaic dialects resembling Brazilian Portuguese, are known to insert an epenthetic [i] after virtually every final closed syllable to break them into two different open syllables, so that hippie and hip (as [i]star and estar/está, similar to Spanish) would sound wholly or nearly homophonous as [ˈʁipi], in the same way flirt became flerte ([ˈfleʁtʃi], [ˈflɛɾt(ɨ)] in Portugal) with time. Words that are not slang anymore tend to be adapted to Portuguese orthography.

  • Agroboy (Brazil) – a non-urban Brazilian playboy or yuppie, generally with its wealth earned by agricultural businesses
  • Beauty case – vanity case
  • Box – a stall containing a shower or a toilet, as in a public restroom
  • Coffeeshop (a loanword from Dutch) – a store selling cannabis
  • Cooper – to jog
  • Fashion (Brazil) – as an adjective rather than a noun, slang for a cool fashion style. Used mainly in relation to female fashion styles (or that of males in a jocose way). Example: Ela está muito fashion agora! meaning "she is so cool now [with this makeover]!"
  • Funk – a musical genre from Rio de Janeiro, local spin-off from Miami bass, completely unrelated to American funk music
  • Grill (Brazil) – steak house. Most often the native name churrascaria is used
  • Hipster (Brazil) – slang for either the correct English usage (scenesters of underground and indie music scenes) or a contemporary hippie-derived subculture there prevalent
  • Hockey – icehockey (other varieties of hockey are virtually unknown)
  • Ice Teageneric trademark for iced tea, informally more common than the direct translation chá gelado
  • Night (Brazil) – nightlife, particularly dating
  • Novo look – a makeover (hair, clothing, makeup, etc.)
  • Open House – housewarming party
  • Outdoorbillboard, using the English adjective as a noun
  • Playboy (Brazil) – while in first it had the same usage as in English, from the 1990s to the 2010s it changed its meaning to a local version of yuppie. Stereotypes of the Brazilian playboys include being classist, womanizer and sexist, at least way more than their yuppie counterparts from more developed nations, which in turn is result of social anxieties of the poor and the lower middle class against the upper middle and upper classes, or being great seekers of social status and influence. They also, contrary to yuppies, do not fashionize intellectuality, and can or can not be socially liberal (social divisions between liberals and conservatives, specially in the upper classes, makes much less sense in Brazil)
  • Shoppingshopping mall or shopping centre using the English gerund as a noun
  • Showconcert, particularly a pop music concert ("concerto" is used mainly for classical music, nevertheless it is the standard usage in European Portuguese for all kinds of concert and also used in Brazilian Portuguese by language purists)
  • Soda – short for soda limonada, lime-flavored soft drink (refrigerante sabor limão, lime and lemon are regarded as two variants of the same fruit in Brazil; not lime-lemon, ironically known in Brazil by the literal translation lima-limão) rather than soft drink in general; soda is also a native Portuguese word that conveys the chemical sense of soda (compounds that contain sodium), as well as a saltwort or a kelp
  • Style (Brazil) – as an adjective rather than a noun, slang for someone whose fashion, or for the said fashion in itself, is deemed as innovative, cool or unique. Unlike fashion, this slang is regarded as adequate for males (actually, this term is a stereotypical part of the vocabulary of urban worker class males lacking in education and refinement). Example: Deborah e Giovanni ficam tão style de calças skinny, óculos escuros e franja! (meaning "Deborah and Giovanni got so cool wearing skinny jeans and dark glasses, and cutting the hair in bangs!")
  • Top (Brazil) – using the English noun as an adjective, means genius, greatest, awesome. Another example of slang stereotypically associated with stigmatized speech registers of those of lower social standing. Probably itself a loanword from French
  • Video game ([ˈvidʒo ˈɡejmi]; [ˈvidʒu ˈɡẽjmi] in less cultivated registers) (Brazil) – also written vídeo-game, game console, although the term "console" is also used, the video games themselves are simply called "games", "jogos" (the standard translation for "game") or less ambiguously "jogos de videogame" (console games)

Romanian[edit]

  • Blugi – jeans, denim fabric (whether blue or not)
  • Tenisman – tennis player (feminine is tenismană)

Russian[edit]

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

  • Drugstore (Dragstor) (Serbia) – a corner store that is open in evenings or overnight. They do not offer pharmacy services.
  • Insert (Serbia) – Movie clip
  • Recorder (Rekorder) (Serbia) – record holder (in sports)
  • Spot (Serbia) – Music video

Slovak[edit]

  • Nightclubbrothel/erotic club

Slovenian[edit]

  • Dbest [dəˈbɛst] – slang term meaning 'cool'
  • Full [ful] – slang term meaning 'very'

Spanish[edit]

  • Blue (Argentina) – grey market
  • Bodybodice
  • Casting – a screen test
  • Estárterchoke valve
  • Heavy – awesome, excellent, great, etc., in slang; also hard, strong, excessive. In the first sense, this word is used in the same way English speakers use the slang term "cool" (which is also used in Spanish). It also refers to the heavy metal subculture. Most likely from British slang word "Heavy" meaning "Cool".
  • Inbox – email, chat or messenger message.
  • KOM (Kick Off Meeting) – planning meeting, Project launch meeting.
  • Nuevo look – a makeover (hair, clothing, makeup etc.)
  • Planning – plan, program
  • Play, Hipermegaplay (in Colombia) – Used in the same way American English speakers would use the slang term "Cool".
  • Puenting (from puente "bridge", with English -ing added) – a sport that involves jumping from a bridge similar to bungee jumping, but the cord is non-elastic and the jump ends in a pendulum-like movement
  • Rolling stone – a celebrity
  • Round Point (in Colombian Spanish) – roundabout (from French rond-point)
  • Shopping – refers to both a shopping mall and to the activity of browsing available goods or services, regardless if products are actually purchased or not
  • Snow – in some countries and regions, snowboarding. A snowboard is called a tabla de snow
  • Stalker – a hitman
  • Web – refers to both a website and to the Internet itself

Swedish[edit]

  • After work – A meeting for drinks after the workday is finished[33]
  • Babysitter – seat made for infants
  • Backslick – slick-back hairdo
  • Brat – pejorative for a spoilt youth or young adult from the upper class who wears backslick and expensive clothes and exhibit extravagant behavior
  • ClicksBicycle cleats
  • Freestylepersonal stereo; originally a marketing term
  • HomestylingHome staging, making a home look better when presenting for sale, when done by professionals. Homestyling is used in the UK when helping residents fix their home for their own well-being.
  • Pocketbok or just Pocketpaperback book (mix of English and Swedish spelling)
  • RelaxSpa
  • Trafficking – Illegal international commerce, especially sexual trafficking with females being forced into prostitution.[34]

Thai[edit]

  • Check-bin – A combination of the US English "check" and the British English "bill" (adapted to Thai pronunciation), meaning the bill presented in a restaurant or bar.
  • Freshy – A college fresher or freshman.
  • Hi-soHigh Society describing someone who insists on designer labels
  • In-tren – Trendy. The word "trend" is usually pronounced in Thai accent as "tren" because final consonants are not as pronounced in Thai as in English.
  • Too fast to sleep – Too early to sleep. The Thai word /rēw/ (เร็ว) means either fast or early, depending on context.
  • Wer or O-wer – Exaggerated or overstated.
  • Inter – means "international". "I am so inter" means the person has been abroad and is interested in foreign, mostly western things.
  • Goal – means "Goal keeper". "No goal" means to play football without goal keepers.
  • Air – means "Air conditioner". "Room has air" means "The room is air conditioned".

Turkish[edit]

Vietnamese[edit]

  • Coca (cô ca) – Coca-Cola
  • Dollar (đô la) – explicitly United States dollar
  • Film (phim) – both movies and soap opera
  • Photo (phô tô) – photocopy
  • Sex (sét) – wearing revealing clothes that make the wearer appear lustful
  • Style (xì tin) – appearing teenage, active, playful and modern
  • Vest (vét) – Western suit in clothing

Yiddish[edit]

  • cherry lights (טשערי לייץ) – red headlights
  • payday (פּיידיי) – salary/payment

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ «Autostop» , Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  2. ^ «Basket» , Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  3. ^ «Beauty farm» , Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  4. ^ a b «Body» , Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  5. ^ According to linguist Ghil'ad Zuckermann, this pseudo-anglicism might have "been influenced by Italian fili 'threads' (plural of Italian filo 'thread'.[citation needed]) Italian feeling is used in Italian pop music, for example in the song Pensami per te (‘Think about me for your sake’) (by Cogliati/Ciani/Cassano), sung by Anna Oxa, which includes Tra di noi c'é uno strano feeling che ci lega ormai ‘Between us there is a strange feeling that binds us from now on’."See p. 102 of Zuckermann, Ghil'ad 2003, ‘‘Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew’’, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, (Palgrave Studies in Language History and Language Change, Series editor: Charles Jones). ISBN 1-4039-1723-X.
  6. ^ "Définitions : forcing - Dictionnaire de français Larousse". www.larousse.fr. Retrieved 2016-10-13. 
  7. ^ "faire du forcing : définition de faire du forcing et synonymes de faire du forcing (français)". dictionnaire.sensagent.com. Retrieved 2016-10-13. 
  8. ^ The trademark Body-Bag was abandoned on 1. Dec. 2009, because the term became the general name for all kinds of cross-body bags.
  9. ^ «Autogrill» , Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  10. ^ «Bar» , Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  11. ^ «Beauty-Case», Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  12. ^ «Bloc-Notes» , Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  13. ^ «Cargo» , Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  14. ^ «Charleston» (in the 2nd meaning), Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  15. ^ «Discount», Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  16. ^ «Fiction», Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  17. ^ «Golf» (in the 2nd meaning), Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  18. ^ «Hostess», Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  19. ^ «Mister», Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  20. ^ But in particular contexts it is also used in some of the original senses of the English stage: see «stage», Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  21. ^ «Ticket», Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  22. ^ «Tight», Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  23. ^ «tight», Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  24. ^ «Trolley» (in the 2nd meaning), Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  25. ^ a b «Water-Closet», Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana
  26. ^ Desa Philadelphia (26 November 2001). "Local English". Time. Retrieved 2 August 2009. 
  27. ^ Kim Hyo-jin (10 June 2002). "English? Konglish? Purists concede to 'fighting' cheer". JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 2 August 2009. 
  28. ^ "Korea Fighting!". JoongAng Daily. 18 June 2006. Retrieved 2 August 2009. 
  29. ^ "외국어 공식 포탈 – e4u.com". E4u.ybmsisa.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  30. ^ "boks". Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. Retrieved 19 August 2015. 
  31. ^ "developer". Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. Retrieved 21 June 2015. 
  32. ^ "dres". Słownik wyrazów obcych (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. Retrieved 11 April 2012. 
  33. ^ "After work ett svenskt påhitt" (in Swedish). Dagens Nyheter. Retrieved 12 December 2015. 
  34. ^ "SAOL" (in Swedish). Svenska Akademiens ordlista. Retrieved 27 March 2015. 

Sources[edit]

140.

External links[edit]