Pseudo-penis

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A pseudo-penis is any structure found on an animal that, while superficially appearing to be a penis, is derived from a different developmental path.

Mammals[edit]

In mammals, all intact developmentally typical males have a penis, but the clitoris in the females of the following species is sufficiently enlarged that it is usually termed a pseudo-penis: spotted hyena,[1] squirrel monkey,[citation needed] lemur,[2] juvenile fossa[3] and binturong.[4] The enlarged clitoris in the fossa is supported by an os clitoridis, a bone similar to the os penis found in most mammals.[3] However, the fossa's os clitoridis and pseudo-penis shrink as the juvenile female grows, unlike that of other pseudo-penis species.[3] The labia of the spider monkey are elongated and may be similarly confused during display. Elongated labia are also observed in humans.

The mammalian pseudo-penis appears to be simply for display, though the spotted hyena is an exception: the female spotted hyena additionally uses her pseudo-penis for urination, copulation, and childbirth. In addition, this makes it difficult for males to mate without the full cooperation of females, which means that mating preferences of the female are predominant.[5]

Spotted hyenas are a matriarchal society, where adult female hyenas dominate the adult male hyenas.[6] Female spotted hyena are also more aggressive than the male spotted hyena. When a male hyena leaves its natal clan, it behaves submissively to all newly encountered hyenas; as a result, when a male hyena settles down with a new clan as a breeding male, it is submissive to all natal clan members.[7] As a result of the submissive behavior in males, it was hypothesized that the male hyena erected its penis as a show of submissiveness.[8] During greetings, hyenas would stand parallel to each other and sniff or lick the erect penis or anal scent gland.[8]

There are severe reproductive costs to this androgenfueled hyper masculinization of female spotted hyena. Nearly all female spotted hyena’s first-born cubs are stillborn, as the placenta is not long enough for the extended penile birth canal. In addition, the first birthing process is time consuming, as it requires the meatus of the pseudo-penis to tear, allowing the fetus to pass through; as a result, the first-born often die of anoxia.[9]

Female spider monkeys have a clitoris that is referred to as a pseudo-penis because it is especially developed and has a shallow perineal groove that retains and distributes urine droplets as the female moves around.[10] The clitoris of female Geoffroy's spider monkeys is large and protrudes, looking like a penis.[11] This organ, called a pendulous clitoris because of the way it dangles externally, is actually larger than the male flaccid penis.[12] As a result, females are sometimes mistaken for males by human observers.[11] The enlarged clitoris is believed to aid males in determining sexual receptiveness, allowing them to touch the clitoris and smell their fingers to pick up chemical or olfactory cues to the female's reproductive status.[12]

Birds[edit]

Pseudo-penis of a mallard[dubious ]

Only 3% of avian species have a phallus. The most common genital among birds is the cloaca; a direct tract for elimination and reproduction in both of the sexes [10]. Certain bird species, such as the ratites, screamers, waterfowl, and cracids (a family of arboreal galliformes) exhibit a phallus in males. A notable example of a bird with a pseudo-penis is the red-billed buffalo weaver, which do not use their pseudo-penis for direct insertion during copulation; however does play a part in successful mating and stimulation.[not in citation given][13] Similarly to the red-billed buffalo weaver, the cassowary, a ratite, exhibits a pseudo-penis in both males and females. The male’s phallus is used to “invaginate”, or to push the female’s phallus inside-out, and then ejaculates from the cloaca to ensure a successful mating.[14]

Insects[edit]

One of the more known examples of a pseudo penis to occur in the insects is found in the species Neotrogla. In this species, the pseudo-penis plays a part in their rarely-seen sexual reversal. In this case, the male has a vagina-like structure while the female has a pseudo-penis. Some may be confused, wondering why the individuals with a vagina-like structure are considered male while the ones with the pseudo-penis are considered female.[15] This is because even though they have visible outer structures of the opposite gender, their inner structures are consistent to their genders.

Females have a penis-like structure, called the gynosome that has a tube leading into their body to where their genitalia are located.[16] Neotrogla males have a structure resembling that of a vagina. However, on the inside of their body, they have male genitalia. When the female inserts her organ into the male, the tip of the pseudo penis inflates. When this tip inflates, species specific ridges and spines flare up that match up with the walls of the male’s seminal duct. This serves two functions, to stimulate the male’s reproductive organs, and to keep the male and female locked together. After they have been locked together, the only way to get the two to part would be to rip off the abdomen of the male. During the lengthy, 40- to 70-hour copulation process, these male genitalia structures ejaculate inside of the male’s body.[17] The sperm is then deposited into the female’s structure and then travels through a spermathecal duct to where it can fertilize the eggs.

Possible Role of Androstenedione[edit]

Androstenedione is a hormone that is converted to testosterone by enzymatic activity.[18] It is theorized that the dominance and morphological phenotype of a pseudo-penis observed in female hyenas is due to the presence of prenatal and postnatal androstenedione levels. Prenatal androgen levels dictate genitalia differences between male and female. Higher levels of androgen are observed in the second half of gestation which is theorized to cause masculinization in terms of dominance and aggression in hyenas.[19] Large amounts of androstenedione are produced in hyena ovarian tissues with little aromatase activity allowing the placenta to convert androstenedione to testosterone.[20] High concentrations of androgens is theorized to virilize the female hyena genitalia and kill ovarian follicles.[20] Postnatal androgen levels dictate growth in genitalia during puberty. Postnatal androgen levels are higher in females than males when they are younger; especially in infancy.[21] These high levels of androstenedione contribute to aggression and dominance and the masculinization of genitalia during puberty.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ADW: Crocuta crocuta: Information
  2. ^ Angier 1999, pp. 68–69; Hall 2005, p. 344; Goodman 2009.
  3. ^ a b c Goodman S (2009). "Family Eupleridae (Madagascar Carnivores)". In Wilson D & Mittermeier R. Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Volume 1: Carnivores. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-84-96553-49-1. 
  4. ^ [1] Archived May 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ Hyenas Encourage Sex With Strangers to Prevent Incest, National Geographic.
  6. ^ "Social organization of the spotted hyaena Crocuta crocuta. II. Dominance and reproduction". Animal Behaviour 34: 1510–1527. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(86)80221-4. 
  7. ^ "Brains, brawn and sociality: a hyaena's tale". Animal Behaviour 103: 237–248. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.01.023. 
  8. ^ a b http://www.jstor.org/stable/4600895?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
  9. ^ "Mammalian sexual differentiation: lessons from the spotted hyena". Trends in Endocrinology 17: 349–356. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2006.09.005. 
  10. ^ Dixson, Alan F. (2012). Primate Sexuality: Comparative Studies of the Prosimians, Monkeys, Apes, and Humans. Oxford University Press. p. 364. ISBN 978-0-19-954464-6. Retrieved 2012-11-22. 
  11. ^ a b Wainwright, M. (2002). The Natural History of Costa Rican Mammals. Zona Tropical. pp. 146–149. ISBN 0-9705678-1-2. 
  12. ^ a b Campbell, C. & Gibson, K. (2008). "Spider monkey reproduction and sexual behavior". In Campbell, C. Spider Monkeys. Cambridge University Press. pp. 266–283. ISBN 978-0-521-86750-4. 
  13. ^ http://animalia-life.com/birds/red-billed-buffalo-weaver.html
  14. ^ http://www.wholeearth.com/issue/2100/article/143/left-handed.bears.and.androgynous.cassowaries
  15. ^ http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2014/04/17/in-this-insect-females-have-penises-and-males-have-vaginas/
  16. ^ "Female Penis, Male Vagina, and Their Correlated Evolution in a Cave Insect". Current Biology 24: 1006–1010. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.03.022. 
  17. ^ http://animals.io9.com/scientists-discover-the-gynosome-a-new-kind-of-sexual-1564382279
  18. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=F23lAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA376&lpg=PA376&dq=androstenedione+pseudopenis&source=bl&ots=ukSinY7jir&sig=6BfDMONSqoB6p24_KVrNQ67-rVI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiutai2l8XJAhUGwiYKHV10BWsQ6AEIUTAI#v=onepage&q=androstenedione%20pseudopenis&f=false)
  19. ^ French, JA; Mustoe, AC; Cavanaugh, J; Birnie, AK (2013). "The influence of androgenic steroid hormones on female aggression in 'atypical' mammals". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 368: 20130084. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0084. PMC 3826213. PMID 24167314. 
  20. ^ a b http://www.sciencemag.org/content/260/5116/1929.abstract
  21. ^ a b http://www.pnas.org/content/84/10/3444.long