Pseudo-top-level domain

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A pseudo-top-level domain is a label or name for a computer network that is not participating in the world-wide official Domain Name System and may not even participate in the Internet, but may use a similar domain name hierarchy. Historically the best known large networks in this group were .bitnet, .csnet, .oz, and .uucp, for which many Internet mail forwarders provided connectivity. In addition, newer networks like .exit, .i2p, may be included.[1][2] (Newest draft of the proposal expired on July 28, 2015 without becoming a standard.[1]) Some domains such as .onion later become officially recognised.[3]

Although these networks or domain names have no official status, some are generally regarded as having been unofficially grandfathered, and are unlikely ever to be allocated as top-level domains.[4]

Pseudo-top-level domains are also sometimes used for fictitious domain names in video games and other media in order to prevent practical jokers and curious people from either bothering websites and organizations by reaching the domains they see in works of fiction, or registering the domain name in an attempt of cybersquatting.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Grothoff, Christian and Wachs, Matthias and Wolf, Hellekin and Appelbaum, Jacob (2014-03-03). "Special-Use Domain Names of Peer-to-Peer Systems". Ietf Datatracker. Internet Engineering Task Force. Retrieved 2012-07-03.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ "". 2012-02-19. Archived from the original on 2013-01-15. Retrieved 2012-06-30.
  3. ^ Franceschi-Bicchierai, Lorenzo (10 September 2015). "Internet Regulators Just Legitimized The Dark Web". Archived from the original on 2016-10-14. Retrieved 10 September 2015.
  4. ^ Frey, Donnalyn; Adams, Richard L. (1994). "Pseudo Top-Level Domains". !%@:: a directory of electronic mail addressing & networks. In a Nutshell Series (4th ed.). O'Reilly & Associates. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-1-56592-046-0.
  5. ^ "Nite Team 4 Alpha update 0.5".