Pseudomonarchia Daemonum, or Hierarchy of Demons first appears as an Appendix to Johann Weyer's De praestigiis daemonum (1577). The title of the book translates roughly to "false monarchy of demons".
The book was written before The Lesser Key of Solomon, and has some differences. There are sixty-nine demons listed (instead of seventy-two), and the order of the spirits varies, as well as some of their characteristics. The demons Vassago, Seere, Dantalion and Andromalius are not listed in this book, while Pruflas is not listed in The Lesser Key of Solomon. Pseudomonarchia Daemonum does not attribute seals to the demons, as The Lesser Key of Solomon does.
Weyer referred to his source manuscript as Liber officiorum spirituum, seu Liber dictus Empto. Salomonis, de principibus et regibus daemoniorum. (Book of the offices of spirits, or the book called 'Empto'. Solomon, concerning the princes and kings of demons). This work is likely related to a very similar 1583 manuscript titled "The Office of Spirits", both of which appear ultimately be an elaboration on a fifteenth-century manuscript titled Le Livre des Esperitz (of which 30 of its 47 spirits are nearly identical to spirits in the Ars Goetia).
The 69 demons
- Pseudomonarchia Daemonum (Liber officiorum spirituum); Johann Weyer, ed. Joseph Peterson; 2000. Available online at Esoteric Archives
- A Book of the Office of Spirits; John Porter, Trans. Frederick Hockley, Ed. Colin D. Campbelll; Teitan Press, 2011. p. xiii-xvii
- The Goetia of Dr Rudd; Thomas Rudd, Ed. Stephen Skinner & David Rankine; 2007, Golden Hoard Press. p. 14-19, 399.