Ramette et al. 2011
Pseudomonas fluorescens Flügge 1886
Pseudomonas protegens are widespread Gram-negative, plant-protecting bacteria. Some of the strains of this novel bacterial species (CHA0 and Pf-5, for example) previously belonged to P. fluorescens. They were reclassified since they seem to cluster separately from other fluorescent Pseudomonas species. P. protegens is phylogenetically related to the Pseudomonas species complexes P. fluorescens, P. chlororaphis, and P. syringae. The bacterial species characteristically produces the antimicrobial compounds pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG) which are active against various plant pathogens.
Like P. fluorescens, Pseudomonas protegens is a typical soil microorganism with an extremely versatile metabolism, and can be isolated from roots of various plant species. The microbe is strictly aerobe (no reduction of nitrate) and oxidase-positive. The bacterium grows at temperatures between 4 °C and 36 °C, and has one to three flagella.
The word Pseudomonas means 'false unit', being derived from the Greek words pseudo (Greek: ψευδο 'false') and monas (Latin: monas, fr. Greek: μονάς/μονάδα 'a single unit'). The species name 'protegens' refers to the bacterium's ability to protect plants from soil-borne phytopathogens.
Genome sequencing projects
Pseudomonas protegens has been studied for more than twenty years for its biocontrol properties. Most studies have been carried out with the model strains CHA0 and Pf-5.
In addition to efficiently protect plant roots against phytopathogenic fungi (described in detail for P. fluorescens), Pseudomonas protegens was discovered to display toxicity towards certain insects upon oral ingestion or injection into the hemolymph. The insecticidal activity of the bacterium was found to be in part due to the production of an insect toxin (FitD), which is similar to a well-known protein toxin (Mcf) produced by Photorhabdus luminescens.
- Ramette; et al. (2011). "Pseudomonas protegens sp. nov., widespread plant-protecting bacteria producing the biocontrol compounds 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin". Systematic and Applied Microbiology 34: 180–188. doi:10.1016/j.syapm.2010.10.005.
- Haas, D; Defago, G (2005). "Biological control of soil-borne pathogens by fluorescent pseudomonads". Nature Reviews in Microbiology 3 (4): 307–19. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1129. PMID 15759041.
- Voisard, C. (1988) Etude génétique de Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, une souche antagoniste de champignons phytopathogènes. In: PhD Dissertation No. 8663, ETHZ, Zürich.
- Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 Genome Page
- Loper; et al. (2007). "The genomic sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5: Insights into biological control". Phytopathology 97: 233–8. doi:10.1094/phyto-97-2-0233.
- Haas; Keel (2003). "Regulation of antibiotic production in root-colonizing Peudomonas spp. and relevance for biological control of plant disease". Annu. Rev. Phytopathol 41: 117–53.
- Péchy-Tarr; et al. (2008). "Molecular analysis of a novel gene cluster encoding an insect toxin in plant-associated strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens". Environmental Microbiology 10 (9): 2368–2386. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01662.x.
- Ruffner; et al. (2012). "Oral insecticidal activity of plant-associated pseudomonads". Environmental Microbiology 15: 751–763. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2012.02884.x.
- Devi; Kothamasi (2009). "Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 can kill subterranean termite Odontotermes obesus by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase of the termite respiratory chain". FEMS Microbiol Lett 300 (2): 195–200. doi:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2009.01782.x.