moth flies ( Psychodidae) are small true flies (Diptera) with short, hairy bodies and wings giving them a "furry" moth-like appearance.
Description [ edit ]
Moth flies are classified as
nematocera and are small (<2 mm). The adults have long antennae and the wings are leaf-shaped, either slender or broad, with the most elementary wing venation of any Diptera, having little more than a series of parallel veins without crossveins. Adult Psychodidae are typically nocturnal though they orient themselves around lights and may appear to be attracted to light.
Sand flies [ edit ]
Phlebotominae includes many blood feeding species; they are inhabitants of more arid regions and are often called outside the United States where sand flies are distantly related Nematocera of the sand flies Ceratopogonidae. This subfamily is sometimes treated as a separate family Phlebotomidae; the type genus is . Phlebotominae are a very important group medically, transmitting various tropical diseases, but most importantly Phlebotomus kala azar leishmaniasis. Phlebotomus species are also vectors for bartonellosis, verruga peruana, pappataci fever, an arbovirus caused by Sandfly fever viruses such as Naples and Sicilian strains, which are members of the genus (family Phlebovirus Bunyaviridae), which also includes the closely related Toscana virus. [1 ] [2 ]
In the New World, the genus implicated in the transmission of
leishmaniasis is . Lutzomyia is responsible for the Lu. chagasi visceral form, while others like and Lu. gomezi may be responsible for transmitting the Lu. longipalpis cutaneous and muco-cutaneous forms of this tropical disease.
Sycoracinae, another subfamily, is also of hematophagous habits, being parasitic on frogs. The European species Sycorax silacea Haliday in Curtis, 1839 has been shown to transmit microfilarian worms. [3 ]
References [ edit ]
^ Shope RE (1996). Bunyaviruses. In: Barron's Medical Microbiology (Barron S et al., eds.) (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
^ Valassina M, Cusi MG, Valensin PE (2003). "A Mediterranean arbovirus: the Toscana virus". J Neurovirol 9 (6): 577–83. doi: 10.1080/13550280390247678. PMID 14602570.
^ Desportes, C. 1941. Forcipomyia velox Winn et Sycorax silacea Curtis, vecteurs dIcosiella neglecta (Diesing, 1850) filaire commune de la grenouille verte. Annals de Parasitologie Humaine et Compareè , 19: 53–68.
Further reading [ edit ]
Quate, L.W. 1955. A revision of the Psychodidae (Diptera) in America north of Mexico. University of California Publications in Entomology.
Quate, L.W. & B.V. Brown. 2004. Revision of Neotropical Setomimini (Diptera: Psychodidae: Psychodinae). Contributions in Science, 500: 1–117.
Vaillant, F. 1971. Psychodidae – Psychodinae. In: E. Lindner, ed. Die Fliegen der Palaearktischen Region, 9d, Lieferung 287: 1–48.
Young, D.G. & P.V. Perkins. 1984. Phlebotomine sand flies of North America (Diptera: Psychodidae). Mosquito News, 44: 263–304.
External links [ edit ]