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Psychographics is a qualitative methodology used to describe traits of humans on psychological attributes. Psychographics have been applied to the study of personality, values, opinions, attitudes, interests, and lifestyles. Because this area of research focuses on activities, interests, and opinions, psychographic factors are sometimes abbreviated to 'AIO variables'.
Psychographic studies of individuals or communities can be valuable in the fields of marketing, demographics, opinion research, prediction, and social research in general. Psychographic attributes can be contrasted with demographic variables (such as age and gender), behavioral variables (such as purchase data or usage rate), and organizational descriptors (sometimes called firmographic variables), such as industry, number of employees, and functional area.
Psychographic methods gained prominence in the 2016 US presidential election and the opposing campaigns of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, with the latter using them extensively in microtargeting advertisements to narrow constituencies.
When a relatively complete profile of a person or group's psychographic make-up is constructed, this is called a "psychographic profile". Psychographic profiles are used in market segmentation as well as in advertising. Some categories of psychographic factors used in market segmentation include:
- activity, interest, opinion (AIOs)
Psychographic can also be seen as an equivalent of the concept of "culture" when it is used for segmentation at a national level.
Comparison to demographics
Psychographics is often confused with demographics, where historical generations may be defined both by demographics, such as the years in which a particular generation is born or even the fertility rates of that generation's parents, but also by psychographic variables like attitudes, personality formation, and cultural touchstones. For example, the traditional approaches to defining the Baby Boom Generation or Generation X or Millennials have relied on both demographic variables (classifying individuals based on birth years) and psychographic variables (such as beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviors).
- Attitudinal targeting
- Behavior modification
- Behavioral targeting
- Black propaganda
- Consumer analytics
- Consumer intelligence
- Demographic targeting
- Freedom of choice
- Geodemographic segmentation
- Market analysis
- Market research
- Market segmentation
- Political warfare
- Project MKUltra
- Psychological warfare
- Positioning (marketing)
- Product differentiation
- Segmenting and positioning
- Serviceable available market
- Subliminal advertising
- Targeted advertising
- Target audience
- Total addressable market
- Values Modes
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- Senise, Jairo (28 September 2007). "Who Is Your Next Customer?". Booz Allen Hamilton Inc, Strategy+Business.
- Anderson, Thomas W., Jr.; Golden, Linda L. (1984). "Lifestyle and psychographics: A critical review and recommendation". Advances in Consumer Research. 11: 405–411.
- Resnick, Brian (March 26, 2018). "Cambridge Analytica's "psychographic microtargeting": what's bullshit and what's legit". Vox. New York City: Vox Media. Retrieved February 15, 2020.
- Saunders, Amy (2016-05-09). "Why Psychographic Segmentation is Important". Infusionsoft.com. Retrieved 2018-03-20.
- Lee and Psychography, appendix to Lee the American by Gamaliel Bradford
- How to Use Psychographic Data in Online Marketing, by Susan Gilbert
- What are Psychographics and how to form a buyer persona?, by Zia ul Hassan