Psychomotor retardation

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Psychomotor retardation
Other namesPsychomotor impairment, motormental retardation, psychomotor slowing

Psychomotor retardation involves a slowing down of thought and a reduction of physical movements in an individual. It can cause a visible slowing of physical and emotional reactions, including speech and affect.[1]

Psychomotor retardation is most commonly seen in people with major depression and in the depressed phase of bipolar disorder;[2] it is also associated with the adverse effects of certain drugs, such as benzodiazepines.[3] Particularly in an inpatient setting, psychomotor retardation may require increased nursing care to ensure adequate food and fluid intake and sufficient personal care. Informed consent for treatment is more difficult to achieve in the presence of this condition.[citation needed]



Examples of psychomotor retardation include the following:[citation needed]

  • Unaccountable difficulty in carrying out what are usually considered "automatic" or "mundane" self care tasks for healthy people (i.e., without depressive illness) such as taking a shower, dressing, grooming, cooking, brushing teeth, and exercising.
  • Physical difficulty performing activities that normally require little thought or effort, such as walking up stairs, getting out of bed, preparing meals, and clearing dishes from the table, household chores, and returning phone calls.
  • Tasks requiring mobility suddenly (or gradually) may inexplicably seem "impossible". Activities such as shopping, getting groceries, taking care of daily needs, and meeting the demands of employment or school are commonly affected.
  • Activities usually requiring little mental effort can become challenging. Balancing a checkbook, making a shopping list, and making decisions about mundane tasks (such as deciding what errands need to be done) are often difficult.

In schizophrenia, activity level may vary from psychomotor retardation to agitation; the patient experiences periods of listlessness and may be unresponsive, and at the next moment be active and energetic.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Tryon, W.W. 1991.Activity Measurement in Psychology and Medicine. Springer Publishing
  2. ^ Buyukdura JS, McClintock SM, Croarkin PE (2011). "Psychomotor retardation in depression: biological underpinnings, measurement, and treatment". Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 35 (2): 395–409. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2010.10.019. PMC 3646325. PMID 21044654.
  3. ^ Allgulander, C.; Bandelow, B.; Hollander, E.; Montgomery, SA.; Nutt, DJ.; Okasha, A.; Pollack, MH.; Stein, DJ.; et al. (Aug 2003). "WCA recommendations for the long-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder". CNS Spectr. 8 (8 Suppl 1): 53–61. doi:10.1017/S1092852900006945. PMID 14767398. S2CID 32761147.
  4. ^ "Psychomotor retardation". 8 November 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  5. ^ Christopher D. Frith (1 January 1995). The cognitive neuropsychology of schizophrenia. Lawrence Erlbaum. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-86377-334-1. Retrieved 13 December 2010.

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