Psychosocial short stature
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|Psychosocial short stature|
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Psychosocial short stature (PSS) or psychosocial dwarfism, sometimes called psychogenic or stress dwarfism, or Kaspar Hauser syndrome, is a growth disorder that is observed between the ages of 2 and 15, caused by extreme emotional deprivation or stress.
The symptoms include decreased growth hormone (GH) and somatomedin secretion, very short stature, weight that is inappropriate for the height, and immature skeletal age. This disease is a progressive one, and as long as the child is left in the stressing environment, his or her cognitive abilities continue to degenerate. Though rare in the population at large, it is common in feral children and in children kept in abusive, confined conditions for extended lengths of time. It can cause the body to completely stop growing but is generally considered to be temporary; regular growth will resume when the source of stress is removed.
Children with PSS have extremely low levels of growth hormone. These children possibly have a problem with growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH). The children could either be unresponsive to GHRH, or too sensitive to GHIH.
An environment of constant and extreme stress causes PSS. Stress releases hormones in the body such as epinephrine and norepinephrine engage what is known as the 'fight or flight' response. The heart speeds up and the body diverts resources away from processes that are not immediately important; in PSS, the production of growth hormone (GH) is thus affected. As well as lacking growth hormone, children with PSS exhibit gastrointestinal problems due to the large amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine, resulting in their bodies lacking proper digestion of nutrients and further affecting development.
While the cure for PSS is questionable, some studies show that placing the child affected with the disease in a foster or group home increases growth rate and socialization skills.
In Günter Grass's 1959 novel The Tin Drum (Die Blechtrommel), the character Oskar Matzerath "willfully stunted his growth at three feet tall as a three-year-old, although later in the novel he grows to four feet one inch" in reaction to the stress he experiences – the petit-bourgeois German society.
In the novel Les Misérables by Victor Hugo, eight-year old Cosette had been abused, neglected and enslaved by the Thènardier family. The extreme abuse and neglect she faces is described as very stressful for her, and as a result she's described as simultaneously being as short as a child half her age and having an expression more appropriate for an older woman. She recovers after she's adopted by Jean Valjean and is of average height as an adult.
In One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, Chief Bromden claims that one of Nurse Ratched's orderlies, Williams, a black man with dwarfism, gained his short stature as the result of seeing white men rape his mother.
- Duché DJ (2002). "[Consequences of family violence on children's health]". Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. (in French). 186 (6): 963–9; discussion 969–70. PMID 12587335.
- Sirotnak, Andrew P (March 19, 2008). "Child Abuse & Neglect: Psychosocial Dwarfism". eMedicine. WebMD. Retrieved January 17, 2010.
- Money, John (July 1992). The Kaspar Hauser Syndrome of "Psychosocial Dwarfism": Deficient Statural, Intellectual, and Social Growth Induced by Child Abuse. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-0-87975-754-0.
- Grass's own description