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Scientific classification e
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Pseudomonadales
Family: Moraxellaceae
Genus: Psychrobacter
Juni and Heym 1986[1]
Type species
Psychrobacter immobilis

See text.

Psychrobacter is a genus of Gram-negative, osmotolerant, oxidase-positive, psychrophilic or psychrotolerant, aerobic bacteria which belong to the family Moraxellaceae and the class Gammaproteobacteria.[1][2][3][4] The shape is typically cocci or coccobacilli.[5] Some of those bacteria were isolated from humans and can cause humans infections such as endocarditis and peritonitis.[6][7] This genus of bacteria is able to grow at temperatures between −10 and 42 °C.[8] Rudi Rossau found through DNA-rRNA hybridization analysis that Psychrobacter belongs to the Moraxellaceae.[9] The first species (Psychrobacter immobilis) was described by Juni and Heym.[10] Psychrobacter occur in wide range of moist, cold saline habitats,[8][11] but they also occur in warm and slightly saline habitats.[4][12]

Hypoacylated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis and Psychrobacter arcticus induces moderate TLR4-mediated inflammatory response in macrophages and such LPS bioactivity may potentially result in the failure of local and systemic bacterial clearance in patients.[13]

Species include:[1]


  1. ^ a b c Parte, A.C. "Psychrobacter". LPSN.
  2. ^ Maruyama, A.; Honda, D.; Yamamoto, H.; Kitamura, K.; Higashihara, T. (2000). "Phylogenetic analysis of psychrophilic bacteria isolated from the Japan Trench, including a description of the deep-sea species Psychrobacter pacificensis sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 50 (2): 835–46. doi:10.1099/00207713-50-2-835. PMID 10758895.
  3. ^ Bozal, N. (2003). "Characterization of several Psychrobacter strains isolated from Antarctic environments and description of Psychrobacter luti sp. nov. And Psychrobacter fozii sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 53 (4): 1093–1100. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02457-0. PMID 12892132.
  4. ^ a b Bowman, J. P. (2006). "The Genus Psychrobacter". The Prokaryotes. pp. 920–930. doi:10.1007/0-387-30746-X_35. ISBN 978-0-387-25496-8.
  5. ^ Psychrobacter immobilis isolated from foods: characteristics and identification Vet. Med. - Czech, 46, 2001 (4):95-100
  6. ^ Elmer W. Koneman (11 January 2005). Koneman's Color Atlas and Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology (6 ed.). Lippencott Williams & Wil. ISBN 0781730147.
  7. ^ ATCC
  8. ^ a b Kim, S. J.; Shin, S. C.; Hong, S. G.; Lee, Y. M.; Choi, I. -G.; Park, H. (2012). "Genome Sequence of a Novel Member of the Genus Psychrobacter Isolated from Antarctic Soil". Journal of Bacteriology. 194 (9): 2403. doi:10.1128/JB.00234-12. PMC 3347060. PMID 22493207.
  9. ^ Romanenko, L. A. (2002). "Psychrobacter submarinus sp. nov. And Psychrobacter marincola sp. nov., psychrophilic halophiles from marine environments". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 52 (4): 1291–1297. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02087-0. PMID 12148642.
  10. ^ Juni, E.; Heym, G. A. (1986). "Psychrobacter immobilis gen. nov., sp. nov.: Genospecies Composed of Gram-Negative, Aerobic, Oxidase-Positive Coccobacilli". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 36 (3): 388. doi:10.1099/00207713-36-3-388.
  11. ^ Martin Dworkin; Stanley Falkow; Eugene Rosenberg; Karl-Heinz Schleifer; Erko Stackebrandt (2006-09-28). The Prokaryotes: Proteobacteria: Gamma Subclass: A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria Vol. 6 (3 ed.). Springer. ISBN 038725496X.
  12. ^ Koki Horikoshi; Garabed Antranikian; Alan T. Bull; Frank T. Robb; Karl O. Stetter (2011). Extremophiles Handbook Vol. 1. Springer. ISBN 4431538976.
  13. ^ Korneev, KV; Kondakova, AN; Arbatsky, NP; Novototskaya-Vlasova, KA; Rivkina, EM; Anisimov, AP; Kruglov, AA; Kuprash, DV; Nedospasov, SA; Knirel, YA; Drutskaya, MS (December 2014). "Distinct biological activity of lipopolysaccharides with different lipid A acylation status from mutant strains of Yersinia pestis and some members of genus Psychrobacter". Biochemistry. Biokhimiia. 79 (12): 1333–8. doi:10.1134/S0006297914120062. PMID 25716726.

Further reading[edit]