Psychrotrophic bacteria

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Psychrotrophic bacteria are bacteria that are capable of surviving or even thriving in extremely cold environment. They provide an estimation of the product's shelf life, also they can be found in soils,[1] in surface and deep sea waters,[2] in Antarctic ecosystems,[3] and in foods.[4] They are responsible for spoiling refrigerated foods.

Psychrotrophic bacteria are of particular concern to the dairy industry.[5] Most are killed by pasteurization; however, they can be present in milk as post-pasteurization contaminants due to less than adequate sanitation practices. According to the Food Science Department at Cornell University, psychrotrophs are bacteria capable of growth at temperatures at or less than 7 °C (44.6 °F). At freezing temperatures, growth of psychrotrophic bacteria becomes negligible or virtually stops.[6]


  1. ^ "An Ecological Study of the Psychrotrophic Bacteria of Soil, Water, Grass and Hay - Druce - 2008 - Journal of Applied Microbiology - Wiley Online Library". Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 33: 420–435. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.1970.tb02215.x. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  2. ^ "Characterization of Psychrotrophic Bacteria in the Surface and Deep-Sea Waters from the Northwestern Pacific Ocean Based on 16S Ribosomal DNA Analysis". Marine Biotechnology. SpringerLink. 3: 454–462. doi:10.1007/s10126-001-0050-1. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  3. ^ "Psychrotrophic bacteria isolated from Antarctic ecosystems". . A. Correa-Guimaraes, J. Martín-Gil, M. C. Ramos-Sánchez, L. Vallejo-Pérez. Department of Forestry, Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, ETSIA, Avenida de Madrid, 57, Palencia, Spain
  4. ^ "Psychrotrophic Bacteria in Foods: Disease and Spoilage. - Food Trade Review". 1993-09-01. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  5. ^ "Leon the Milkman's Blog » The case of Psychrotrophic bacteria". 2006-03-18. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  6. ^ Steven C. Murphy, "Shelf LIfe of Fluid Milk Products -- Microbial Spoilage", Food Science Department, Cornell University.. Retrieved 22 November 2009.