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Argopecten irradians.jpg
A live individual of Argopecten irradians, family Pectinidae
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Subclass: Pteriomorphia
Beurlen, 1944

The Pteriomorphia comprise a subclass of saltwater clams, marine bivalve mollusks.[1] It contains several major orders, including the Arcoida, Ostreoida, Pectinoida, Limoida, Mytiloida, and Pterioida. It also contains some extinct and probably basal families, such as the Evyanidae, Colpomyidae, Bakevelliidae, Cassianellidae, and Lithiotidae.

This subclass of mollusks has lamellibranch gills, and is epibenthic. Some attach to the substrate using a byssus. The foot is reduced. The mantle margins are not fused. Gills are usually large and assist in feeding. This group includes the well known mussels, scallops, pen shells, and oysters.[2] It also includes the only members of the class bivalvia to have rudimentary eyes.


The cladogram is based on molecular phylogeny using mitochondrial (12S, 16S) and nuclear (18S, 28S, and H3) gene markers by Yaron Malkowsky and Annette Klussmann-Kolb in 2012.[3]

(c. 247 mya) Pectinidae

Palliolinae (in part)

Palliolinae (in part) and Camptonectinae


(70 mya) Pecten


(247 mya) Aequipecten

Limidae (file shells)

other Pteriomorphia (oysters, mussels)

2010 Taxonomy[edit]

In 2010 a new proposed classification system for the Bivalvia was published by Bieler, Carter & Coan revising the classification of the Bivalvia, including the subclass Pteriomorphia.[4] However, the following taxonomy represents the current accepted arrangement of this subclass according to the World Register of Marine Species[5]

Subclass: Pteriomorphia

Order: Arcoida[6][edit]

(Ark shells and bittersweet shells)

Order: Ostreoida[7][edit]

(True oysters and their allies)

Order: Pectinoida[8][edit]

(Scallops and their allies)

Order: Limoida[9][edit]

(File shells and their allies)

Order: Mytiloida[10][edit]

(Saltwater mussels)

Order: Pterioida[11][edit]

(Winged oysters and their allies)

Fossil orders[edit]


  1. ^ Pteriomorphia Beurlen, 1944.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 26 March 2009.
  2. ^ Barnes, Robert D. (1982). Invertebrate Zoology. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. p. 430. ISBN 978-0-03-056747-6.
  3. ^ Malkowsky, Yaron; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette (May 2012). "Phylogeny and spatio-temporal distribution of European Pectinidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia)" (PDF). Systematics and Biodiversity. 10 (2): 233–242. doi:10.1080/14772000.2012.676572.
  4. ^ Bieler, R., Carter, J.G. & Coan, E.V. (2010) Classification of Bivalve families. Pp. 113-133, in: Bouchet, P. & Rocroi, J.P. (2010), Nomenclator of Bivalve Families. Malacologia 52(2): 1-184
  5. ^ Gofas, S. (2014). "Pteriomorphia". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
  6. ^ Arcoida Stoliczka, 1871.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 3 February 2009.
  7. ^ Ostreoida Ferussac, 1822.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 9 July 2010.
  8. ^ Pectinoida Gray, 1854.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 9 July 2010.
  9. ^ Limoida Moore, 1952.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 7 July 2010.
  10. ^ Mytiloida Ferussac, 1822.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 9 July 2010.
  11. ^ Pterioida Newell, 1965.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 9 July 2010.