Ptolemaeus (Martian crater)

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Ptolemaeus Crater
Map of Phaethontis quadrangle, Ptolemaeus is in the mid-left. Click on to enlarge and see some crater names.
Coordinates46°13′S 157°36′W / 46.21°S 157.6°W / -46.21; -157.6Coordinates: 46°13′S 157°36′W / 46.21°S 157.6°W / -46.21; -157.6
Diameter165.18 km
EponymClaudius Ptolemaeus, a Greco-Egyptian astronomer (c. AD 90-160)

Ptolemaeus is a crater on Mars, found in the Phaethontis quadrangle at 46.21° south latitude and 157.6° west longitude. It measures approximately 165 kilometers in diameter and was named after Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy), the Greco-Egyptian astronomer (c. AD 90-160).[1] Nearby named craters include the larger Newton to the north and Li Fan to the east not far from the eastern rim, further east is Hipparchus.

Portion of Ptolemaeus Crater, as seen by CTX camera (on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter). Parts of the North and south rim are visible—at top and bottom of photo.

The largest smallest unattached crater inside Ptolemaeus is now named Reutov Two tiny craters are west of Reutov including Tyuratam, officially named in 2013 by the IAU and is named after a place in Kazakhstan, its diameter is only in the range of 300 meters. Northwest of Tyuratam is recently named Belyov crater, another tiny crater nearly the same size.

Mantle material that is believed to have fallen from the sky is visible in the crater.


The first close-up of the crater was discovered by Mariner 4 in 1965 and was its 13th (tiny portion of the westernmost rim) and the 14th photos (whole) taken during its flyby. The Soviet probe Mars 3 (common pronunciation: Marss-Three, Mars is also a Russian word, the s does not pronounce like a z) is thought to have successfully landed in Ptolemaeus Crater in 2 December 1971, but contact was lost seconds after landing due do a dust storm occurring at the time.[2] Its landing site was predicted to be located at the north of the crater. At the same time, Mariner 9 took a better photograph of the crater. In November 2007, the landing site of Mars 3 were taken by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and another later on 11 March 2013. On 11 April 2013, NASA announced that the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) may have imaged the Mars 3 lander hardware on the surface of Mars. The HiRISE camera on the MRO took images of what may be the parachute, retrorockets, heat shield and lander.[3]

Ice-rich mantle[edit]

Much of the surface of Mars is covered by a thick smooth mantle that is thought to be a mixture of ice and dust.[4] This ice-rich mantle, a few yards thick, smoothes the land, but in places it has a bumpy texture, resembling the surface of a basketball. Under certain conditions the ice could melt and flow down the slopes to create gullies. Because there are few craters on this mantle, the mantle is relatively young. An excellent view of this mantle is shown below in the picture of the Ptolemaeus Crater Rim, as seen by HiRISE.

Changes in Mars's orbit and tilt cause significant changes in the distribution of water ice from polar regions down to latitudes equivalent to Texas. During certain climate periods water vapor leaves polar ice and enters the atmosphere. The water comes back to ground at lower latitudes as deposits of frost or snow mixed generously with dust. The atmosphere of Mars contains a great deal of fine dust particles. Water vapor will condense on the particles, then fall down to the ground due to the additional weight of the water coating. When ice at the top of the mantling layer goes back into the atmosphere, it leaves behind dust, which insulating the remaining ice.[5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Ptolemaeus (Martian crater)". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology Research Program.
  2. ^ Lakadawalla, Emily. "Russia's Mars 3 lander maybe found by Russian amateurs". The Planetary Society. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  3. ^ Webster, Guy (April 11, 2013). "NASA Mars Orbiter Images May Show 1971 Soviet Lander". NASA. Retrieved April 12, 2013.
  4. ^ Head, J. et al. 2003. Recent ice ages on Mars. Nature:426. 797-802.
  5. ^ MLA NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (2003, December 18). Mars May Be Emerging From An Ice Age. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 19, 2009, from by GoogleAdvertise