Ptolemaeus of Commagene

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Satrap of Commagene
Reign201–163 BC
SuccessorSames II Theosebes Dikaios
IssueSames II Theosebes Dikaios
DynastyOrontid Dynasty
FatherOrontes IV

Ptolemaeus (Armenian: Պտողեմեոս; Greek: Πτολεμαῖος) was a man of Armenian[1] descent who lived between the 3rd century BC and 2nd century BC, and became the first King of Commagene. He was of Orontid Armenian descent, being related to the king of Sophene Arsames I.[1] His father was King Orontes IV of Armenia, son of Arsames I.

Ptolemaeus was the last Satrap (Governor) of the state of Commagene, a province in the Seleucid Empire. He served under the Syrian Greek Kings Antiochus III the Great, Seleucus IV Philopator, Antiochus IV Epiphanes and Antiochus V Eupator.

Ptolemaeus served as Satrap of Commagene from 201–163 BC. When the Seleucid Empire began to disintegrate in 163 BC, Ptolemaeus decided to revolt and make Commagene an independent kingdom. Ptolemaeus also declared Samosata, the capital of Commagene under the Seleucid rule, as the capital of the new kingdom.

Ptolemaeus was, in fact, a relative to King Mithridates I of Parthia. Also, according to fragments of inscribed reliefs found at Mount Nemrut, archaeologists have discovered that Ptolemaeus was a descendant of King Darius I of Persia. Ptolemaeus died in 130 BC and his wife is unknown. His son and successor was Sames II Theosebes Dikaios.


  1. ^ a b Chahin, Mark (2001). The Kingdom of Armenia. Routledge. pp. 190–191. ISBN 0-7007-1452-9.