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For other uses, see PBS (disambiguation).
Type Non-commercial broadcast television distributor
Country United States
Availability National
Founded 1970
by Hartford N. Gunn Jr.
Slogan Be More (primary)
This is PBS (secondary)
Headquarters Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.
Owner Independent
Key people
Paula Kerger
(President and CEO)[1]
Afsaneh Beschloss (Director)
Launch date
October 5, 1970 (1970-10-05)
Affiliates List of member stations
Official website
Replaced National Educational Television (1952–1970)

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor. Headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, PBS is an independently operated non-profit organization and is the most prominent provider of television programs to public television stations in the United States, distributing series such as NOVA, Sesame Street, PBS NewsHour, Masterpiece, Nature, American Masters, Frontline, and Antiques Roadshow.

Since the mid-2000s Roper polls commissioned by PBS have consistently placed the service as the most-trusted national institution in the United States.[2] However, PBS is not responsible for all programming carried on public television stations, a large proportion of which (including most specials aired during multi-annually pledge drives) come from third-party sources, including member stations (such as WGBH, WETA-TV, WNET, WTTW National Productions), American Public Television and independent producers. This distinction is a frequent source of viewer confusion.[3]

The service has more than 350 member television stations, many owned by educational institutions or non-profit groups affiliated with a local public school district, collegiate educational institution or by state government-owned or -related entities.[4] It also operates National Datacast (NDI), a subsidiary which offers datacasting services via member stations, and provides additional revenue for PBS and its member stations.


Founded by Hartford N. Gunn Jr., PBS began operations on October 5, 1970, taking over many of the functions of its predecessor, National Educational Television (NET), which later merged with Newark, New Jersey station WNDT to form WNET.[5] In 1973 it merged with Educational Television Stations.[6][7][8]

Unlike the five major commercial broadcast television networks in the United States, ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox and The CW – which compensate their affiliate stations to carry their programs – PBS is not a network but a program distributor that provides television content and related services to its member stations. Each station is charged with the responsibility of programming local content (often news, interview, cultural and public affairs programs) for their individual market or state that supplements content provided by PBS and other public television distributors.

In a television network structure, affiliates give up portions of their local advertising airtime in exchange for carrying network programming, and the network pays its affiliates a share of the revenue it earns from advertising (although this structure has been reversed in recent years, with the network compensated by the stations). By contrast, PBS member stations pay fees for the shows acquired and distributed by the national organization. Under this relationship, PBS member stations have greater latitude in local scheduling than their commercial broadcasting counterparts. Scheduling of PBS-distributed series may vary greatly depending on the market. This can be a source of tension as stations seek to preserve their localism, and PBS strives to market a consistent national lineup. However, PBS has a policy of "common carriage," which requires most stations to clear the national prime time programs on a common programming schedule to market them nationally more effectively. Management at former Los Angeles member KCET cited unresolvable financial and programming disputes among its major reasons for leaving PBS after over 40 years in January 2011.[9]

Although PBS has a set schedule of programming (particularly in regard to its prime time schedule, while many members carry a feed of night-time programming from the PBS Satellite Service), member stations reserve the right to schedule PBS-distributed programming in other time slots or not clear it all if they choose to do so; few of the service's members carry all its programming. Most PBS stations timeshift some distributed programs. Once PBS accepts a program offered for distribution, PBS, rather than the originating member station, retains exclusive rebroadcasting rights during an agreed period. Suppliers retain the right to sell the program in non-broadcast media such as DVDs, books, and sometimes PBS licensed merchandise (but sometimes grant such ancillary rights as well to PBS).

In 1991 the Corporation for Public Broadcasting resumed production for most PBS shows that debuted prior to 1977, with the exceptions of Washington Week in Review and Wall Street Week (CPB resumed production of Washington Week in 1997).

In 1994 The Chronicle of Philanthropy released the results of the largest study on the popularity and credibility of charitable and non-profit organizations. PBS ranked as the 11th "most popular charity/non-profit in America" from over 100 charities researched in the study conducted by the industry publication, with 38.2% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing "love" and "like a lot" for PBS.[10][11][12][13]

In December 2009 PBS signed up for the Nielsen ratings audience measurement reports, and began to be included in its primetime and daily "Television Index" reports, alongside the major commercial broadcast networks.[14] In May 2011 PBS announced that it would incorporate breaks containing underwriter spots for corporate and foundation sponsors, program promotions and identification spots within four breaks placed within episodes of during Nature and NOVA, airing episodes broken up into segments of up to 15 minutes, rather than airing them as straight 50- to 55-minute episodes. The strategy began that fall, with the intent to expand the in-program breaks to the remainder of the schedule if successful.[15]

PBS initially struggled to compete with online media such as YouTube for market share In a 2012 speech to 850 top executives from PBS stations, Senior Vice President of Digital at PBS Jason Seiken warned that PBS was in danger of being disrupted by YouTube studios such as Maker Studio. In the speech, later described as a “seminal moment” for public television,[16] he laid out his vision for a new style of PBS digital video production. Station leadership rallied around his vision and Seiken formed PBS Digital Studios, which began producing educational but edgy videos, something Seiken called “PBS-quality with a YouTube sensibility.” [17]The studio’s first hit, an auto-tuned version of the TV classic Mr Roger’s Neighborhood, was one of YouTube’s 10 most viral videos of 2012.[18] By 2013, monthly video views on PBS.org had risen from 2 million to a quarter-billion, PBS.org traffic had surpassed that of the CBS, NBC, and ABC web sites, PBSKids.org had become the dominant U.S. children’s site for video, and PBS had won more 2013 Webby Awards than any other media company in the world.[19]

On May 8, 2013, full-length episodes of PBS' prime time, news and children's programs were made available through the Roku streaming player; programming is available on Roku as separate streaming channels for PBS and PBS Kids content.[20]


The evening and primetime schedule on PBS features a diverse array of programming including fine arts (Great Performances); drama (Masterpiece, Downton Abbey, American Family: Journey of Dreams); science (Nova, Nature); history (American Experience, American Masters, History Detectives, Antiques Roadshow); music (Austin City Limits, Soundstage); public affairs (Frontline, PBS NewsHour, Washington Week, Nightly Business Report); independent films and documentaries (P.O.V., Independent Lens); home improvement (This Old House); and interviews (Charlie Rose, Tavis Smiley, The Dick Cavett Show). In 2012, PBS began organizing much of its prime time programming around a genre-based schedule (for example, drama series encompass the Sunday schedule, while science-related programs are featured on Tuesdays).

PBS broadcasts children's programming as part of the service's (and including content supplied by other distributors not programmed by the service, its member stations') morning and afternoon schedule. As the children's programs it distributes are intended to educate as well as entertain its target audience, PBS and its stations have long been in compliance with educational programming guidelines set by the Children's Television Act from its passage by the Federal Communications Commission in 1990. Many member stations have historically also broadcast distance education and other instructional television programs, typically during daytime slots; though with the advent of digital television, which has allowed stations to carry these programs on digital subchannels in lieu of the main PBS feed, many member stations/networks have replaced distance education content with children's and other programming.

Unlike its radio counterpart, National Public Radio, PBS does not have a central program production arm or news division. All of the programming carried by PBS, whether news, documentary, or entertainment, is created by (or in most cases produced under contract with) other parties, such as individual member stations. Boston member WGBH-TV is one of the largest producers of educational television programming, including shows like American Experience, Masterpiece Theatre, Nova, Antiques Roadshow and Frontline, as well as many other children's and lifestyle programs. News programs are produced by WETA-TV (PBS Newshour) in Washington, D.C., WNET in New York and WPBT in Miami. Newark, New Jersey/New York City member WNET produces or distributes programs such as Charlie Rose, Secrets of the Dead, Nature and Cyberchase.

PBS member stations are known for rebroadcasting British television costume dramas, comedies and science fiction programs (acquired from the BBC and other sources) such as Downton Abbey; 'Allo 'Allo!; Are You Being Served?; The Benny Hill Show, Red Dwarf; The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin; Father Ted; Fawlty Towers; Harry Enfield and Chums; Keeping Up Appearances; Monty Python's Flying Circus; Mr. Bean and Doctor Who; consequently, this has led to jocular references that the service's name stands for "Primarily British Series". However, a significant amount of sharing takes place. The BBC and British broadcasters such as Channel 4 often cooperate with PBS stations, producing material that is shown on both sides of the Atlantic. Less frequently, Canadian, Australian and other international programming appears on PBS stations (such as The Red Green Show, currently distributed by syndicator Executive Program Services); public broadcasting syndicators are more likely to offer this programming to U.S.-based public television stations.

PBS is not the only distributor of public television programming to the member stations. Other distributors have emerged from the roots of companies that maintained loosely held regional public television stations in the 1960s. Boston-based American Public Television (which among other names, was formerly known as Eastern Educational Network and the American Program Service) is second only to PBS for distributing programs to U.S. non-commercial stations. Another distributor is NETA (formerly SECA), whose properties have included The Shapies and Jerry Yarnell School of Fine Art. In addition, the member stations themselves also produce a variety of local shows, some of which subsequently receive national distribution through PBS or other distributors.

Rerun programming is generally uncommon on PBS or its member stations, with some exceptions. The Lawrence Welk Show has aired continuously in reruns on PBS (through the Oklahoma Educational Television Authority) almost every weekend since 1986. Other program that have been aired in reruns are generally past PBS series whose hosts have retired or are now deceased (for example, The Joy of Painting and Mister Rogers' Neighborhood) or have simply ended production (such as DragonflyTV and Clifford the Big Red Dog).

PBS Kids[edit]

Main article: PBS Kids

Launched in 1994, PBS Kids is the brand for children's programs aired by PBS. The PBS Kids network, which was launched in 1999 and operated until 2006, was largely funded by satellite provider DirecTV. The channel ceased operations on October 1, 2005, in favor of PBS Kids Sprout, a commercial digital cable and satellite television channel originally operated as a joint venture with Comcast, Sesame Workshop and Apax Partners (NBCUniversal, which Comcast acquired in 2011, later acquired the other partners' interests in the channel in 2012). However, the original programming block still exists on PBS, filling daytime and in some cases, weekend morning schedules on its member stations; many members also carry 24-hour locally programmed children's networks featuring PBS Kids content on one of their digital subchannels.

As PBS is often known for doing, PBS Kids has broadcast imported series from other countries; these include British series originally broadcast by the BBC and ITV (such as Rosie and Jim, Tots TV, Teletubbies, Boohbah and Thomas the Tank Engine), as well as several Canadian programs (such as Theodore Tugboat). Through American Public Television, many PBS stations also began airing the Australian series Raggs on June 4, 2007. Some of the programs broadcast as part of the service's children's lineup or through public broadcast syndication directly to its members have subsequently been syndicated to commercial television outlets (such as Ghostwriter and The Magic School Bus).


Many PBS member stations and networks – including Mississippi Public Broadcasting, Georgia Public Broadcasting, Maine Public Broadcasting Network, Nebraska Educational Telecommunications and WKYU-TV – locally broadcast high school and college sports. From the 1980s onward, the national PBS network has not typically carried sporting events, mainly because the broadcast rights to most sporting events have become more cost-prohibitive in that timeframe, especially for nonprofits with limited revenue potential; in addition, starting with the respective launches of the MountainWest Sports Network and Big Ten Network in 2006 and 2007, athletic conferences have acquired local sports rights for their cable channels, restricting their use from PBS member stations, even those associated with their own university.

From 1976 to 1988, KQED produced a series of Bundesliga matches under the banner Soccer Made in Germany, with Toby Charles announcing. PBS also carried tennis events,[21] as well as Ivy League football. Notable football commentators included Upton Bell, Marty Glickman, Bob Casciola, Brian Dowling, Sean McDonough and Jack Corrigan.[22] Other sports programs included interview series such as The Way It Was and The Sporting Life.[23]

Member stations[edit]

As of March 2015, PBS maintains current memberships with 354 television stations encompassing 50 states, the District of Columbia and four U.S. possessions;[4][24] as such, it is the only television broadcaster in the United States – commercial or non-commercial – which has station partners licensed in every U.S. state (by comparison, none of the five major commercial broadcast networks has affiliates in certain states where PBS has members, most notably New Jersey). The service has an estimated national reach of 93.74% of all households in the United States (or 292,926,047 Americans with at least one television set).

PBS stations are commonly operated by non-profit organizations, state agencies, local authorities (such as municipal boards of education), or universities in their city of license; this is similar (albeit more centralized in states where a licensee owns multiple stations rebroadcasting the main PBS member) to the early model of commercial broadcasting in the U.S., in which network-affiliated stations were initially owned by companies that owned few to no other television stations elsewhere in the country. In some U.S. states, a group of PBS stations throughout the entire state may be organized into a single regional "subnetwork" (such as Alabama Public Television and the Arkansas Educational Television Network); in this model, PBS programming and other content is distributed by the originating station in the subnetwork to other full-power stations that serve as satellites as well as any low-power translators in other areas of the state. Some states may be served by such a regional network and simultaneously have PBS member stations in a certain city (such as the case with secondary member KBDI-TV in Denver, which is not related to Colorado member network Rocky Mountain PBS and its flagship station and primary Denver PBS member, KRMA-TV) that operate autonomously from the regional member network.

As opposed to the present commercial broadcasting model in which network programs are often carried exclusively on one television station in a given market, PBS may maintain more than one member station in certain markets, which may be owned by the licensee of the market's primary PBS member station or owned by a separate licensee (as a prime example, KOCE-TV, KLCS and KVCR-DT – which are all individually owned – serve as PBS stations for the Los Angeles market; KCET served as the market's primary PBS member until it left the service in January 2011,[25] at which time it was replaced by KOCE). For these cases, PBS utilizes the Program Differentiation Plan, which divides by percentage the amount of programs distributed by the service that each member can carry on their schedule; often, this assigns a larger proportion of PBS-distributed programming to the primary member station, with the secondary members being allowed to carry a lesser amount of program offerings from the service's schedule. Unlike public broadcasters in most other countries, PBS cannot own any of the stations that broadcast its programming, therefore it is one of the few television programming bodies that does not have any owned-and-operated stations. This is partly due to the origins of the PBS stations themselves, and partly due to historical broadcast license issues.

Participating stations[edit]

Most PBS member stations have produced at least some nationally distributed programs. Current regularly scheduled programming on the PBS national feed is produced by a smaller group of stations, including:

PBS networks[edit]

Network Notes
Sprout An advertiser-supported digital cable and satellite channel that debuted on September 26, 2005 as PBS Kids Sprout. NBCUniversal acquired the ownership stakes held by PBS and other partners in the channel in 2013, with the channel being renamed simply Sprout.
PBS-HD A high-definition programming feed available to PBS' member stations.
PBS Satellite Service A 24-hour alternate network feed that provides a mixed variety of programming selected from the main PBS service, as well as for carriage on programming tiers of satellite providers.

PBS has spun off a number of television networks, often in partnership with other media companies. PBS YOU, a distance education and how-to service operated until January 2006, and was largely succeeded by Create (a similarly formatted network owned by American Public Television); PBS Kids Channel was superseded by Sprout at the start of October 2005. World began operations in 2007 as a service operated by PBS, but is now managed by American Public Television.

PBS has also restructured its satellite feed system, simplifying PBS-DT2 into a timeshift feed for the Pacific Time Zone, rather than a high-definition complement to its formerly primary SD feed. PBS Kids Go! was proposed as a replacement broadcast network for PBS Kids Channel, however plans to launch the network were folded in 2006. Programming from the PBS Satellite Service has also been carried by certain member stations or regional member networks as a placeholder feed to fill their overnight schedules (particularly those that have transitioned to a 24-hour schedule since the late 1990s), in lieu of providing their own programming sourced by outside public television distributors and repeats of local programming (program promotions shown on the satellite feed advertise upcoming programs as being aired on PBS during the timeslot card normally used as a placeholder for member outlets to insert local airtime information during their station breaks).

Some or all of these services are available on the digital cable tiers of many cable providers, on free-to-air (FTA) television via C-band satellite,[26] as well as via direct broadcast satellite. With the transition to over-the-air digital television broadcasts, many of the services are also often now available as standard-definition multicast channels on the digital signals of some member stations, while PBS-DT2 serves as a secondary HD feed. With the absence of advertising, network identification on these PBS networks were limited to utilization at the end of the program, which includes the standard series of bumpers from the "Be More" campaign.

Independent networks[edit]

While not operated or controlled by PBS proper, additional public broadcasting networks are available and carried by PBS member stations.

Channel Programming Origin
Create Educational and artistic programming American Public Television
MHz WorldView Ethnic programming MHz Networks
V-me Spanish language WNET
World News and documentaries American Public Television
The Florida Channel Regional interest WFSU-TV
Minnesota Channel Regional interest Twin Cities Public Television
The Ohio Channel Regional interest WVIZ
The Wisconsin Channel Regional interest WHA-TV

From 2002 to 2011, Buffalo, New York member station WNED-TV operated ThinkBright TV, a service that was carried on several stations in upstate New York.

A separate but related concept is the state network, where a group of stations across a state simulcast a single programming schedule from a central facility, which may include specialty subchannels unique to that broadcaster.

Criticism and controversy[edit]

On-air fundraising[edit]

Since 53% to 60% of public television's revenues come from private membership donations and grants,[27] most stations solicit individual donations by methods including fundraising, pledge drives or telethons, which disrupt regularly scheduled programming. This annoys some viewers, since regularly scheduled programming is often replaced with specials aimed at a wider audience (such as music specials aimed at the baby boomer generation, and financial, health and motivational programs) to solicit new members and donations; during fundraising events, these programs are often interrupted within the broadcast by long-form segments (of six to eight minutes in length) extolling viewers to donate to their PBS member.[28] Underwriting spots are aired at the end of each program, which differ from traditional commercials in several ways.[29] Each spot must be approved to meet several guidelines.[30] The main guidelines state that underwriting spots cannot be qualitative in any way, nor can they have any call to action.[31]

Accusations of political/ideological bias[edit]

A 1982 broadcast of the United States Information Agency program Let Poland be Poland about the martial law declared in Poland in 1981 was widely viewed in the U.S., but met with skepticism on the part of eastern European broadcasters (communist countries at the time) due to concerns that the program, "provocative and anticommunist," was intended as propaganda.[32][33]

Individual programs aired by PBS have been the targets of organized campaigns by individuals and groups with opposing views, including former United States Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings.[34]

Bill Moyers resigned in 2005 after more than three decades as a PBS regular, citing political pressure to alter the content of his program and saying Chairman of the Board of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting Kenneth Tomlinson had mounted a "vendetta" against him.[35] Moyers eventually returned to host Bill Moyers Journal, after Tomlinson's resignation from CPB. Subsequently, PBS made room temporarily for center right commentator Tucker Carlson, formerly of MSNBC and co-host of CNN's Crossfire, and The Journal Editorial Report with Paul Gigot, an editor of The Wall Street Journal editorial page (this program has since moved to Fox News Channel) to partially balance out the perceived left-leaning PBS shows.[36]

Warning, Alert and Response Network (WARN)[edit]

PBS provides an alternate path for WEA alerts to wireless carriers. The alerts are transmitted through the PBS satellite network on the AMC-21 satellite to PBS stations who broadcast the messages over their transmitters for reception by wireless carriers at their cell sites.[37][38]

The network is funded by a grant through National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA).

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "PBS Corporate Officers and Senior Executives". Retrieved 2009-09-25. 
  2. ^ "PBS #1 in public trust for the sixth consecutive year, according to a national Roper survey" (Press release). PBS. February 13, 2009. Retrieved July 14, 2009. 
  3. ^ Michael Getler (May 15, 2008). "Caution: That Program May Not Be From PBS". PBS. Retrieved December 30, 2008. 
  4. ^ a b "Network Profile: PBS". Station Index. 
  5. ^ Public Broadcasting PolicyBase (January 14, 2000). "Articles of Incorporation of Public Broadcasting Service". Current. Retrieved January 12, 2008. 
  6. ^ Laurence Ariel Jarvik (1997). PBS, behind the screen. Rocklin, California: Forum. ISBN 0761506683. 
  7. ^ "Public TV Faces Fund Struggles". The Morning Record. Retrieved October 28, 2013 – via Google News. 
  8. ^ James Day (September 16, 1969). The Vanishing Vision: The Inside Story of Public Television. Retrieved October 23, 2013 – via Google Books. 
  9. ^ Scott Collins (October 8, 2010). "Los Angeles PBS affiliate KCET exits network fold to go independent". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Publishing). Retrieved March 12, 2015. 
  10. ^ "The Charities Americans Like Most And Least". The Chronicle of Philanthropy. December 13, 1996. 
  11. ^ Karen S. Peterson (December 20, 1994). "Charity begins with health, Concern over diseases cited". USA Today (FINAL ed.) (Gannett Company). p. 01D. 
  12. ^ Laura Castaneda (December 13, 1994). "Survey helps firms choose charities". The Dallas Morning News (HOME FINAL ed.) (A. H. Belo Corporation). p. 1D. 
  13. ^ Interview with Lavalle, September 7, 2009 
  14. ^ Bill Gorman (December 20, 2009). "PBS Signs Up For Nielsen Ratings". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved March 10, 2011. 
  15. ^ Elizabeth Jensen (May 30, 2011). "PBS Plans Promotional Breaks Within Programs". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved March 12, 2015. 
  16. ^ http://current.org/2012/05/gms-take-up-pbs-plan-to-expand-web-video-output-2/
  17. ^ http://digiday.com/publishers/why-pbs-autotuned-mr-rogers/
  18. ^ http://www.businessinsider.com/these-are-the-20-most-viral-ads-of-2012-2012-12?op=1&IR=T
  19. ^ http://digiday.com/publishers/pbs-sees-success-with-year-old-digital-studios
  20. ^ "Roku's PBS, PBS Kids channels go live, stream full episodes". CNET (CBS Corporation). May 8, 2013. 
  21. ^ "Mary Carillo". Retrieved October 15, 2012. 
  22. ^ Mark. "Penn Football Tapes 1980–1989". Letsgoquakers.com. Retrieved March 10, 2011. 
  23. ^ "Jim Palmer jockeys from underwear to PBS". Houston Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. April 17, 1985. Retrieved October 15, 2012. 
  24. ^ "Stations for Network - PBS". RabbitEars.info. Retrieved March 12, 2015. 
  25. ^ Peter Larsen (October 8, 2010). "KOCE takes over as top PBS station after KCET cuts ties with network". Orange County Register (Freedom Communications). Retrieved March 12, 2015. 
  26. ^ "AMC 21 at 125.0°W". LyngSat. March 2, 2011. Retrieved March 10, 2011. 
  27. ^ "Public Broadcasting Revenue Fiscal Year 2005" (PDF). Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Retrieved 2011-03-10. 
  28. ^ Michael Getler (March 24, 2006). "Pledging Allegiance, or March Madness?". PBS Ombudsman. Retrieved May 22, 2006. 
  29. ^ "PBS Guidelines for On-Air Announcements". PBS. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  30. ^ "PBS Guidelines for On-Air Announcements". PBS. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  31. ^ "Voice-Over Copy Guidelines". PBS. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 
  32. ^ "Let Poland Be Poland (1982, TV)". Internet Movie Database. 
  33. ^ Edward Eichler (April 25, 2008). "US Public Diplomacy in Hungary: Past and Present" (PDF). Public Diplomacy Council. [dead link]
  34. ^ "Education chief rips PBS for gay character: Network won't distribute episode with animated 'Buster' visiting Vt.". MSNBC. Associated Press. January 26, 2005. 
  35. ^ Paul Farhi (April 22, 2005). "PBS Scrutiny Raises Political Antennas". The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company. 
  36. ^ "PBS: Back to bias basics". The Washington Times. News World Communications. May 4, 2007. 
  37. ^ "WARN". PBS. Retrieved October 12, 2013. 
  38. ^ "PBS WARN Information". PBS. Retrieved October 12, 2013. 
  39. ^ Ralph Lowell Award. Cpb.org. Retrieved on 2013-10-23.

Further reading[edit]

  • B.J. Bullert (1997). Public Television: Politics and the Battle over Documentary Film. Rutgers University Press. 
  • Barry Dornfeld (1998). Producing Public Television, Producing Public Culture. Princeton University Press. 
  • Ralph Engelman (1996). Public Radio and Television in America: A Political History. Sage Publications. 
  • James Ledbetter (1998). Made Possible by: The Death of Public Broadcasting in the United States. Verso. 

External links[edit]