Public Printer of the United States
The Public Printer of the United States is the head of the United States Government Publishing Office (GPO). Pursuant to 44 U.S.C. § 301, this officer must be nominated by the President of the United States and approved by the United States Senate. President Barack Obama appointed Davita Vance-Cooks as Public Printer of the United States on May 9, 2013, and she was unanimously confirmed by the United States Senate on August 1, 2013.
The Public Printer is responsible for the administration of the GPO. The GPO, a legislative agency of the government, provides electronic access to and produces most printed matter for government, including the Congressional Record, Supreme Court decisions, passports, tax forms, internal government documents, and agency publications. The GPO does not print money, as that is a duty of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.
In December 2014, Congress passed and President Obama signed into law H.R. 83, which consolidated and continued appropriations for FY 2015. Section 1301 of that act changed the name of the Government Printing Office to the Government Publishing Office and the title of Public Printer to Director. Thus, Davita Vance-Cooks was the last Public Printer of the United States and is the first Director of the U.S. Government Publishing Office.
Benjamin Franklin served as Public Printer for several of the American colonies prior to the establishment of the United States. The House and Senate had separate printers until 1861, when the GPO was established; its first superintendent was John D. Defrees. The first man with the title Public Printer of the United States was Almon M. Clapp.
- Almon M. Clapp (1876–1877)
- John D. Defrees (1877–1882)
- Sterling P. Rounds (1882–1886)
- Thomas E. Benedict (1886–1889)
- Frank W. Palmer (1889–1894)
- Thomas E. Benedict (1894–1897)
- Frank W. Palmer (1897–1905), O.J. Ricketts (Acting, 1905–1905)
- Charles A. Stillings (1905–1908), William S. Rossiter (Acting, 1908–1908), Capt. Henry T. Brian (Acting, 1908–1908)
- John S. Leech (1908–1908)
- Samuel B. Donnelly (1908–1913)
- Cornelius Ford (1913–1921)
- George H. Carter (1921–1934)
- Augustus E. Giegengack (1934–1948), John J. Deviny (Acting, 1948–1948)
- John J. Deviny (1948–1953), Phillip L. Cole (Acting, 1953–1953)
- Raymond Blattenberger (1953–1961), John M. Wilson (Acting, 1961–1961), Felix E. Cristofane (Acting, 1961–1961)
- James L. Harrison (1961–1970)
- Adolphus N. Spence (1970–1972), Harry J. Humphrey (Acting, 1972–1973)
- Thomas F. McCormick (1973–1977)
- John J. Boyle (1977–1980), Samuel Saylor (Acting, 1980–1981)
- Danford L. Sawyer, Jr. (1981–1984), William J. Barrett (Acting, 1984–1984)
- Ralph E. Kennickell, Jr. (1984–1988), Joseph E. Jenifer (Acting, 1988–1990)
- Robert Houk (1990–1993 ), Michael F. DiMario (Acting, 1993–1993)
- Michael F. DiMario (1993-2002)
- Bruce James (2002–2006), William H. Turri (Acting, 2007–2007)
- Robert C. Tapella (2007-2010), Paul C. Erickson (Acting, 2010–2011)
- William J. Boarman (2011–2012), Davita E. Vance-Cooks (Acting, 2012–2013)
- Davita E. Vance-Cooks (2013–present)
- "President Obama Announces More Key Administration Posts". Whitehouse.gov. 2013-05-08. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
- "PRESS RELEASE 2013". Gpo.gov. August 2, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
- "H.R. 83 Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act 2015" (PDF). govinfo.gov.
- "U.S. GPO press release". December 17, 2014. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
- "James L. Harrison, 94, Dies; Public Printer of the U.S.". The Washington Post. October 10, 2000. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
- Cross, Lisa (June 1, 2001). "PIA Backs a Nominee For Public Printer Post.(Printing Industries of America, Robert Houk)". Graphic Arts Monthly. Retrieved 20 December 2009.
- ALAWON, Volume 2, Number 51, 13 Nov 1993. bubl.ac.uk
- "BRUCE R. JAMES". United States Public Printer. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Morrison, Jane Ann (March 29, 2002). "Nomination Planned: Bush to tap Nevadan for top printing post". Las Vegas Review-Journal (Las Vegas, NV). Retrieved 20 December 2009.
- "Presidential Nominations Sent to the Senate, 4/19/10". Whitehouse.gov. 2010-04-19. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
- Hicks, Josh (2013-08-02). "Davita Vance-Cooks confirmed as first female and African American public printer". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-10-06.