Public health laboratory
Public health laboratories are governmental reference laboratories that protect the public against diseases and other health hazards.
In 2007, Haim Hacham et al. published a paper addressing the need for and the process of international standardised accreditation for laboratory proficiency in Israel. Their practice is an invaluable experience for all in the sector. With similar efforts, both the Japan Accreditation Board for Conformity Assessment (JAB) and the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) have validated and convened ISO 15189, respectively ,. However, Spitzenberger and Edelhäuser have expressed their concerns in that ISO accreditation may include obstacles rising from new emerging medical devices and the new approach of assessment, indicating the time dependence of the standards.
The Public Health Laboratory Service was established as part of the National Health Service in 1946. An Emergency Public Health Laboratory Service was established in 1940 as a response to the threat of bacteriological warfare. There was originally a central laboratory at Colindale and a network of regional and local laboratories. By 1955 there were about 1000 staff. These laboratories were primarily preventive with an epidemiological focus. They were, however, in some places located with hospital laboratories which had a diagnostic focus.
It was replaced by the Health Protection Agency in 2003.
- Hacham, Haim; Tetro, Nurit; Kochavi-Azolai, Salit; Stern, Nava; Mizrahi, Dana; Lisenker, Anna; Gazit, Emanuel; et al. (2007). "Unification of the quality assurance systems of public health laboratories conformed to ISO 17025, ISO 15189, and ISO 9000: a major organizational change". Accreditation and Quality Assurance. Elsevier. 12 (8): 409–413. doi:10.1007/s00769-007-0262-9.
- Aoyagi T, Kawai T (May 2006). "[Validation of the ISO 15189 trial assessment results of clinical laboratories--effects of accreditation and interpretation of ISO 15189]". Rinsho Byori (in Japanese). 54 (5): 486–93. PMID 16789419.
- Huisman W, Horvath AR, Burnett D, et al. (2007). "Accreditation of medical laboratories in the European Union". Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 45 (2): 268–75. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2007.037. PMID 17311523.
- Spitzenberger F, Edelhäuser R (2006). "Accreditation of Medical Laboratories in Europe: Statutory Framework, Current Situation and Perspectives". Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy. S. Karger AG. 33 (5): 384–92. doi:10.1159/000094738.
- Webster, Charles (1988). The health Services since the war. HMSO. ISBN 0 11 630942 3.
United States laboratory networks and organizations
- Association of Public Health Laboratories
- Laboratory Response Network (CDC)
- PulseNet (CDC)
- Integrated Consortium of Laboratory Networks
- Food Emergency Response Network
- Environmental Laboratory Response Network
- Council to Improve Foodborne Outbreak Response
International laboratory networks
- WHO Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System
- WHO H5 Reference Laboratories
- WHO Emerging and Dangerous Pathogens Laboratory Network
- Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network
- EpiSouth Network
- WHO-Afro HIV/AIDS Laboratory Network
- East African Laboratory Network
- African Society for Laboratory Medicine