Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States

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Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States by state in 2021:[1]
  Majority support same-sex marriage — 80–85%
  Majority support same-sex marriage — 70–79%
  Majority support same-sex marriage — 60–69%
  Majority support same-sex marriage — 50–59%
  Plurality support same-sex marriage — 40–49%
  Majority oppose same-sex marriage — 50–55%

Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States continues to increase, and the overwhelming majority of Americans are in favor of same-sex marriage.[2] National support for the legal recognition of same-sex marriage rose above 50% for the first time in 2011.[3] A recent Gallup poll found that 70% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, including 55% of Republicans, whose support has historically been less than that of Democrats.[4]

From 1988 to 2009, support for same-sex marriage increased between 1% and 1.5% per year, and accelerated thereafter.[5] A 2021 Public Religion Research Institute poll found that there is majority support for same-sex marriage in 47 states, ranging from 50% in South Carolina to 85% in Massachusetts. There is plurality support in Alabama, where 49% support and 47% oppose. Only Mississippi and Arkansas have majority opposition to same-sex marriage; in Mississippi, 55% oppose and 44% support, while in Arkansas, 52% oppose and 47% support same-sex marriage.[1]

Overview[edit]

Public opinion of same-sex marriage in the United States has changed radically since polling of the American people regarding the issue was first conducted in 1988.[6] The issue of same-sex marriage was not brought up as an issue for public debate until at least the 1950s[7] and wasn't a political issue until the 1970s.[8] According to statistician Nate Silver of the poll aggregator FiveThirtyEight, from 1988 to April 2009, support for same-sex marriage increased between 1% and 1.5% per year and about 4% from April 2009 to August 2010.[9] A Pew Research Center poll, conducted from May 21, 2008 to May 25, 2008, found that, for the first time, a majority of Americans did not oppose same-sex marriage, with opposition having fallen to 49%.[10] An ABC News/Washington Post poll, conducted from April 21, 2009 to April 24, 2009, found that, for the first time, a plurality of Americans supported same-sex marriage at 49% and that a majority of Americans supported the marriages of same-sex couples validly entered into in one state being recognized in all states at 53%.[11] A CNN/Opinion Research poll, conducted from August 6, 2010 to August 10, 2010, found that, for the first time, a majority of Americans supported same-sex marriage at 52%.[12] A Greenberg Quinlan Rosner Research poll, conducted from January 25, 2015 to January 31, 2015, found that, for the first time, 60% of Americans supported same-sex marriage.[13]

Continual polling by Gallup over the course of more than two decades has shown that support for same-sex marriage has grown rapidly, while opposition has simultaneously collapsed. In 1996, 68% of Americans opposed same-sex marriage, while only 27% supported. In 2018, 67% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, while only 31% opposed.[14] As of 2018, 60% of Americans said they would not mind if their child married someone of the same gender.[15]

National polls[edit]

Post-Obergefell v. Hodges[edit]

2020–present[edit]

A September 2022 Grinnell College National Poll found that 74% of Americans believe same-sex marriage should be a guaranteed right while 13% disagreed and 13% were uncertain.[16][17]

A May 2022 Gallup poll found that 71% of Americans supported same-sex marriage.[18]

A June 2021 CBS News/YouGov poll found that 64% of Americans supported same-sex marriage while 36% were opposed. Two-thirds of Republicans over age 45 are opposed, but the opinions of Republicans under age 45 are almost evenly split with 52% oppose and 48% support same sex marriage.[19]

An 2021 Public Religion Research Institute poll found that 67% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, while 32% were opposed.[2]

A June 2021 Gallup poll found that 70% of Americans supported same-sex marriage and 29% were against.[4]

A June 2020 Gallup poll found that 67% of Americans supported same sex marriage, while 31% were against, matching their May 2018 record high.

A Public Religion Research Institute nationwide & state-by-state poll conducted in 2020 found that 67% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, 27% opposed, and 5% refused to answer or answered "don't know," with there being majority support for same-sex marriage in 46 states, and plurality support in 4 states.[1]

A 2020 American National Election Studies poll found that 66% of Americans supported legal recognition of same-sex marriage, 20% supported civil unions, while 14% of Americans were opposed to any legal recogition of same-sex relationships.[20]

2016–2019[edit]

A June 2019 CBS News poll found that 67% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, while 28% were against.[21]

A June 2019 IPSOS/Reuters poll found that 58% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, while 28% were against.[22]

A May 2019 Pew Research Center poll found 61% of Americans supported same-sex marriage while 31% were against.[23]

A May 2019 Gallup poll found that 63% of Americans supported same sex marriage, with 36% opposing it. While this is a drop when compared to 2018, same sex marriage approval still remains stable.[24]

A May 2018 Gallup poll found that 67% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, 31% opposed, and 2% had no opinion.[14]

An April 2018 NBC News poll found that 64% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, 33% opposed, and 3% had no opinion.[25] The poll was reported by NBC News as notable as it found that 55% of Southerners supported same-sex marriage, which represented an historic change for a region that was previously staunchly opposed.[26]

A Public Religion Research Institute nationwide & state-by-state poll conducted throughout 2017 found that 61% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, 30% opposed, and 9% refused to answer or answered "don't know," with there being majority support for same-sex marriage in 44 states, plurality support in 4 states, plurality opposition in 1 state, and majority opposition in 1 state.[27]

An August 2017 NBC News/The Wall Street Journal poll found that 60% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, 33% opposed, and 7% had no opinion.[28][29]

A June 2017 Pew Research Center poll found 62% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, 32% opposed, and 6% had no opinion. This marked the first Pew poll where a majority of Baby Boomers supported same-sex marriage, did not oppose same-sex marriage.[30]

A May 2017 Gallup poll found 64% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, 34% opposed, and 2% had no opinion. This marked the first Gallup poll where a majority of Protestants supported same-sex marriage.[31]

A May 2016 Gallup poll found 61% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, 37% opposed, and 2% had no opinion. This marked the first Gallup poll where a majority of Americans aged 65 and older supported same-sex marriage.[32]

Pre-Obergefell v. Hodges[edit]

2010–2015[edit]

2015[edit]

A May Gallup poll found 60% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, 37% opposed, and 3% had no opinion.[33]

A February–March Wall Street Journal poll found that 59% of Americans favored same-sex marriage.[34]

A January–February Human Rights Campaign poll found that 60% of Americans favored same-sex marriage, while 37% opposed. The same poll also found that 46% of respondents knew a same-sex couple who had gotten married.[13]

A February 12–15 CNN/ORC poll found that 63% of Americans believed same-sex marriage is a constitutional right, while 36% disagreed.[35]

2014[edit]

A May Gallup poll found that 55% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, 42% opposed, and 4% had no opinion.[36]

An April Public Religion Research Institute poll sponsored by the Ford Foundation found that 55% of all Americans supported same-sex marriage, while 39% were opposed.[37]

A Pew Research Center poll released in March found 54% of Americans favored same-sex marriage, 39% opposed, and 7% didn't know.[38] It also researched support for same-sex marriage among Republican leaning voters in the United States. 61% of Republican leaning voters aged 18–29 supported allowing same-sex couples to marry, while only 27% of Republican leaning voters over 50 years of age were supportive.[39] 52% of Republican voters aged 18–50 supported same-sex marriage.[40][41]

A Washington Post/ABC News poll from February–March found that a record high of 59% of Americans approved of same-sex marriage, with only 34% opposed and 7% with no opinion. The poll also revealed that 53% of the population in the states that did not allow same-sex couples to marry at the time approved of same-sex marriage. 50% of respondents agreed that the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution guarantees the freedom to marry regardless of sex or sexual orientation, while 41% disagreed, and 9% had no opinion.[42] The same poll also found that 81% of people believed that businesses should not be allowed to refuse to serve gays and lesbians. 16% disagreed, and 3% had no opinion. 78% thought that gay couples can be "just as good parents" as straight couples, while 18% disagreed and 4% had no opinion.[43]

2013[edit]

A November/December Public Religion Research Institute poll sponsored by the Ford Foundation found that 53% of all Americans supported same-sex marriage, while 41% were opposed and 6% unsure. The margin of error was 1.1%. The same poll found clear majorities in favor of same-sex marriage in the Northeast (60%), West (58%), and Midwest (51%). Only the South was evenly divided 48% in favor to 48% opposed. Further, nearly 7-in-10 (69%) of those born after 1980 (ages 18–33) favored allowing same-sex couples to marry.[44]

A Bloomberg National Poll conducted by Selzer & Company taken during September 20–23, 2013 found that 55% supported same-sex marriage, while 36% opposed and 9% were unsure.[45]

A September Quinnipiac University poll found that 56% of American adults and 57% of registered voters supported same-sex marriage. Only 36% of both groups were opposed.[46]

A July 10–14 poll by Gallup found support for same-sex marriage at 54%, a record high, and double the support of 27% Gallup first measured when the question was asked in 1996.[47]

A July poll by USA Today found that 55% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, while 40% did not.[48]

A May 9 Washington Post-ABC News poll found that 55% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, while 40% did not.[49]

A March 20–24 CBS News Poll found that 53% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, 39% opposed it, and 8% were undecided.[50] The same poll also found that 33% of Americans who thought same-sex couples should be allowed to legally marry said they once held the opposite view and had changed their opinion.

A March 7–10 Washington Post-ABC News[51] poll found that 58% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, while 36% opposed. The poll indicated that 52% of GOP-leaning independents under 50 years old supported same-sex marriage.[52]

A March Quinnipiac University poll of voters found 47% supported same-sex marriage and 43% were opposed.[53]

2012[edit]

A November 26–29 Gallup poll found that 53% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, while 46% did not.[54]

A November 16–19 CBS News poll found that 51% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, while 40% did not.[55]

A November 7–11 ABC News/Washington Post poll found that 51% of respondents supported same-sex marriage, while 47% were opposed.[56]

A June 6 CNN/ORC International poll showed that a majority of Americans supported same-sex marriage being legalized at 54%, while 42% were opposed.[57]

A May 22 NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll showed that 54% of Americans would support a law in their state making same-sex marriage legal, with 40% opposed.[58]

A May 17–20 ABC News/Washington Post poll showed that 53% believed same-sex marriage should be legal, with only 39% opposed, a low point for opposition in any national poll that far.[59][60]

A May 10 USA Today/Gallup Poll, taken one day after Barack Obama became the first sitting president to express support for same-sex marriage,[61] showed 51% of Americans agreed with the President's endorsement, while 45% disagreed.[62] A May 8 Gallup Poll showed majority support for same-sex marriage nationwide, with 50% in favor and 48% opposed.[63]

An April Pew Research Center poll showed support for same-sex marriage at 48%, while opposition fell to 44%.[3]

A March 7–10 ABC News/Washington Post poll found 52% of adults thought it should be legal for same-sex couples to get married, while 42% disagreed and 5% were unsure.[45] A March survey by the Public Religion Research Institute found 52% of Americans supported allowing same-sex couples to marry, while 44% opposed.[64]

A February 29 – March 3 NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll found 49% of adults supported allowing same-sex couples to marry, while 40% opposed.[65]

2011[edit]

Public support for same-sex marriage continued to grow in 2011. In February and March, a Pew Research Center for the People & the Press survey found about as many adults favored (45%) as opposed (46%) allowing same-sex couples to marry legally, compared to a 2009 Pew Research survey that found just 37% backed same-sex marriage while 54% opposed.[66] In March and April, polls by Gallup,[67] ABC News/Washington Post,[68] and CNN/Opinion Research[69] all showed that a majority of Americans approved of same-sex marriage.

In March, Pew reported that 57% of Democrats favored legal recognition for same-sex marriage, and 51% of independents agreed, but only 23% of Republicans agreed.[66] An April CNN/Opinion Research Poll showed majority support including 64% of Democrats and 55% of independents, but only 27% of Republicans.[69]

In March 2011, Democracy Corps conducted a survey of 1,000 likely 2012 election voters in 50 congressional districts considered political battlegrounds. It asked respondents to rate their feelings on the same-sex marriage issue on a 0–100 scale, with 100 being "very warm" or favorable feelings, and 0 being "very cold" or unfavorable feelings. 42% were on the "cool" or unfavorable side, and 35% were on the "warm" or favorable side.[70]

A May 2011 Gallup Poll also showed majority support for same-sex marriage, 53% in favor to 45% opposed. Gallup measured a 9-point increase in support, from 44% to 53%, indicating that support increased faster than in any previous year.[67]

2010[edit]

An August Associated Press/National Constitution Center poll found 52% agreed that the federal government should give legal recognition to marriages between couples of the same sex, an increase from 46% in 2009. 46% disagreed, compared to 53% in 2009.[71]

An August CNN/Opinion Research Poll showed that 49% of respondents thought gays and lesbians do have a constitutional right to get married and have their marriage recognized by law as valid, and 52% thought gays and lesbians should have that right.[72]

Earlier polls in February and May found opinion divided within the margin of error, but with a consistent trend of increasing support and decreasing opposition compared to prior years.[73][74] One August poll found majority opposition,[75] and a November exit poll of 17,504 voters by CNN during the 2010 midterm elections found 53% opposition with 41% support.[76]

2000s[edit]

2009[edit]

An April 30 ABC News/Washington Post poll found support for allowing same-sex couples to marry in the United States ahead of opposition for the first time: 49% support, 46% opposition, and 5% with no opinion. In addition, 53% believed that same-sex marriages performed in other states should be legal in their states. 62% of Democrats and 52% of Independents supported same-sex marriage, while 74% of Republicans opposed.[77]

An April 22–26 poll by CBS/New York Times found 42% supported marriage for same-sex couples, 25% supported civil unions, and 28% opposed any legal recognition of same-sex couples.[78] 5% of respondents were unsure.

In April, Nate Silver noted that the discrepancy in support for same-sex marriage appeared to result from 5-10% of respondents who favored civil unions over same-sex marriage, but given only two choices, would support same-sex marriage.[79]

A LifeWay Research poll conducted in August 2009 found that 61% of Americans born between 1980 and 1991 saw nothing wrong with two people of the same gender getting married, while 39% disagreed. The survey was conducted on a demographically representative survey of 1,200 U.S. adults between 18 and 29 years old.[80]

2008[edit]

A December poll revealed that 32% supported the concept of civil unions, 31% would offer full marriage rights to same-sex couples, and 30% opposed any legal recognition for gay and lesbian partnerships.[81]

In a July 17 poll by the Quinnipiac University Polling Institute, 55 percent opposed same-sex marriage, and 36 percent were in favor.[82]

An ABC News poll found that a majority (58%) of Americans remained opposed to same-sex marriages, while a minority (36%) support them. However, on the question of a constitutional amendment, more were opposed than for it. The majority (51%) of Americans said the issue should be left for the states to decide, while 43% would agree with amending the Constitution.[citation needed]

A July poll by Quinnipiac University Polling Institute revealed that 32% would allow homosexual partners to legally marry, 33% would permit them to form civil unions, and 29% would grant them no legal recognition.[82][83]

2006[edit]

In May, a Gallup poll found that opposition to same-sex marriage had fallen slightly, as other polls found a sharper dip. In the poll, when asked if marriages between homosexuals should be recognized by law as valid, with the same rights as traditional marriages, 58% (down 1 point from Aug 2005, and 9 points from March 1996) of Americans responded that they should not be recognized. 39% (up 2 points from Aug 2005, and 12 points from 1996) felt same-sex marriages should be recognized by law. If "homosexuals" is replaced with "same-sex couples", 42% backed same-sex marriage while 56% opposed it.[84]

In June, a Princeton Survey Research Associates/Pew Research Center poll found a rise in those opposed to same-sex marriage, with 56% disapproving.

In March, a Princeton Survey Research Associates/Pew Research Center poll concluded that 39% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, while 51% opposed it, and 10% were undecided.

A Pew study in March found that 51% opposed same-sex marriage, with 39% supporting it, and the level of "strongly opposing" same-sex marriage had fallen from 42% to 28%.[85][86] Pew's May 2008 Survey found that for the first time, a majority of people did not oppose same-sex marriage at 49%. 20% opposed and 29% strongly opposed same-sex marriage, up 1% from the March 2006 Pew Research Results.[87]

2004[edit]

In December, a Princeton Survey Research Associates/Pew Research Center poll found 61% of Americans opposed (including 38% "strongly opposed").

20th century[edit]

An October 1989 Yankelovich Clancy Shulman telephone poll found that 84% of Americans opposed same-sex marriage, with 12% supporting same-sex marriage, and 4% being not sure.[88]

A 1988 International Social Survey Programme poll found that 80.3% of Americans opposed same-sex marriage, while 11.9% of Americans supported same-sex marriage, and 2.1% of Americans neither agreed or disagreed.[89]

A 1988 National Opinion Research Center / General Social Survey / University of Chicago poll found that 82.6% of Americans opposed same-sex marriage, 10.7% of Americans supported it, 3.9% of Americans neither agreed or disagreed, and 2.8% didn't know / etc.[90]

Demographic differences[edit]

By age[edit]

Date(s) conducted Age Favor state sanctioned same-sex marriage Oppose state sanctioned same-sex marriage Don't Know / Refused Margin of error Sample Conducted by Polling type
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 18-29 79% 19% 2% 351 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 18-34 75% 2.82% 360 adults NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 18-48 72% 24% 4% 1,016 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 30-49 67% 28% 5% 665 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 35-49 60% 2.82% 300 adults NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 50-64 55% 2.82% 336 adults NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 50-64 56% 38% 6% 778 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 50+ 52% 41% 7% 1,452 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 65+ 42% 2.82% 204 adults NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 65+ 46% 45% 9% 674 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews

By education[edit]

Date(s) conducted Education Favor state sanctioned same-sex marriage Oppose state sanctioned same-sex marriage Don't Know / Refused Margin of error Sample Conducted by Polling type
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 College grad 72% 23% 6% 719 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
College grad+ 75% 21% 5% 1,199 adults
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 College graduates 68% 2.82% 468 adults NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
High school or less 48% 372 adults
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 HS or less 53% 41% 6% 634 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
Non-college 57% 37% 6% 1,295 adults
Postgrad 79% 17% 3% 480 adults
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 Postgraduates 72% 2.82% 168 adults NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
Some college 61% 192 adults
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 Some college 62% 32% 6% 661 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews

By ethnicity or race[edit]

Date(s) conducted Ethnicity or race Favor state sanctioned same-sex marriage Oppose state sanctioned same-sex marriage Don't Know / Refused Margin of error Sample Conducted by Polling type
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 Black, non-Hispanic 51% 41% 7% 7.3% 241 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 African-American 51% 2.82% 144 adults NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
Hispanic 66% 840 adults
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 Hispanic 60% 36% 5% 6.5% 297 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 Total Non-White 60% 2.82% 312 adults NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
White 60% 888 adults
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 White, non-Hispanic 64% 31% 5% 2.7% 1,737 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews

By gender[edit]

Date(s) conducted Gender Favor state sanctioned same-sex marriage Oppose state sanctioned same-sex marriage Don't Know / Refused Margin of error Sample Conducted by Polling type
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 Men 61% 2.82% 576 adults NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 60% 34% 6% 1,355 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 Women 59% 2.82% 624 adults NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 64% 30% 5% 1,149 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews

By geography[edit]

Date(s) conducted Geography Favor state sanctioned same-sex marriage Margin of error Sample Conducted by Polling type
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 Rural 47% 2.82% NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
Suburban 61%
Urban 66%

By income[edit]

Date(s) conducted Income Favor state sanctioned same-sex marriage Oppose state sanctioned same-sex marriage Don't Know / Refused Margin of error Sample Conducted by Polling type
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 <$30,000 54% 39% 7% 568 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
$30,000-$74,999 65% 31% 5% 787 adults
$75,000+ 72% 23% 5% 951 adults

By political affiliation[edit]

Date(s) conducted Political affiliation State sanctioned same-sex marriage should be valid
/
Favor state sanctioned same-sex marriage
Oppose state sanctioned same-sex marriage Don't Know / Refused Margin of error Sample Conducted by Polling type
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 Dem/Dem lean 76% 19% 5% 3.2% 1,230 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
Democrat 73% 22% 5% 777 adults Pew Research Center
May 1, 2018 – May 10, 2018 Democrats 83% 4% 1,024 adults Gallup Telephone interviews
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 Independent 70% 26% 5% 989 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
May 1, 2018 – May 10, 2018 Independents 71% 4% 1,024 adults Gallup Telephone interviews
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 Rep/Rep lean 47% 48% 5% 3.5% 1,050 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
Republican 40% 54% 5% 612 adults Pew Research Center
May 1, 2018 – May 10, 2018 Republicans 44% 4% 1,024 adults Gallup Telephone interviews
February 11, 2020 – November 22, 2020 Republicans 51% 1.1% 10,052 adults PRRI Interviews

By political affiliation by generation[edit]

Date(s) conducted Political affiliation
by
generation
Favor state sanctioned same-sex marriage Oppose state sanctioned same-sex marriage Don't Know / Refused Margin of error Sample Conducted by Polling type
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 Democratic Millennials 87% 12% 2% 344 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
Democratic Gen Xers 76% 18% 5% 268 adults
Democratic Baby Boomers 70% 26% 4% 463 adults
Democratic Silents 56% 31% 13% 140 adults
Republican Millennials 60% 38% 2% 198 adults
Republican Gen Xers 51% 43% 6% 215 adults
Republican Baby Boomers 42% 53% 6% 421 adults
Republican Silents 29% 62% 9% 188 adults

By political affiliation by ideology[edit]

Date(s) conducted Political affiliation
by
ideology
Favor state sanctioned same-sex marriage Oppose state sanctioned same-sex marriage Don't Know / Refused Margin of error Sample Conducted by Polling type
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 Conservative Rep/Lean Rep 39% 55% 6% 698 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
Liberal Dem/Lean Dem 66% 27% 7% 617 adults
Moderate/Cons Dem/Lean Dem 88% 10% 2% 613 adults
Moderate/Lib Rep/Lean Rep 63% 33% 4% 352 adults

By religious affiliation[edit]

Date(s) conducted Religious affiliation State sanctioned same-sex marriage should be valid
/
Favor state sanctioned same-sex marriage
Oppose state sanctioned same-sex marriage Don't Know / Refused Margin of error Sample Conducted by Polling type
May 3, 2017 – May 7, 2017 Catholics 65% 4% Gallup Telephone interviews
Protestants/Christians (nonspecific) 55%
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 Total Catholic 67% 28% 6% 502 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
Total Protestant 48% 46% 6% 1,165 adults
Total Unaffiliated 85% 10% 4% 597 adults
September 9 – 22, 2020 Hispanic Catholics 78% Public Religion Research Institute Online (2,496), some telephone (42)[91]
White Catholics 67%
White mainline Protestants 79%
Hispanic Protestants 68%
Black Protestants 57%
White evangelical Protestants 34%
Non-Christian religious 72%
Christian: Other 56%
Unaffiliated 90%

By religious attendance[edit]

Date(s) conducted Religious attendance Favor state sanctioned same-sex marriage Oppose state sanctioned same-sex marriage Don't Know / Refused Margin of error Sample Conducted by Polling type
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 Less than weekly 75% 20% 5% 1,619 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 Monthly 59% 2.82% 204 adults NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
Never 80% 288 adults
Weekly 34% 384 adults
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 Weekly or more 34% 66% 6% 863 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 Yearly 70% 2.82% 312 adults NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews

Regional, state, and local level polls[edit]

By state, federal district, or territory[edit]

Date(s) conducted State,
federal district,
or
territory
Favor state sanctioned same-sex marriage Oppose state sanctioned same-sex marriage Don't Know / Refused Sample Conducted by Polling type
April 5, 2017 – December 23, 2017 Alabama 41% 51% 8% 624 adults Public Religion Research Institute Telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
Alaska 57% 34% 9% 156 adults
Arizona 63% 28% 9% 792 adults
Arkansas 52% 38% 10% 340 adults
California 66% 23% 11% 3,942 adults
Colorado 71% 21% 8% 631 adults
Connecticut 73% 20% 7% 385 adults
Delaware 58% 27% 15% 167 adults
Florida 61% 30% 9% 2,495 adults
Georgia 52% 39% 9% 1,186 adults
Hawaii 68% 20% 12% 163 adults
Idaho 56% 32% 12% 264 adults
Illinois 65% 25% 10% 1,387 adults
Indiana 58% 34% 8% 928 adults
Iowa 59% 33% 8% 500 adults
Kansas 57% 37% 6% 372 adults
Kentucky 51% 42% 7% 559 adults
Louisiana 48% 44% 8% 578 adults
Maine 71% 25% 4% 198 adults
Maryland 66% 25% 9% 700 adults
Massachusetts 80% 13% 7% 698 adults
Michigan 63% 29% 8% 1,354 adults
Minnesota 67% 27% 6% 787 adults
Mississippi 42% 48% 10% 303 adults
Missouri 58% 35% 7% 845 adults
Montana 57% 37% 6% 195 adults
Nebraska 54% 33% 13% 285 adults
Nevada 70% 23% 7% 491 adults
New Hampshire 73% 23% 5% 181 adults
New Jersey 68% 23% 9% 979 adults
New Mexico 63% 30% 7% 304 adults
New York 69% 24% 7% 2,548 adults
North Carolina 49% 41% 10% 1,385 adults
North Dakota 53% 35% 12% 157 adults
Ohio 61% 33% 6% 1,524 adults
Oklahoma 53% 36% 11% 434 adults
Oregon 67% 25% 8% 664 adults
Pennsylvania 64% 27% 9% 1,792 adults
Rhode Island 78% 17% 5% 164 adults
South Carolina 53% 37% 10% 608 adults
South Dakota 52% 37% 11% 165 adults
Tennessee 46% 45% 9% 808 adults
Texas 55% 34% 11% 2,813 adults
Utah 54% 38% 8% 370 adults
Vermont 80% 16% 4% 168 adults
Virginia 60% 32% 8% 1,120 adults
Washington 73% 21% 6% 1,036 adults
West Virginia 48% 45% 7% 282 adults
Wisconsin 66% 26% 6% 855 adults
Wyoming 62% 30% 8% 170 adults
District of Columbia 78% 17% 4% 799 adults Public Religion Research Institute

By metro area[edit]

Date(s) conducted Metro area Favor state sanctioned same-sex marriage Oppose state sanctioned same-sex marriage Don't Know / Refused Margin of error Sample Conducted by Polling type
April 5, 2021– August 23, 2021 Atlanta 77% 19% 4% 0.6% 631 adults Public Religion Research Institute[failed verification] Telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
Boston 89% 5% 6% 445 adults
Charlotte 73% 24% 3% 290 adults
Chicago 85% 7% 8% 970 adults
Cincinnati 81% 12% 7% 306 adults
Cleveland 78% 13% 9% 268 adults
Columbus 79% 18% 3% 246 adults
Dallas 68% 27% 5% 710 adults
Denver 92% 5% 3% 297 adults
Detroit 80% 11% 9% 539 adults
Houston 72% 17% 11% 584 adults
Indianapolis 84% 12% 4% 285 adults
Kansas City 76% 17% 7% 279 adults
Las Vegas 89% 6% 5% 360 adults
Los Angeles 82% 17% 1% 1,176 adults
Miami 74% 21% 5% 618 adults
Milwaukee 81% 13% 4% 222 adults
Minneapolis–Saint Paul 93% 3% 4% 474 adults
Nashville 67% 28% 5% 182 adults
New York City 91% 5% 4% 2,314 adults
Orlando 80% 17% 3% 242 adults
Philadelphia 83% 15% 2% 805 adults
Phoenix 77% 19% 4% 501 adults
Pittsburgh 85% 8% 7% 372 adults
Portland 88% 9% 3% 347 adults
San Francisco 96% 1% 3% 472 adults
Seattle 92% 5% 3% 464 adults
St. Louis 79% 13% 8% 422 adults
Tampa-St. Petersburg 73% 22% 5% 402 adults
Washington, DC 81% 15% 4% 799 adults

By region[edit]

Date(s) conducted Region Favor state sanctioned same-sex marriage
/
Support state sanctioned same-sex marriage
Oppose state sanctioned same-sex marriage Don't Know / Refused
/
No answer
Margin of error Sample Conducted by Polling type
April 5, 2017 – December 23, 2017 Midwest 62% 31% 8% 0.6% Public Religion Research Institute Telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 53% 2.82% NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 62% 33% 6% 552 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
April 5, 2017 – December 23, 2017 Northeast 69% 23% 8% 0.6% Public Religion Research Institute Telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 70% 2.82% NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 73% 23% 4% 432 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
March 12, 2018 – March 25, 2018 South[a] 55% 42% 3% 2.4% 4,132 adult residents NBC News / SurveyMonkey Online survey
April 5, 2017 – December 23, 2017 West 66% 26% 9% 0.6% Public Religion Research Institute Telephone interviews and cell phone interviews
August 5, 2017 – August 9, 2017 67% 2.82% NBC News / Wall Street Journal Live interviews and cell phone interviews
June 8, 2017 – June 18, 2017 68% 28% 4% 577 adults Pew Research Center Landline telephone interviews and cell phone interviews

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia

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