Public opinion on climate change

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Public opinion on global warming)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Causation: Results of a Yale Climate Connection-reported survey in 31 countries of public opinion, specifically among Facebook users, on the causes of climate change.[1]
Perception of seriousness: Results of a survey overseen by the United Nations Development Programme on belief in whether climate change presents a climate emergency.[2]

Public opinion on climate change is the aggregate of attitudes or beliefs held by the adult population concerning the science, economics, and politics of climate change. It is affected by media coverage of climate change.[3]

Public opinion on climate change is multidimensional, dynamic, and differentiated. The multiple dimensions include, among others, beliefs about anthropogenic climate change, perceptions of climate change risks, concern about its seriousness, and thoughts on what, if anything, should be done to address it. Public opinion is dynamic, changing over time due to personal, social, political, economic, and environmental factors. Finally, public opinion is differentiated. A range of sociodemographic, political, cultural, economic, and environmental factors predict variation in climate change public opinion.[4]

General overview[edit]

In January 2021, the United Nations Development Programme reported results of the largest-ever climate survey, which indicated that two-thirds of respondents consider climate change as an emergency, with forest and land conservation being the most popular solutions.[5] Specifically, The Peoples' Climate Vote (1.2 million respondents in over 50 countries) found that 64% said climate change was an emergency – presenting a clear and convincing call for decision-makers to step up on ambition.[6]

Influences on individual opinion[edit]

Geographic region[edit]

For a list of countries and their opinion see "Climate change opinion by country" below

United States, Europe, and Australia are the darkest while Africa, the Middle East, and Oceania are the lightest.
Proportion reporting knowing "something" or "a great deal" about global warming in 2007–08. Darker areas indicate a greater proportion of individuals aware, yellow indicates no data.
Latin America and Japan are the darkest while the remainder are either much lighter or mixed.
Proportion responding yes when asked, "Temperature rise is part of global warming or climate change. Do you think rising temperatures are [...] a result of human activities?"
The Americas, Europe, Australia, Kenya, and Japan are the darkest. The remainder is much lighter.
Proportion responding that global warming is a serious personal threat

The first major worldwide poll, conducted by Gallup in 2008–2009 in 127 countries, found that some 62% of people worldwide said they knew about global warming. In the industrialized countries of North America, Europe, and Japan, 67% or more knew about it (97% in the U.S., 99% in Japan); in developing countries, especially in Africa, fewer than a quarter knew about it, although many had noticed local weather changes. The survey results suggest that between 2007 and 2010 only 42% of the world's population were aware of climate change and believed that it is caused by human activity. Among those who knew about global warming, there was a wide variation between nations in belief that the warming was a result of human activities.[7][8]

Adults in Asia, with the exception of those in developed countries, are the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In developed Asian countries like South Korea, perceptions of climate change are associated with strong emotional beliefs about its causes.[9] In the western world, individuals are the most likely to be aware and perceive it as a very or somewhat serious threat to themselves and their families;[10] although Europeans are more concerned about climate change than those in the United States.[11] However, the public in Africa, where individuals are the most vulnerable to global warming while producing the least carbon dioxide, is the least aware – which translates into a low perception that it is a threat.[10]

These variations pose a challenge to policymakers, as different countries travel down different paths, making an agreement over an appropriate response difficult. While Africa may be the most vulnerable and produce the least amount of greenhouse gases, they are the most ambivalent. The top five emitters (China, the United States, India, Russia, and Japan), who together emit half the world's greenhouse gases, vary in both awareness and concern. The United States, Russia, and Japan are the most aware at over 85% of the population. Conversely, only two-thirds of people in China and one-third in India are aware. Japan expresses the greatest concern of the 5, which translates into support for environmental policies. People in China, Russia, and the United States, while varying in awareness, have expressed a similar proportion of aware individuals concerned. Similarly, those aware in India are likely to be concerned, but India faces challenges spreading this concern to the remaining population as its energy needs increase over the next decade.[12]

An online survey on environmental questions conducted in 20 countries by Ipsos MORI, "Global Trends 2014", shows broad agreement, especially on climate change and if it is caused by humans, though the U.S. ranked lowest with 54% agreement.[13] It has been suggested that the low U.S. ranking is tied to denial campaigns.[14]

A 2010 survey of 14 industrialized countries found that skepticism about the danger of global warming was highest in Australia, Norway, New Zealand and the United States, in that order, correlating positively with per capita emissions of carbon dioxide.[15]

Education[edit]

In countries varying in awareness, an educational gap translates into a gap in awareness.[16] However an increase in awareness does not always result in an increase in perceived threat. In China, 98% of those who have completed four years or more of college education reported knowing something or a great deal of climate change while only 63% of those who have completed nine years of education reported the same. Despite the differences in awareness in China, all groups perceive a low level of threat from global warming. In India, those who are educated are more likely to be aware, and those who are educated there are far more likely to report perceiving global warming as a threat than those who are not educated.[12] In Europe, individuals who have attained a higher level of education perceive climate change as a serious threat. There is also a strong association between education and Internet use. Europeans who use the Internet more are more likely to perceive climate change as a serious threat.[17] However, a survey of American adults found "little disagreement among culturally diverse citizens[clarification needed] on what science knows about climate change. In the US, individuals with greater science literacy and education have more polarized beliefs on climate change.[18]

Demographics[edit]

In general, there is a substantial variation in the direction in which demographic traits, like age or gender, correlate with climate change concern. While women and younger people tend to be more concerned about climate change in English-speaking constituencies, the opposite is true in most African countries.[8][19]

Residential demographics affect perceptions of global warming. In China, 77% of those who live in urban areas are aware of global warming compared to 52% in rural areas. This trend is mirrored in India with 49% to 29% awareness, respectively.[12]

Of the countries where at least half the population is aware of global warming, those with the majority who believe that global warming is due to human activities have a greater national GDP per unit energy—or, a greater energy efficiency.[20]

In Europe, individuals under fifty-five are more likely to perceive both "poverty, lack of food and drinking water" and climate change as a serious threat than individuals over fifty-five. Male individuals are more likely to perceive climate change as a threat than female individuals. Managers, white-collar workers, and students are more likely to perceive climate change as a greater threat than house persons and retired individuals.[17]

In the United States, conservative white men are more likely than other Americans to deny climate change.[21] A very similar trend has been documented in Norway, where 63% of conservative men deny anthropogenic climate change compared to just 36% of the general Norwegian population.[22] In Sweden, political conservatism was similarly found to correlate with climate change denial, while in Brazil, climate change denial has been found to be more correlated with gender, with men being significantly more likely to express denialist viewpoints compared to women.[23]

In Great Britain, a movement of by women known as "birthstrikers" advocates for refraining from procreation until the possibility of "climate breakdown and civilisation collapse" is averted.[24]

In 2021 a global survey was conducted to understand the opinion of people in the age 16-25 about climate change. According to the study, 4 from 10 are hesitating about having children because they are afraid of climate change. 6 from 10 fill extreme anxiety about the issue. Similar number felt betrayed by older generations and governments.[25]

Political identification[edit]

Democrats (blue) and Republicans (red) have long differed in views of the importance of addressing climate change, with the gap widening in the late 2010s mainly through Democrats' share increasing by more than 30 points.[26]
(Discontinuity resulted from survey changing in 2015 from reciting "global warming" to "climate change".)

In the United States, support for environmental protection was relatively non-partisan in the twentieth century. Republican Theodore Roosevelt established national parks whereas Democrat Franklin Delano Roosevelt established the Soil Conservation Service. Republican Richard Nixon was instrumental in founding the United States Environmental Protection Agency, and tried to install a third pillar of NATO dealing with environmental challenges such as acid rain and the greenhouse effect. Daniel Patrick Moynihan was Nixon's NATO delegate for the topic.[27]

This non-partisanship began to erode during the 1980s, when the Reagan administration described environmental protection as an economic burden. Views over global warming began to seriously diverge between Democrats and Republicans during the negotiations that led up to the creation of the Kyoto Protocol in 1998. In a 2008 Gallup poll of the American public, 76% of Democrats and only 41% of Republicans said that they believed global warming was already happening. The opinions of the political elites, such as members of Congress, tends to be even more polarized.[28]

Public opinion on climate change can be influenced by who people vote for. Although media coverage influences how some view climate change, research shows that voting behavior influences climate change skepticism. This shows that people's views on climate change tend to align with the people they voted for.[29]

In Europe, opinion is not strongly divided among left and right parties. Although European political parties on the left, including Green parties, strongly support measures to address climate change, conservative European political parties maintain similar sentiments, most notably in Western and Northern Europe. For example, Margaret Thatcher, never a friend of the coal mining industry, was a strong supporter of an active climate protection policy and was instrumental in founding the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the British Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research.[30] Some speeches, as to the Royal Society on 27 September 1988[31] and to the UN general assembly in November 1989 helped to put climate change, acid rain, and general pollution in the British mainstream. After her career, however, Thatcher was less of a climate activist, as she called climate action a "marvelous excuse for supranational socialism", and called Al Gore an "apocalyptic hyperbole".[32] France's center-right President Chirac pushed key environmental and climate change policies in France in 2005–2007. Conservative German administrations (under the Christian Democratic Union and Christian Social Union) in the past two decades[when?] have supported European Union climate change initiatives; concern about forest dieback and acid rain regulation were initiated under Kohl's archconservative minister of the interior Friedrich Zimmermann. In the period after former President George W. Bush announced that the United States was leaving the Kyoto Treaty, European media and newspapers on both the left and right criticized the move. The conservative Spanish La Razón, the Irish Times, the Irish Independent, the Danish Berlingske Tidende, and the Greek Kathimerini all condemned the Bush administration's decision, as did left-leaning newspapers.[33]

In Norway, a 2013 poll conducted by TNS Gallup found that 92% of those who vote for the Socialist Left Party and 89% of those who vote for the Liberal Party believe that global warming is caused by humans, while the percentage who held this belief is 60% among voters for the Conservative Party and 41% among voters for the Progress Party.[34]

The shared sentiments between the political left and right on climate change further illustrate the divide in perception between the United States and Europe on climate change. As an example, conservative German Prime Ministers Helmut Kohl and Angela Merkel have differed with other parties in Germany only on how to meet emissions reduction targets, not whether or not to establish or fulfill them.[33]

A 2017 study found that those who changed their opinion on climate change between 2010 and 2014 did so "primarily to align better with those who shared their party identification and political ideology. This conforms with the theory of motivated reasoning: Evidence consistent with prior beliefs is viewed as strong and, on politically salient issues, people strive to bring their opinions into conformance with those who share their political identity".[35] Furthermore, a 2019 study examining the growing skepticism of climate change among American Republicans argues that persuasion and rhetoric from party elites play a critical role in public opinion formation, and that these elite cues are propagated through mainstream and social media sources.[36]

For those who care about the environment and want change are not happy about some policies, for example the support of the cap and trade policy but very few people are willing to pay more than 15 dollars per month for a program that is supposed to help the environment. There is evidence that not many people are aware of climate change in the US, only 2% of respondents ranked the environment as the top issue in the US.[37]

Individual risk assessment and assignment[edit]

The IPCC attempts to orchestrate global (climate) change research to shape a worldwide consensus.[38] However, the consensus approach has been dubbed more a liability than an asset in comparison to other environmental challenges.[39][40] The linear model of policy-making, based on a more knowledge we have, the better the political response will be is said to have not been working and is in the meantime rejected by sociology.[41]

Sheldon Ungar, a Canadian sociologist, compares the different public reactions towards ozone depletion and climate change.[42] The public opinion failed to tie climate change to concrete events which could be used as a threshold or beacon to signify immediate danger.[42] Scientific predictions of a temperature rise of two to three degrees Celsius over several decades do not respond with people, e.g. in North America, that experience similar swings during a single day.[42] As scientists define global warming a problem of the future, a liability in "attention economy", pessimistic outlooks in general and assigning extreme weather to climate change have often been discredited or ridiculed (compare Gore effect) in the public arena.[43] While the greenhouse effect per se is essential for life on earth, the case was quite different with the ozone shield and other metaphors about the ozone depletion. The scientific assessment of the ozone problem also had large uncertainties. But the metaphors used in the discussion (ozone shield, ozone hole) reflected better with lay people and their concerns.

The idea of rays penetrating a damaged "shield" meshes nicely with abiding and resonant cultural motifs, including "Hollywood affinities". These range from the shields on the Starship Enterprise to Star Wars, ... It is these pre-scientific bridging metaphors built around the penetration of a deteriorating shield that render the ozone problem relatively simple. That the ozone threat can be linked with Darth Vader means that it is encompassed in common sense understandings that are deeply ingrained and widely shared. (Sheldon Ungar 2000)[42]

The chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) regulation attempts of the end of the 1980s profited from those easy-to-grasp metaphors and the personal risk assumptions taken from them. As well the fate of celebrities like President Ronald Reagan, which had skin cancer removal in 1985 and 1987, was of high importance. In case of the public opinion on climate change, no imminent danger is perceived.[42]

Ideology[edit]

In the United States, ideology is an effective predictor of party identification, where conservatives are more prevalent among Republicans, and moderates and liberals among independents and Democrats.[44] A shift in ideology is often associated with in a shift in political views.[45] For example, when the number of conservatives rose from 2008 to 2009, the number of individuals who felt that global warming was being exaggerated in the media also rose.[46] The 2006 BBC World Service poll found that when asked about various policy options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions – tax incentives for alternative energy research and development, installment of taxes to encourage energy conservation, and reliance on nuclear energy to reduce fossil fuels. The majority of those asked felt that tax incentives were the path of action that they preferred.

As of May 2016, polls have repeatedly found that a majority of Republican voters, particularly young ones, believe the government should take action to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.[47]

The pursuit of green energy is an ideology that defines hydroelectric dams,[48] natural gas power plants and nuclear power as unacceptable alternative energies for the eight billion tons of coal burnt each year. While there is popular support for wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal energy, all these sources combined only supplied 1.3% of global energy in 2013.[49][50]

After a country host the annual Conference of the Parties (COP) climate legislation increases which causes policy diffusion. There is strong evidence of policy diffusion which is when a policy is made it is influenced by the policy choices made elsewhere.This can a have positive effect on climate legislation.[51]

Scientific analyses of international survey data show that right-wing orientation and individualism are strongly correlated to climate change denial in the US and other English-speaking countries, but much less in most non-English speaking nations.[8][52]

Charts[edit]

A 2018 study found that individuals were more likely to accept that global temperatures were increasing if they were shown the information in a chart rather than in text.[53][54]

Issues[edit]

Science[edit]

A scientific consensus on climate change exists, as recognized by national academies of science and other authoritative bodies. The opinion gap between scientists and the public in 2009 stands at 84% to 49% that global temperatures are increasing because of human-activity.[55] However, more recent research has identified substantial geographical variation in the public's understanding of the scientific consensus.[56]

Economics[edit]

Economic debates weigh the benefits of limiting industrial emissions of mitigating global warming against the costs that such changes would entail. While there is a greater amount of agreement over whether global warming exists, there is less agreement over the appropriate response. Electric or petroleum distribution may be government owned or utilities may be regulated by government. The government owned or regulated utilities may, or may not choose to make lower emissions a priority over economics, in unregulated counties industry follows economic priorities. An example of the economic priority is Royal Dutch Shell PLC reporting CO
2
emissions of 81 million metric tonnes in 2013.[57]

Media[edit]

The popular media in the U.S. gives greater attention to skeptics relative to the scientific community as a whole, and the level of agreement within the scientific community has not been accurately communicated.[58][59] US popular media coverage differs from that presented in other countries, where reporting is more consistent with the scientific literature.[60] Some journalists attribute the difference to climate change denial being propagated, mainly in the US, by business-centered organizations employing tactics worked out previously by the US tobacco lobby.[61][62][63] However, one study suggests that these tactic are less prominent in the media and that the public instead draws their opinions on climate mainly from the cues of political party elites.[64]

The efforts of Al Gore and other environmental campaigns have focused on the effects of global warming and have managed to increase awareness and concern, but despite these efforts as of 2007, the number of Americans believing humans are the cause of global warming was holding steady at 61%, and those believing the popular media was understating the issue remained about 35%.[65] Between 2010 and 2013, the number of Americans who believe the media under-reports the seriousness of global warming has been increasing, and the number who think media over-states it has been falling. According to a 2013 Gallup US opinion poll, 57% believe global warming is at least as bad as portrayed in the media (with 33% thinking media has downplayed global warming and 24% saying coverage is accurate). Less than half of Americans (41%) think the problem is not as bad as media portrays it.[66]

September 2011 Angus Reid Public Opinion poll found that Britons (43%) are less likely than Americans (49%) or Canadians (52%) to say that "global warming is a fact and is mostly caused by emissions from vehicles and industrial facilities." The same poll found that 20% of Americans, 20% of Britons and 14% of Canadians think "global warming is a theory that has not yet been proven."[67]

A March 2013 Public Policy Polling poll about widespread and infamous conspiracy theories found that 37% of American voters believe that global warming is a hoax, while 51% do not.[68]

A 2013 poll in Norway conducted by TNS Gallup found that 66% of the population believe that climate change is caused by humans, while 17% do not believe this.[69]

Politics[edit]

September 2019 climate strike in Sydney, Australia

Public opinion impacts on the issue of climate change because governments need willing electorates and citizens in order to implement policies that address climate change. Further, when climate change perceptions differ between the populace and governments, the communication of risk to the public becomes problematic. Finally, a public that is not aware of the issues surrounding climate change may resist or oppose climate change policies, which is of considerable importance to politicians and state leaders.[70]

Public support for action to forestall global warming is as strong as public support has been historically for many other government actions; however, it is not "intense" in the sense that it overrides other priorities.[70][71]

A 2009 Eurobarometer survey found that, on the average, Europeans rate climate change as the second most serious problem facing the world today, between "poverty, the lack of food and drinking water" and "a major global economic downturn." 87% of Europeans consider climate change to be a "serious" or "very serious" problem, while 10% "do not consider it a serious problem." However, the proportion who believe it to be a problem has dropped in the period 2008/9 when the surveys were conducted.[72] While the small majority believe climate change is a serious threat, 55% percent believe the EU is doing too little and 30% believe the EU is going the right amount.[73] As a result of European Union climate change perceptions, "climate change is an issue that has reached such a level of social and political acceptability across the EU that it enables (indeed, forces) the EU Commission and national leaders to produce all sorts of measures, including taxes."[33] Despite the persistent high level of personal involvement of European citizens, found in another Eurobarometer survey in 2011,[74] EU leaders have begun to downscale climate policy issues on the political agenda since the beginning of the Eurozone crisis.[75]

Although public opinion may not be the only factor influencing renewable energy policies, it is a key catalyst. Research has found that the shifts in public opinion in the direction of pro-environmentalism strongly increased the adoption of renewable energy policies in Europe, which can thus be applied in the U.S. and how important climate solutions are to Americans.[76] Moreover, other research shows that countries in which more people believe in human-made climate change tend to have higher carbon prices.[77]

The proportion of Americans who believe that the effects of global warming have begun or will begin in a few years rose to a peak in 2008 where it then declined, and a similar trend was found regarding the belief that global warming is a threat to their lifestyle within their lifetime.[78] Concern over global warming often corresponds with economic downturns and national crisis such as 9/11 as Americans prioritize the economy and national security over environmental concerns. However the drop in concern in 2008 is unique compared to other environmental issues.[46] Considered in the context of environmental issues, Americans consider global warming as a less critical concern than the pollution of rivers, lakes, and drinking water; toxic waste; fresh water needs; air pollution; damage to the ozone layer; and the loss of tropical rain forests. However, Americans prioritize global warming over species extinction and acid rain issues.[79] Since 2000 the partisan gap has grown as Republican and Democratic views diverge.[80]

Climate change opinion by country[edit]

United States, Europe, and Australia are the darkest while Africa, the Middle East, and Oceania are the lightest.
Proportion who reported knowing "something" or a "great deal" about global warming. Darker areas indicate a greater proportion of individuals aware, yellow indicates no data.
Latin America and Japan are the darkest while the remainder are either much lighter or mixed.
Proportion responding yes when asked, "Temperature rise is part of global warming or climate change. Do you think rising temperatures are [...] a result of human activities?"
The Americas, Europe, Australia, Kenya and Japan are the darkest. The remainder much lighter.
Proportion responding in 2008–09 that global warming was a serious personal threat.
At least 72% of Chinese, American and European respondents to a 2020−2021 European Investment Bank climate survey stated that climate change had an impact on everyday life.

Climate change opinion is the aggregate of public opinion held by the adult population. Cost constraints often restrict surveys to sample only one or two countries from each continent or focus on only one region. Because of differences among questions, wording, and methods—it is difficult to reliably compare results or to generalize them to opinions held worldwide.

In 2007–2008, the Gallup Poll surveyed individuals from 128 countries in the first comprehensive study of global opinions. The Gallup Organization aggregated opinion from the adult population fifteen years of age and older, either through the telephone or personal interviews, and in both rural and urban areas except in areas where the safety of interviewer was threatened and in scarcely populated islands. Personal interviews were stratified by population size or geography and cluster sampling was achieved through one or more stages. Although error bounds vary, they were all below ±6% with 95% confidence.

Weighting countries to a 2008 World Bank population estimate, 61% of individuals worldwide were aware of global warming, developed countries more aware than developing, with Africa the least aware. The median of people perceiving it as a threat was 47%. Latin America and developed countries in Asia led the belief that climate change was a result of human activities, while Africa, parts of Asia and the Middle East, and countries from the Former Soviet Union led in the opposite. Awareness often translates to concern, although of those aware, individuals in Europe and developed countries in Asia perceived global warming as a greater threat than others.

Views on climate change by region[edit]

Africa[edit]

People in Africa are relatively concerned about climate change compared to the Middle East and parts of Asia. However, they are less concerned than most of Latin America and Europe. Currently, 61% of people in Africa consider climate change to be a very serious problem, and 52% believe that climate change is harming people now. While 59% of Africans are worried about droughts or water shortages, only 16% are concerned about severe weather, and 3% are concerned about rising sea levels.[81] Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are especially troubled about increasing desertification even as they account for .04% of global carbon dioxide emissions.[82] In Sub-Saharan Africa, the concern over climate change drops to only 34% of the population considering climate change to be a "very" or "somewhat serious issue".[83] Even so, according to the Pew Research Center 2015 Global Attitudes Survey, some particular countries are more concerned than others. In Uganda 79% of people, 68% in Ghana, 45% in South Africa and 40% in Ethiopia consider climate change to be a very serious problem.[81]

Latin America[edit]

Latin America has a larger percentage of people concerned with climate change than other regions of the world. 74% consider climate change to be a serious problem and 77% say that it is harming people now which is 20 points higher than the global median according to the Pew Research Center.[81] 63% of people in Latin America are very concerned that climate change will harm them personally.[81] When looked at more specifically, Mexico and Central America are the most worried at 81.5% believing that climate change is a very serious issue. South America is slightly less anxious at 75% and the Caribbean, at the relatively high rate of 66.7%, is the least concerned.[84] Brazil is an important country in global climate change politics because it is the eleventh largest emitter and unlike other large emitter countries, 86% consider global warming to be a very serious problem.[81][85] Compared to the rest of the world, Latin America is more consistently concerned with high percentages of the population worried about climate change. Further, in Latin America, 67% believe in personal responsibility for climate change and say that people will have to make major lifestyle modifications.[81]

Europe[edit]

An increase in natural disasters, damage to the environment and rising temperatures are the biggest climate change-related concerns for Europeans surveyed by the European Investment Bank (2020-2021).

Europeans have a tendency to be more concerned about climate change than much of the world, with the exception of Latin America. However there is a divide between Eastern Europe, where people are less worried about climate change, and Western Europe. A global climate survey by the European Investment Bank showed that climate is the number one concern for Europeans. Most respondents said they were already feeling the effects of climate change. Many people believed climate change can still be reversed with 68% of Spanish respondents believing it can be reversed and 80% seeing themselves as part of the solution.[86]

72% of the Europeans surveyed in European Investment Bank's Climate Survey 2020 are optimistic about making a difference in climate change.[87]

In Europe, there is a range from 88% to 97% of people feeling that climate change is happening and similar ranges are present for agreeing that climate change is caused by human activity and that the impacts of it will be bad.[85] Generally Eastern European countries are slightly less likely to believe in climate change, or the dangers of it, with 63% saying it is very serious, 24% considering it to be fairly serious and only 10% saying it is not a serious problem.[88] When asked if they feel a personal responsibility to help reduce climate change, on a scale of 0, not at all, to 10, a great deal, Europeans respond with the average score of 5.6.[85] When looked at more specifically, Western Europeans are closer to the response of 7 while Eastern European countries respond with an average of less than 4. When asked if Europeans are willing to pay more for climate change, 49% are willing, however only 9% of Europeans have already switched to a greener energy supply.[88] While a large majority of Europeans believe in the dangers of climate change, their feelings of personal responsibility to deal with the issue are much more limited. Especially in terms of actions that could already have been taken - such as having already switched to greener energies discussed above - one can see Europeans' feelings of personal responsibility are limited. 90% of Europeans interviewed for the European Investment Bank Climate Survey 2019 believe their children will be impacted by climate change in their everyday lives and 70% are willing to pay an extra tax to fight climate change.[86]

Asia/Pacific[edit]

Asia and the Pacific have a tendency to be less concerned about climate change, except small island states, with developing countries in Asia being less concerned than developed countries. In Asia and the Pacific, around 45% of people believe that climate change is a very serious problem and similarly 48% believe that it is harming people now.[81] Only 37% of people in Asia and the Pacific are very concerned that climate change will harm them personally.[81] There is a large gap between developing Asia and developed Asia. Only 31% of developing Asia considers global warming to be a "very" or "somewhat" serious threat and 74% of developed Asia considers global warming to be a serious threat.[83] It could be argued that one reason for this is that people in more developed countries in Asia are more educated on the issues, especially given that developing countries in Asia do face significant threats from climate change. The most relevant views on climate change are those of the citizens in the countries that are emitting the most. For example, in China, the world's largest emitter,[89] 68% of Chinese people are satisfied with their government's efforts to preserve the environment.[90] And in India, the world's third largest emitter,[89] 77% of Indian people are satisfied with their country's efforts to preserve the environment.[90] 80% of Chinese citizens interviewed in the European Investment Bank Climate Survey 2019 believe climate change is still reversible, 72% believe their individual behaviour can make a difference in addressing climate change.[86]

India[edit]

Similar to the study done for the “Six Americas” for climate change in USA,[91] an audience segmentation analysis for India was conducted in 2011 by the Yale Program on Climate Change Communication called "Global Warming's Six Indias".[92] The study broke down the Indian public into six distinct audience groups based on climate change beliefs, attitudes, risk perceptions and policy preferences: informed (19%), experienced (24%), undecided (15%), unconcerned (15%), indifferent (11%), and the disengaged (16%). While the informed are the most concerned and aware of climate change and its threats, the disengaged do not care or have an opinion. The experienced believe it is happening or have felt the effects of climate change and can identify it when provided with a short description. The undecided, unconcerned and indifferent, all have varying levels of worry, concern and risk perception.

The same survey resulted in a different study, “Climate Change in the Indian Mind”[93] showing that 41% of respondents had either never heard of the term global warming, or did not know what it meant while 7% claimed to know “a lot” about global warming. When provided with a description of global warming and what it might entail, 72% of the respondents agreed that it was happening. The study revealed that 56% of respondents perceived it to be caused by human activities while 31% perceived it to be caused primarily by natural changes in the environment. 54% agreed that hot days had become more frequent in their local area, in comparison to 21% of respondents perceiving frequency of severe storms as having increased. A majority of respondents (65%) perceived a severe drought or flood as having a medium to large impact on their lives. These impacts include effects on drinking water, food supply, healthy, income and their community. Higher education levels tended to correspond with higher levels of concern or worry regarding global warming and its effects on them personally.

41% of the respondents agreed that the government should be doing more to address issues stemming from climate change, with the most support (70%) for a national program to elevate climate literacy. 53% of respondents agreed that protecting the environment is important event at a cost to economic growth, highlighting the tendency of respondents to display egalitarian over individualistic values.[94] Personal experiences with climate change risks are an important predictor of risk perception and policy support. Coupled with trust in different sources, mainly scientists and environmental organizations, higher usage of media and attention to news,[95] policy support, public engagement and belief in global warming are seen to increase.   

Middle East[edit]

While the increasing severity of droughts and other dangerous realities are and will continue to be a problem in the Middle East, the region has one of the smallest rates of concern in the world. 38% believe that climate change is a very serious problem and 26% believe that climate change is harming people now.[81] Of the four Middle Eastern countries polled in a Pew Global Study, on what is their primary concern, Israel, Jordan, and Lebanon named ISIS, and Turkey stated United States encroachment.[96] 38% of Israel considers climate change to be a major threat to their country, 40% of Jordan, 58% of Lebanon and 53% of Turkey.[96] This is compared to relatively high numbers of residents who believe that ISIS is a major threat to their country ranging from 63% to 97%. In the poll, 38% of the Middle East are concerned about drought and 19% are concerned about long periods of unusually hot weather.[81] 42% are satisfied with their own country's current efforts to preserve the environment.[90]

North America[edit]

U.S. Democrats (blue) and Republicans (red) have long differed in views of the importance of addressing climate change, with the gap widening in the late 2010s mainly through Democrats' share increasing by more than 30 points.[26]
(Discontinuity resulted from survey changing in 2015 from reciting "global warming" to "climate change".)

North America has mixed perceptions on climate change ranging from Mexico and Canada that are both more concerned, and the United States, the world's second largest emitter,[89] that is less concerned. Mexico is the most concerned about climate change of the three countries in North America. 90% consider climate change to be a very serious problem and 83% believe that climate change is harming people substantially right now.[97] Canadians are also seriously concerned, 20% are extremely concerned, 30% are definitely concerned, 31% are somewhat concerned and only 19% are not very/not at all concerned about climate change.[98] While the United States which is the largest emitter of CO
2
in North America and the second largest emitter of CO
2
in the world[89] has the lowest degrees of concern about climate change in North America. While 61% of Americans say they are concerned about climate change,[99] that is 30% lower than Mexico and 20% lower than Canada. 41% believe that climate change could impact them personally. Nonetheless, 70% of Americans believe that environmental protections are more important than economic growth according to a Yale climate opinion study.[99] 76% of US citizens interviewed for the European Investment Bank Climate Survey 2019 believe developed countries have a responsibility to help developing countries address climate change.[86]

United States[edit]

In 2009 Yale University conducted a study identifying global warming's "Six Americas". The report identifies six audiences with different opinions about global warming: The alarmed (18%), the concerned (33%), the cautious (19%), the disengaged (12%), the doubtful (11%) and the dismissive (7%). The alarmed and concerned make out the largest percentage and think something should be done about global warming. The cautious, disengaged and doubtful are less likely to take action. The dismissive are convinced global warming is not happening. These audiences can be used to define the best approaches for environmental action. The theory of the 'Six Americas' is also used for marketing purposes.[100]

Opinions in the United States vary intensely enough to be considered a culture war.[101][102]

In a January 2013 survey, Pew found that 69% of Americans say there is solid evidence that the Earth's average temperature has gotten warmer over the past few decades, up six points since November 2011 and 12 points since 2009.[103]

A Gallup poll in 2014 concluded that 51% of Americans were a little or not at all worried about climate change, 24% a great deal and 25 %a fair amount.[104]

In 2015, 32% or Americans were worried about global warming as a great deal, 37% in 2016, and 45% in 2017. A poll taken in 2016 shows that 52% of Americans believe climate change to be caused by human activity, while 34% state it is caused by natural changes.[105] Data is increasingly showing that 62% of Americans believe that the effects of global warming are happening now in 2017.[106]

In 2016 Gallup found that 64% of Americans are worried about global warming, 59% believed that global warming is already happening and 65% is convinced that global warming is caused by human activities. These numbers show that awareness of global warming is increasing in the United States.[107]

In 2019 Gallup found that one-third of Americans blame unusual winter temperatures on climate change.[108]

In 2019 the Yale Program on Climate Change Communication found that 69% of Americans believe that climate change is happening. Its research also found that Americans think that only 54% of the country believes that climate change is happening. These figures show that there is a disconnect between perceived public perception of the issue and reality.[109]

Differences between regions[edit]

While climate change will affect the entire world, opinion differences between regions of the world about these affects vary significantly. The Middle East has one of the smallest rates of concern in the world, especially compared to Latin America.[81] Europe and Africa have mixed views on climate change but lean towards action by a significant degree. Europeans focus substantially on climate change when compared to United States residents, which are less concerned than the global median,[99] even as the United States is the second biggest emitter in the world.[89] Droughts/water shortages are one of the biggest fears about the impacts of climate change, especially in Latin America and Africa.[81] Developed countries in Asia have levels of concern about climate change similar to Latin America which has one of the highest rates of concern. This is surprising as developing countries in Asia have levels of worry similar to the Middle East, one of the areas with the lowest levels of concern.[83] Large emitters such as China usually ignore issues surrounding climate change as people in China have very low levels of concern about it.[83] The only significant exception to this tendency by large emitters, is Brazil and India . India I'd the third and Brazil is eleventh biggest emitter in the world and are countries that have high levels of concern about climate change, levels similar to much of Latin America.[81][89]

Percentage in each region who agree with statements regarding climate change (in 2015)[81]
Region Climate change is a very serious problem Climate change is harming people now Very concerned that climate change will harm me personally
Africa 61% 52% 61%
Latin America 74% 77% 63%
Europe 54% 60% 27%
Asia/Pacific 45% 48% 37%
Middle East 38% 26% 27%
United States 45% 41% 30%
China 18% 49% 15%
Global Median 54% 51% 40%

Source: Pew Research Center's Spring 2015 Global Attitudes Survey - Q32, Q41 & Q42

Percentage of each country polled who agree with statement (in 2015)[81]
Country Climate change is a very serious problem
Canada 51%
U.S. 45%
France 56%
Italy 55%
Germany 55%
Spain 53%
UK 41%
Poland 19%
Russia 33%
Ukraine 80%
Lebanon 67%
Jordan 44%
Palestine 38%
Turkey 37%
Israel 24%
India 76%
Philippines 72%
Vietnam 69%
South Korea 48%
Japan 45%
Malaysia 44%
Australia 43%
Indonesia 41%
Pakistan 29%
China 18%
Brazil 86%
Chile 77%
Peru 75%
Venezuela 72%
Mexico 66%
Argentina 59%
Burkina Faso 79%
Uganda 76%
Ghana 68%
Kenya 62%
Nigeria 61%
Senegal 58%
Tanzania 57%
South Africa 45%
Ethiopia 40%

Source: Pew Research Center's Spring 2015 Global Attitudes Survey - Q32

Developing countries vs developed countries[edit]

Awareness about climate change is higher in developed countries than in developing countries.[110] A large majority of people in Indonesia, Pakistan and Nigeria do not know about climate change, particularly in Muslim majority countries.[110] There is often awareness about environmental changes in developing countries, but the framework for understanding it is limited. In developing and developed countries, people similarly believe that poor countries have a responsibility to act on climate change.[110] Since the 2009 Copenhagen summit, concern over climate change in wealthy countries has gone down. In 2009, 63% of people in OECD member states considered climate change to be "very serious" but by 2015, it had gone down to 48%.[111] Support for national leadership creating further action addressing climate change has also gone down. Of the 21 countries surveyed in GlobeScan's 2015 survey, Canada, France, Spain and the UK are the only ones that have the majority of the population desiring their leadership to take further action to meet the emission targets set by the Paris climate accord.[111] While concern and desire for action has gone down in developed countries, awareness over it is higher. Since 2000, twice as many people will connect extreme weather events with human caused climate change.[111]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leiserowitz, A.; Carman, J.; Buttermore, N.; Wang, X.; et al. (June 2021). International Public Opinion on Climate Change (PDF). New Haven, CT, U.S.: Yale Program on Climate Change Communication and Facebook Data for Good. p. 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 June 2021.
  2. ^ ● Survey results from: "The Peoples' Climate Vote". UNDP.org. United Nations Development Programme. 26 January 2021. Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. Fig. 3.
    ● Data re top emitters from: "Historical GHG Emissions / Global Historical Emissions". ClimateWatchData.org. Climate Watch. 2021. Archived from the original on 21 May 2021.
  3. ^ Antilla, Liisa (1 March 2010). "Self-censorship and science: a geographical review of media coverage of climate tipping points". Public Understanding of Science. 19 (2): 240–256. doi:10.1177/0963662508094099. ISSN 0963-6625. S2CID 143093512.
  4. ^ "Public Opinion on Climate Change". Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  5. ^ McGrath, Matt (27 January 2021). "Climate change: Biggest global poll supports 'global emergency'". BBC. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  6. ^ "The Peoples' Climate Vote". UNDP.org. United Nations Development Programme. 26 January 2021. Archived from the original on 28 January 2021. 64% of people said that climate change was an emergency – presenting a clear and convincing call for decision-makers to step up on ambition.
    - The highest level of support was in SIDS (Small Island Developing States, 74%), followed by high-income countries (72%), middle-income countries (62%), then LDCs (Least Developed Countries, 58%).
    - Regionally, the proportion of people who said climate change is a global emergency had a high level of support everywhere - in Western Europe and North America (72%), Eastern Europe and Central Asia (65%), Arab States (64%), Latin America and Caribbean (63%), Asia and Pacific (63%), and Sub-Saharan Africa (61%).
    - Four climate policies emerged as the most popular globally:
    1. Conservation of forests and land (54% public support);
    2. Solar, wind and renewable power (53%);
    3. Climate-friendly farming techniques (52%); and
    4. Investing more in green businesses and jobs (50%).

    (Page has download link to 68-page PDF.)
  7. ^ Pelham, Brett (2009). "Awareness, Opinions about Global Warming Vary Worldwide". Gallup. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  8. ^ a b c Levi, Sebastian (26 February 2021). "Country-level conditions like prosperity, democracy, and regulatory culture predict individual climate change belief". Communications Earth & Environment. 2 (1): 51. Bibcode:2021ComEE...2...51L. doi:10.1038/s43247-021-00118-6. ISSN 2662-4435. S2CID 232052935. CC-BY icon.svg Text was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  9. ^ Anghelcev, George; Chung, Mun Young; Sar, Sela; Duff, Brittany (2015). "A ZMET-based analysis of perceptions of climate change among young South Koreans: Implications for social marketing communication" (PDF). Journal of Marketing Communications. 5 (1): 56–82. doi:10.1108/JSOCM-12-2012-0048.[dead link]
  10. ^ a b Pugliese, Anita; Ray, Julie (11 December 2009). "Awareness of Climate Change and Threat Vary by Region". Gallup. Retrieved 22 December 2009.
  11. ^ Crampton, Thomas (1 January 2007). "More in Europe worry about climate than in U.S., poll shows". International Herald Tribune. The New York Times. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
  12. ^ a b c Pugliese, Anita; Ray, Julie (7 December 2009). "Top-Emitting Countries Differ on Climate Change Threat". Gallup. Retrieved 22 December 2009.
  13. ^ Ipsos MORI. "Global Trends 2014". Archived from the original on 23 February 2015.
  14. ^ MotherJones (22 July 2014). "The Strange Relationship Between Global Warming Denial and…Speaking English".
  15. ^ Tranter, Bruce; Booth, Kate (July 2015). "Scepticism in a Changing Climate: A Cross-national Study". Global Environmental Change. 33: 54–164. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.05.003.
  16. ^ Closing the Massive Gaps Between Culture Awareness, Education, and Action
  17. ^ a b TNS Opinion and Social 2009, p. 13
  18. ^ Drummond, Caitlin; Fischhoff, Baruch (5 September 2017). "Individuals with greater science literacy and education have more polarized beliefs on controversial science topics". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (36): 9587–9592. doi:10.1073/pnas.1704882114. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5594657. PMID 28827344.
  19. ^ Lewis, Gregory B.; Palm, Risa; Feng, Bo (29 July 2019). "Cross-national variation in determinants of climate change concern". Environmental Politics. 28 (5): 793–821. doi:10.1080/09644016.2018.1512261. ISSN 0964-4016. S2CID 158362184.
  20. ^ Pelham, Brett W. (24 April 2009). "Views on Global Warming Relate to Energy Efficiency". Gallup. Retrieved 22 December 2009.
  21. ^ McCright, Aaron M.; Dunlap, Riley E. (October 2011). "Cool dudes: The denial of climate change among conservative white males in the United States". Global Environmental Change. 21 (4): 1163–1172. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2011.06.003.
  22. ^ Krange, Olve; Kaltenborn, Bjorn P.; Hultman, Martin (5 July 2018). "Cool dudes in Norway: climate change denial among conservative Norwegian men". Environmental Sociology. 5 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1080/23251042.2018.1488516. S2CID 134964754.
  23. ^ Jylhä, Kirsti M.; Cantal, Clara; Akrami, Nazar; Milfont, Taciano L. (August 2016). "CDenial of anthropogenic climate change: Social dominance orientation helps explain the conservative male effect in Brazil and Sweden". Personality and Individual Differences. 98: 184–187. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.04.020.
  24. ^ Hunt, Elle (12 March 2019). "BirthStrikers: meet the women who refuse to have children until climate change ends". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  25. ^ Harvey, Fiona (14 September 2021). "Four in 10 young people fear having children due to climate crisis". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  26. ^ a b "As Economic Concerns Recede, Environmental Protection Rises on the Public's Policy Agenda / Partisan gap on dealing with climate change gets even wider". PewResearch.org. Pew Research Center. 13 February 2020. Archived from the original on 16 January 2021.
  27. ^ Die Frühgeschichte der globalen Umweltkrise und die Formierung der deutschen Umweltpolitik(1950–1973) (Early history of the environmental crisis and the setup of German environmental policy 1950–1973), Kai F. Hünemörder, Franz Steiner Verlag, 2004 ISBN
  28. ^ Dunlap, Riley E. (29 May 2009). "Climate-Change Views: Republican-Democratic Gaps Expand". Gallup. Retrieved 22 December 2009.
  29. ^ McCrea, Rod; Leviston, Zoe; Walker, Iain A. (27 July 2016). "Climate Change Skepticism and Voting Behavior". Environment and Behavior. 48 (10): 1309–1334. doi:10.1177/0013916515599571. S2CID 145740013.
  30. ^ How Margaret Thatcher Made the Conservative Case for Climate Action, James West, Mother Jones, Mon 8 April 2013
  31. ^ 1988 Sep 27 Tu Margaret Thatcher Speech to the Royal Society
  32. ^ An Inconvenient Truth About Margaret Thatcher: She Was a Climate Hawk, Will Oremus, Slate (magazine) 8 April 2013
  33. ^ a b c Schreurs, M. A.; Tiberghien, Y. (November 2007). "Multi-Level Reinforcement: Explaining European Union Leadership in Climate Change Mitigation" (Full free text). Global Environmental Politics. 7 (4): 19–46. doi:10.1162/glep.2007.7.4.19. ISSN 1526-3800. S2CID 57569374.
  34. ^ "Among those who vote for the Liberal Party or the Socialist Party, the great majority think that humans are behind climate changes (89 and 92%). Only 41% of those who vote for the Progress Party agree, while the number for Conservative Party voters is 60%." (Translated from Norwegian to English) Liv Jorun Andenes and Amalie Kvame Holm: Typisk norsk å være klimaskeptisk Archived 8 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine (in Norwegian) Vårt Land, retrieved 8 July 2013
  35. ^ Palm, Risa; Lewis, Gregory B.; Feng, Bo (13 March 2017). "What Causes People to Change Their Opinion about Climate Change?". Annals of the American Association of Geographers. 107 (4): 883–896. doi:10.1080/24694452.2016.1270193. ISSN 2469-4452. S2CID 157314007.
  36. ^ Merkley, Eric; Stecula, Dominik (8–9 November 2019). "Party Cues in the News: Elite Opinion Leadership and Climate Skepticism" (PDF). Toronto Political Behaviour Workshop: 1. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  37. ^ Vandeweerdt, Clara; Kerremans, Bart; Cohn, Avery (26 November 2015). "Climate voting in the US Congress: the power of public concern". Environmental Politics. 25 (2): 268–288. doi:10.1080/09644016.2016.1116651. S2CID 155399740.
  38. ^ Aant Elzinga, ”Shaping Worldwide Consensus: the Orchestration of Global Change Research”, in Elzinga & Landström eds. (1996): 223–55. ISBN 0-947568-67-0.
  39. ^ "Environmental Politics Climate Change and Knowledge Politics" Archived 26 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Reiner Grundmann. Vol. 16, No. 3, 414–432, June 2007
  40. ^ Technische Problemlösung, Verhandeln und umfassende Problemlösung, (eng. technical trouble shooting, negotiating and generic problem solving capability) in Gesellschaftliche Komplexität und kollektive Handlungsfähigkeit (Societys complexity and collective ability to act), ed. Schimank, U. (2000). Frankfurt/Main: Campus, pp. 154–82 book summary at the Max Planck Gesellschaft Archived 12 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ Grundmann, R. (2010). "Climate Change: What Role for Sociology?: A Response to Constance Lever-Tracy". Current Sociology. 58: 897–910. doi:10.1177/0011392110376031. S2CID 143371210. see Lever-Tracy, Constance (2008). "Global Warming and Sociology". Current Sociology. 56 (3): 445–466. doi:10.1177/0011392107088238. S2CID 145301874.</
  42. ^ a b c d e Ungar, Sheldon (2000). "Knowledge, ignorance and the popular culture: Climate change versus the ozone hole". Public Understanding of Science. 9 (3): 297–312. doi:10.1088/0963-6625/9/3/306. S2CID 7089937.
  43. ^ Sheldon Ungar Climatic Change February 1999, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp. 133–150 Is Strange Weather in the Air? A Study of U.S. National Network News Coverage of Extreme Weather Events
  44. ^ Riley E. Dunlap; Aaron M. McCright; Jerrod H. Yarosh. "The Political Divide on Climate Change: Partisan Polarization Widens in the U.S." Environment (September–October 2016): 4–22. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  45. ^ Saad, Lydia (26 June 2009). "Conservatives Maintain Edge as Top Ideological Group". Gallup. Retrieved 22 December 2009.
  46. ^ a b Saad, Lydia (11 April 2009). "Increased Number Think Global Warming Is 'Exaggerated'". Gallup. Retrieved 22 December 2009.
  47. ^ Goode, Erica (20 May 2016). "What Are Donald Trump's Views on Climate Change? Some Clues Emerge". The New York Times.
  48. ^ Wockner, Gary (14 August 2014). "Dams Cause Climate Change, They Are Not Clean Energy". EcoWatch. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
  49. ^ "Nine out of 10 people want more renewable energy". The Guardian. 23 April 2012. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
  50. ^ "Global Overview" (PDF). Renewables 2015: Global Status Report: 27–37. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 June 2015.
  51. ^ Fankhauser, Samuel; Gennaioli, Caterina; Collins, Murray (3 March 2015). "Do international factors influence the passage of climate change legislation?" (PDF). Climate Policy. 16 (3): 318–331. doi:10.1080/14693062.2014.1000814. S2CID 154276901.
  52. ^ Hornsey, Matthew J.; Harris, Emily A.; Fielding, Kelly S. (July 2018). "Relationships among conspiratorial beliefs, conservatism and climate scepticism across nations". Nature Climate Change. 8 (7): 614–620. Bibcode:2018NatCC...8..614H. doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0157-2. ISSN 1758-678X. S2CID 90931969.
  53. ^ "Analysis | Study: Charts change hearts and minds better than words do". Washington Post. Retrieved 3 July 2018.
  54. ^ Nyhan, Brendan; Reifler, Jason (2018). "The roles of information deficits and identity threat in the prevalence of misperceptions". Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties. 29 (2): 222–244. doi:10.1080/17457289.2018.1465061. hdl:10871/32325. S2CID 3051082.
  55. ^ "Public Praises Science; Scientists Fault Public, Media" (PDF). Pew Research Center. 9 June 2009. pp. 5, 55. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
  56. ^ Zhang, Baobao; van der Linden, Sander; Mildenberger, Matto; Marlon, Jennifer; Howe, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony (2018). "Experimental effects of climate messages vary geographically". Nature Climate Change. 21 (5): 370–374. Bibcode:2018NatCC...8..370Z. doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0122-0. S2CID 90945700.
  57. ^ "Royal Dutch Shell PLC – AMEE".
  58. ^ Boykoff, M.; Boykoff, J. (July 2004). "Balance as bias: global warming and the US prestige press" (PDF). Global Environmental Change Part A. 14 (2): 125–36. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2003.10.001. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  59. ^ Antilla, L. (2005). "Climate of scepticism: US newspaper coverage of the science of climate change". Global Environmental Change Part A. 15 (4): 338–52. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.372.2033. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2005.08.003.
  60. ^ Dispensa, J. M.; Brulle, R. J. (2003). "Media's social construction of environmental issues: focus on global warming – a comparative study" (PDF). International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. 23 (10): 74. doi:10.1108/01443330310790327. Archived from the original (Full free text) on 20 February 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  61. ^ Begley, Sharon (13 August 2007). "The Truth About Denial". Newsweek. Retrieved 11 January 2009.
  62. ^ David, Adam (20 September 2006). "Royal Society tells Exxon: stop funding climate change denial". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  63. ^ Sandell, Clayton (3 January 2007). "Report: Big Money Confusing Public on Global Warming". ABC News. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  64. ^ Merkley, Eric; Stecula, Dominik A. (20 March 2018). "Party Elites or Manufactured Doubt? The Informational Context of Climate Change Polarization". Science Communication. 40 (2): 258–274. doi:10.1177/1075547018760334. S2CID 148695210.
  65. ^ Saad, Lydia (21 March 2007). "Did Hollywood's Glare Heat Up Public Concern About Global Warming?". Gallup. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
  66. ^ Saad, Lydia. "Americans' Concerns About Global Warming on the Rise".
  67. ^ [1]Angus Reid Public Opinion poll conducted 25 August through 2 September 2011 Archived 15 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  68. ^ Williams, Jim (2 April 2013). "Conspiracy Theory Poll Results". Public Policy Polling. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
  69. ^ (Translated from Norwegian to English) "Two of three believe climate change is caused by humans. I believe that climate change is caused by humans (n=1001) Percentage that fully agree or disagree: (graph that shows numbers from 2009 to 2013, with 66/17 in 2013.")Presentasjon av resultater fra TNS Gallups Klimabarometer 2013 (7 June 2013): Klimasak avgjør for hver fjerde velger (in Norwegian) (link to pdf, p. 29), TNS Gallup, retrieved 8 July 2013
  70. ^ a b Lorenzoni, I.; Pidgeon, N. F. (2006). "Public Views on Climate Change: European and USA Perspectives" (Full free text). Climatic Change. 77 (1–2): 73–95. Bibcode:2006ClCh...77...73L. doi:10.1007/s10584-006-9072-z. ISSN 1573-1480. S2CID 53866794."Despite the relatively high concern levels detected in these surveys, the importance of climate change is secondary in relation to other environmental, personal and social issues." 15 November 2005, accessed 27 April 2015
  71. ^ Roger Pielke Jr. (28 September 2010). The Climate Fix: What Scientists and Politicians Won't Tell You About Global Warming (hardcover). Basic Books. pp. 36–46. ISBN 978-0465020522. ...climate change does not rank high as a public priority in the context of the full spectrum of policy issues.
  72. ^ TNS Opinion and Social 2009, p. 15
  73. ^ TNS Opinion and Social 2009, p. 21
  74. ^ European Commission, Special Eurobarometer 372 – Climate Change Brussels, June 2011
  75. ^ Oliver Geden (2012), The End of Climate Policy as We Knew it, SWP Research Paper 2012/RP01
  76. ^ Anderson, Brilé; Böhmelt, Tobias; Ward, Hugh (1 November 2017). "Public opinion and environmental policy output: a cross-national analysis of energy policies in Europe". Environmental Research Letters. 12 (11): 114011. Bibcode:2017ERL....12k4011A. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa8f80.
  77. ^ Levi, Sebastian; Flachsland, Christian; Jakob, Michael (11 February 2020). "Political Economy Determinants of Carbon Pricing". Global Environmental Politics. 20 (2): 128–156. doi:10.1162/glep_a_00549. ISSN 1526-3800. S2CID 211076532.
  78. ^ Newport, Frank (11 March 2010). "Americans' Global Warming Concerns Continue to Drop". Gallup. Retrieved 13 March 2010.
  79. ^ Saad, Lydia (7 April 2006). "Americans Still Not Highly Concerned About Global Warming". Gallup. Retrieved 7 January 2009.
  80. ^ Dunlap, Riley E. (29 May 2008). "Partisan Gap on Global Warming Grows". Gallup Organization. Retrieved 17 December 2009.
  81. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Stokes, Bruce; Wike, Richard (5 November 2018). "Spring 2015 Global Attitudes Survey". Pew Research Center.
  82. ^ Fleshman, Michael (July 2007). "Climate change: Africa gets ready". Africa Renewal Online.
  83. ^ a b c d Pugliese, Anita; Ray, Julie (20 April 2011). "Fewer Americans, Europeans View Global Warming as a Threat". Gallup.
  84. ^ Evans, Claire Q.; Zechmeister, Elizabeth J. (25 January 2018). "Education and Risk Assessments Predict Climate Change Concerns in Latin America and the Caribbean" (PDF). Vanderbilt.
  85. ^ a b c Poortinga, Wouter; Stephen, Fisher (September 2018). "European Attitudes to Climate Change and Energy: Topline Results from Round 8 of the European Social Survey" (PDF). City, University of London.
  86. ^ a b c d "EU/China/US climate survey shows public optimism about reversing climate change". European Investment Bank. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  87. ^ Bank, European Investment (31 May 2021). The EIB Climate Survey 2020-2021 - The climate crisis in a COVID-19 world: calls for a green recovery. European Investment Bank. ISBN 978-92-861-5021-0.
  88. ^ a b "Europeans' attitudes towards climate change" (PDF). European Commission: Special Eurobarometer. November 2009.
  89. ^ a b c d e f "Each Country's Share of CO2 Emissions". Union of Concerned Scientists. 11 October 2018.
  90. ^ a b c Crabtree, Steve (9 September 2018). "Six in 10 Worldwide OK With Efforts to Preserve Environment". Gallup.
  91. ^ "Global Warming's Six Americas 2009". Yale Program on Climate Change Communication. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  92. ^ Leiserowitz, A., Thaker, J., Feinberg, G., & Cooper, D. (2013) Global Warming’s Six Indias. Yale University. New Haven, CT: Yale Project on Climate Change Communication
  93. ^ "Climate Change in the Indian Mind". Yale Program on Climate Change Communication. Retrieved 18 October 2021.
  94. ^ Thaker, Jagadish; Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony (2020). "Global Warming Risk Perceptions in India". Risk Analysis. 40 (12): 2481–2497. doi:10.1111/risa.13574. ISSN 1539-6924.
  95. ^ Thaker, Jagadish; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Leiserowitz, Anthony (4 May 2017). "Media Use and Public Perceptions of Global Warming in India". Environmental Communication. 11 (3): 353–369. doi:10.1080/17524032.2016.1269824. ISSN 1752-4032.
  96. ^ a b Poushter, Jacob; Manevich, Dorothy (1 August 2017). "Globally, People Point to ISIS and Climate Change as Leading Security Threats" (PDF). Pew Research Center.
  97. ^ "Public attitudes toward climate change: findings from a multi-country poll" (PDF). World Development Report 2010. 3 December 2009.
  98. ^ "Canadian public opinion about climate change" (PDF). David Suzuki Foundation. 2015.
  99. ^ a b c Marlon, Jennifer (7 August 2018). "Yale Climate Opinion Maps 2018". Yale Program on Climate Change Communication.
  100. ^ "Global Warming's Six Americas 2009". Yale Program on Climate Change Communication. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  101. ^ Gillis, Justin (17 April 2012). "Americans Link Global Warming to Extreme Weather, Poll Says". The New York Times.
  102. ^ Climate Science as Culture War: The public debate around climate change is no longer about science – it’s about values, culture, and ideology Fall 2012 Stanford Social Innovation Review
  103. ^ Climate Change: Key Data Points from Pew Research | Pew Research Center
  104. ^ Riffkin, Rebecca (12 March 2014). "Climate Change Not a Top Worry in U.S." Gallup. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  105. ^ "Yale Climate Opinion Maps - U.S. 2016 - Yale Program on Climate Change Communication". Yale Program on Climate Change Communication. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
  106. ^ Inc., Gallup. "Global Warming Concern at Three-Decade High in U.S." Gallup.com. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  107. ^ Inc., Gallup. "U.S. Concern About Global Warming at Eight-Year High". Gallup.com. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  108. ^ Inc., Gallup. "One-Third in U.S. Blame Unusual Winter Temps on Climate Change". Gallup.com. Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  109. ^ "Americans Underestimate How Many Others in the U.S. Think Global Warming is Happening".
  110. ^ a b c Leiserowitz, Anthony (2007). "International Public Opinion, Perception, and Understanding of Global Climate Change" (PDF). Human Development Report.
  111. ^ a b c "Wealthy Countries Less Concerned about Climate Change: Global Poll". Globescan. 26 November 2015.

Further reading[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]