Public sector undertakings in India

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A government-owned enterprise, government-owned corporation, statutory corporation and a nationalised company in India is called a public sector undertaking (PSU) or a public sector enterprise. These establishments are wholly or partly owned by the Government of India or one of the many state or territorial governments or both together in parts. The officers working for these entities and their subsidiaries are gazetted officers. The employees subordinate to the officers working for these respective entities and their subsidiaries are full-fledged government employees. The stock of these establishments are majority-owned by the government in a public sector undertaking. Public sector undertakings are classified as central public sector undertakings (CPSUs, CPSEs) which are wholly or partly owned by Government of India or state level public sector undertakings (SLPSUs, SLPSEs) which are wholly or partly owned by state or territorial governments.

In 1951, there were just 5 enterprises in the public sector in India, but in March 2021 this had increased to 365 which includes 7 new Defense PSUs.[1] These enterprises represented a total investment of about 16.41 lakh crore as on 31 March 2019. The total paid-up capital as of 31 March 2019 stood at about ₹2.76 lakh crore. CPSEs have been earned revenue of about ₹25.43 lakh crore during the financial year 2018–19.[1]

History[edit]

When India achieved independence in 1947, it was primarily an agrarian entity, with a weak industrial base. There were only eighteen, state owned, Indian Ordnance Factories, previously established to reduce the dependency of the British Indian Army, on imported arms.[2] With the British Raj electing to leave agricultural production, and what little Western aping industrialisation to the Private sector, with commercial Tea processing, Jute mills, of the like the Acland Mill, Railways, Electricity generation, Banks, Coal mines, Steel mills, Civil Engineering funded, and owned by private individuals, of the like of Jamsetji Tata, families, or through Privately owned, and sometimes traded companies, on the likes of the Bombay Stock Exchange.[3] Vocal critiques, of this Western capitalist system, notably the Indian independence movement leading Mahatma Gandhi, instead advocated for a self-sufficient, largely agrarian, communal village based existence, for the population, in the first half of the 20th century.[4][5] While others criticised the New Delhi, and particularly the Presidencies for not establishing sufficient British Raj funded, Western style Schools, Public Libraries, Universities, Medical Schools, Engineering colleges, Hospitals and Asylums,[6][7] to permit the rapidly expanding population to replicate Britain's own industrialisation.[8][9][10]

Post Independence, the national consensus was in favour of rapid industrialisation of the economy which was seen as the key to economic development, improving living standards and economic sovereignty.[11] Building upon the Bombay Plan, which noted the requirement of government intervention and regulation, the first Industrial Policy Resolution announced in 1948 laid down broad contours of the strategy of industrial development. Subsequently, the Planning Commission was formed by a cabinet resolution in March 1950 and the Industrial (Development and Regulation) Act was enacted in 1951 with the objective of empowering the government to take necessary steps to regulate industrial development.[12]

Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru promoted an economic policy based on import substitution industrialisation and advocated a mixed economy.[13] He believed that the establishment of basic and heavy industry was fundamental to the development and modernisation of the Indian economy. India's second five year plan (1956–60) and the Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956 emphasized the development of public sector enterprises to meet Nehru's national industrialisation policy. His vision was carried forward by Dr. V. Krishnamurthy known as the "Father of Public sector undertakings in India". Indian statistician Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was instrumental to its formulation, which was subsequently termed the Feldman–Mahalanobis model.[14][15]

The major consideration for the setting up of PSUs was to accelerate the growth of core sectors of the economy; to serve the equipment needs of strategically important sectors, and to generate employment and income. A large number of "sick units" were taken over from the private sector. Additionally, Indira Gandhi's government nationalised fourteen of India's largest private banks in 1969, and an additional six in 1980. This government-led industrial policy, with corresponding restrictions on private enterprise, was the dominant pattern of Indian economic development until the 1991 Indian economic crisis.[12] After the crisis, the government began dis-investing its ownership of several PSUs to raise capital and privatise companies facing poor financial performance and low efficiency.[16][17]

Governance[edit]

Certain public sector undertakings have been awarded additional financial autonomy. These companies are "public sector companies that have comparative advantages", giving them greater autonomy to compete in the global market so as to "support [them] in their drive to become global giants".[18] Financial autonomy was initially awarded to nine PSUs as Navratna status in 1997.[19] Originally, the term Navaratna meant a talisman composed of nine precious gems. Later, this term was adopted in the courts of Gupta emperor Vikramaditya and Mughal emperor Akbar, as the collective name for nine extraordinary courtiers at their respective courts.

In 2010, the Government established the higher Maharatna category, which raises a company's investment ceiling from ₹1,000 crore to ₹5,000 crore.[20] The Maharatna firms can now decide on investments of up to 15 per cent of their net worth in a project while the Navaratna companies could invest up to ₹1,000 crore without explicit government approval. Two categories of Miniratnas afford less extensive financial autonomy.

Guidelines for awarding Ratna[21] status are as follows:

Maharatna Navratna Miniratna Category-I Miniratna Category-II
Eligibility Three years with an average annual net profit of over ₹2,500 crore, OR

Average annual Net worth of ₹10,000 crore for 3 years, OR Average annual Turnover of ₹20,000 crore for 3 years (against Rs 25,000 crore prescribed earlier)[22]

A score of 60 (out of 100), based on six parameters which include net profit, net worth, total manpower cost, total cost of production, cost of services, PBDIT (Profit Before Depreciation, Interest and Taxes), capital employed, etc., AND

A company must first be a Miniratna and have 4 independent directors on its board before it can be made a Navratna.

Have made profits continuously for the last three years or earned a net profit of ₹30 crore or more in one of the three years Have made profits continuously for the last three years and should have a positive net worth.
Benefits for investment ₹1,000 crore – ₹5,000 crore, or free to decide on investments up to 15% of their net worth in a project up to ₹1,000 crore or 15% of their net worth on a single project or 30% of their net worth in the whole year (not exceeding ₹1,000 crores). up to ₹500 crore or equal to their net worth, whichever is lower. up to ₹300 crore or up to 50% of their net worth, whichever is lower.

PSUs in India are also categorised based on their special non-financial objectives and are registered under Section 8 of Companies Act, 2013 (erstwhile Section 25 of Companies Act, 1956).

Top profit making Central PSUs[edit]

Net Profit for Financial Year 2020–21[23]
CPSE Name Net Profit (In ₹ crore)
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. 21,836[24]
ONGC Ltd 13,445[25]
NTPC Ltd 14,969
Coal India Ltd. 16,700
Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. 9,939
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. 7,132
Power Finance Corporation Ltd. 6,953
Gail (India) Ltd. 6,142[26]
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. 6,040
Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. 6,029

Top loss making Central PSUs[edit]

Top 10 Loss Making CPSEs for 2018–19[27]
CPSE Name Net Loss (In ₹ crore)
Air India Limited 15,475
India Post 14,904
Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Ltd. 3,390
State Trading Corporation of India 881
PEC Ltd. 500
Orissa Mineral Development Company Ltd. 452
National Textile Corporation Ltd. 315
Airline Allied Services Ltd. 297
Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd. 213

List of Central PSUs[edit]

Public Sector Units (PSUs) can be classified as Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs), Public Sector Banks (PSBs), or State Level Public Enterprises (SLPEs). CPSEs are administered by the Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises. The Department of Public Enterprises (DPE), Ministry of Finance is the nodal department for all the Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs).

As of october 2021, there are 11 Maharatnas, 13 Navratnas and 73 Miniratnas (divided into Category 1 and Category 2).[28][29]

List of Maharatna CPSEs[edit]

List of Navratna CPSEs[edit]

List of Miniratna CPSEs[edit]

Miniratna Category-I (61)

Miniratna Category-II (12)

List of Defense PSUs (7)

List of Central PSUs (Financial Services)[edit]

Nationalised banks[edit]

Presently there are 13 Nationalised Banks in India (Government Shareholding in %, as of 1 April 2020):

Regional rural banks[edit]

Presently there are 43 Regional Rural Banks in India Since 1 April 2020:[30]

Andhra Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh

  • Arunachal Pradesh Rural Bank

Assam

Bihar

Chhattisgarh

  • Chhattisgarh Rajya Gramin Bank

Gujarat

  • Baroda Gujarat Gramin Bank
  • Saurashtra Gramin Bank

Haryana

  • Sarva Haryana Gramin Bank

Himachal Pradesh

  • Himachal Pradesh Gramin Bank

Jammu and Kashmir

  • J&K Grameen Bank
  • Ellaquai Dehati Bank

Jharkhand

Karnataka

Kerala

Madhya Pradesh

Maharashtra

Manipur

  • Manipur Rural Bank

Meghalaya

  • Meghalaya Rural Bank

Mizoram

Nagaland

  • Nagaland Rural Bank

Odisha

Puducherry

Punjab

  • Punjab Gramin Bank

Rajasthan

  • Baroda Rajasthan Kshetriya Gramin Bank
  • Rajasthan Marudhara Gramin Bank

Tamil Nadu

  • Tamil Nadu Grama Bank

Telangana

  • Telangana Grameena Bank

Tripura

Uttar Pradesh

Uttarakhand

West Bengal

Nationalised insurance companies[edit]

Presently there are 7 Nationalised Insurance Companies (Government Shareholding %, as of 1 April 2020):

Nationalised Market exchanges[edit]

Presently there are 28 Nationalised Financial Market Exchanges in India (Government Shareholding %, as of 1 April 2020):

List of other Central PSUs[edit]

List of CPSEs privatized[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Public Enterprises Survey 2019–20 | Department of Public Enterprises | MoHI&PE | GoI Page No. 1" (PDF). dpe.gov.in. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  2. ^ "Home | Ordnance Factory Board | Government of India".
  3. ^ "[IRFCA] Indian Railways FAQ: IR History: Early Days - 1". www.irfca.org. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  4. ^ "Mahatma Gandhi believed in a self-sufficient village economy". www.newsonair.com. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  5. ^ Gosalia, Sushila (1 March 1979). "The Gandhian model of self-reliance in the Indian economy". Intereconomics. 14 (2): 80–83. doi:10.1007/BF02930202. hdl:10419/139599. ISSN 1613-964X. S2CID 56358907.
  6. ^ Mushtaq, Muhammad Umair (January 2009). "Public Health in British India: A Brief Account of the History of Medical Services and Disease Prevention in Colonial India". Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 34 (1): 6–14. doi:10.4103/0970-0218.45369. ISSN 0970-0218. PMC 2763662. PMID 19876448.
  7. ^ Amrith, Sunil S. (February 2009). "Health in India Since Independence" (PDF).
  8. ^ Chaudhary, Latika (March 2009). "Determinants of Primary Schooling in British India". The Journal of Economic History. 69 (1): 269–302. doi:10.1017/S0022050709000400. ISSN 0022-0507.
  9. ^ Chaudhary, Latika (1 May 2012). "Caste, Colonialism and Schooling: Education in British India". Rochester, NY. SSRN 2087140. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. ^ Odgers, George Allen (1925). "Education in British". JSTOR 20257440. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ "Chapter 1, Industrial Policy Handbook" (PDF). Industrial Policy Handbook. Office of the Economic Adviser, Ministry of Commerce and Industry. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2015. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  12. ^ a b Jadhav, Narendra. "Industrial Policy since 1956" (PDF). Dr. Narendra Jadhav. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  13. ^ Ghose, Shankar (1993). Jawaharlal Nehru. Allied Publishers. p. 243. ISBN 978-8170233695.
  14. ^ Ahluwalia, Isher J. (1993). Productivity and Growth in Indian Manufacturing, part of Recent Developments in Indian Economy: With Special Reference to Structural Reforms, Part 2. New Delhi: Academic Foundation. p. 25. ISBN 9788171880942.
  15. ^ Baldev Raj Nayar, Globalization And Nationalism: The Changing Balance Of India's Economic Policy, 1950–2000 (New Delhi: Sage, 2001)
  16. ^ "Disinvestments-A Historical Perspective". Bombay Stock Exchange. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  17. ^ Sankar, T.L., Mishra, R.K., Lateef Syed Mohammed, A. (1994). "Divestments in Public Enterprises: The Indian Experience". International Journal Ofyear=1994. 7 (2): 69–88. doi:10.1108/09513559410055242.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ Original govt. announcement about the Navratnas 1997 Archived 9 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "Maharatnas, Navratnas: India's best PSUs!". Rediff.
  20. ^ "Maharatna status for mega PSUs gets nod". The Times of India. 25 December 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2009.
  21. ^ "bsepsu.com". www.bsepsu.com. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
  22. ^ http://www.archive.india.gov.in/spotlight/spotlight_archive.php?id=78
  23. ^ Public Enterprises Survey 2018–19 Page No. 4 https://dpe.gov.in/sites/default/files/PE_seurvey_ENG_VOL_1.pdf
  24. ^ "Financial Performance : Oil and Energy News". iocl.com. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  25. ^ ONGC Ltd annual Report 2019-20
  26. ^ "--: GAIL (India) Limited | Investor Zone Annual Reports:--". www.gailonline.com. Retrieved 27 September 2021.
  27. ^ "Public Enterprises Survey 2018–19 | Department of Public Enterprises | MoHI&PE | GoI Page No. 5". dpe.gov.in. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  28. ^ "List of Maharatna and Navratna companies in India". Dainik Jagran. 8 April 2021.
  29. ^ "List of Maharatna, Navratna and Miniratna CPSEs". Ministry of Finance. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  30. ^ "list of SCB".
  31. ^ a b https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Hyderabad/rural-banks-to-be-merged-in-ts-ap/article27084736.ece. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  32. ^ "दैनिक जागरण: बैंकों का विलय : एक हुए UP के तीन बैंक, अब बड़ौदा यूपी बैंक नाम से जाने जाएंगे".