Jump to content

Public security organ (China)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The public security organs (Chinese: 公安机关; pinyin: gōng'ānjīguān) are administrative law enforcement agencies responsible for public security affairs under the management of the central and local people's governments of the People's Republic of China, and are one of the management organs of the People's Police.


Typically, these organs are responsible for policing, public security, and social order. Other duties include residence registration ("hukou") and matters related to domestic and international migration, such as the registration of temporary residents (including both foreign and domestic visitors). The police stations is conceptually similar to the Japanese kōban system.[1]

Rules and Regulations[edit]

At the national level, the State Council establishes the Ministry of Public Security (MPS) (Chinese: 公安部; pinyin: gōng'ānbù). At the provincial level, all regions set up Public Security Departments (Chinese: 公安厅; pinyin: Gōng'āntīng). At the city level, municipal governments establish Public Security Bureaus (Chinese: 公安局; pinyin: gōng'ānjú). At the district level, corresponding Public Security Branches (Chinese: 公安分局; pinyin: gōng'ānfēnjú) are set up. At the most local level, there are Public Security Stations (Chinese: 公安派出所; pinyin: pàichūsuǒ) established in streets.

Supervision and Cooperation[edit]

The public security system is managed by the MPS at the national level. Each public security organ is responsible to the local government, the local CPC committee, and the higher-level public security organ. For example, the Hebei Provincial Public Security Department is jointly supervised by the Hebei Provincial People's Government, the CPC Hebei Provincial Committee, and the Ministry of Public Security to prevent corruption and unchecked influence.

The public security system should not be confused with the separate but parallel state security system, which is managed by the Ministry of State Security (MSS). The MSS is responsible for intelligence and internal security. While these two systems are distinct, they cooperate extensively and frequently share resources. A public security organ usually has an internal security bureau, which is a unit with functions similar to those of a state security organ.


The entire territory of mainland China is under the jurisdiction of the public security organs. The Macau and Hong Kong Special Administrative Regions have their own police forces, namely the Hong Kong Police Force and the Macao Unitary Police Service.


In 2016, the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Public Security Department signed a partnership agreement with Huawei.[2] In 2019, the Xinjiang PSD were sanctioned by the U.S. Department of State for their role in human rights abuses against the Uyghurs.[3] In 2020, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the United States Department of the Treasury imposed sanctions on the Xinjiang PSD under the Global Magnitsky Act.[4]

In October 2022, various news outlets reported that the MPS had opened police stations overseas and was suspected of engaging in transnational repression.[5][6][7][8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Wang, Xiaohai (23 April 2015). Empowerment on Chinese Police Force's Role in Social Service. Springer. p. 171. ISBN 978-3-662-45614-9. Archived from the original on 12 November 2023. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Mapping more of China's tech giants: AI and surveillance". Australian Strategic Policy Institute. 28 November 2019. Archived from the original on 21 January 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  3. ^ Shepardson, David (7 October 2019). "U.S. puts Hikvision, Chinese security bureaus on economic blacklist". Reuters. Archived from the original on 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  4. ^ "Treasury Sanctions Chinese Entity and Officials Pursuant to Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act". U.S. Department of the Treasury. 23 February 2024. Archived from the original on 9 July 2020. Retrieved 25 February 2024.
  5. ^ Lee, Michael (29 September 2022). "China has opened overseas police stations in US and Canada to monitor Chinese citizens: report". Fox News. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  6. ^ Delaney, Matt (2 October 2022). "China establishes police station in New York City". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  7. ^ Morgan, Ryan (28 September 2022). "Report: Chinese police set up covert station in NYC, 31 others around the world". American Military News. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  8. ^ "Report: China's unofficial 'police stations' operating under the radar in London, other parts of the world". news.yahoo.com. 15 September 2022. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.