Public transport in Auckland

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AT Metro
AT Metro logo.png
AMA 103 at Puhinui.jpg
An AT electric train
Parent Auckland Transport (AT)
Locale New Zealand
Service area Auckland
Service type Bus service, commuter rail, ferry
Hubs Britomart Transport Centre
Fuel type Diesel, electric
Operator NZ Bus, Transdev Auckland, Ritchies Transport
Website at.govt.nz
A two-minute animation of a day's activity on Auckland's public transport network.

Public transport in Auckland, the largest metropolitan area of New Zealand, consists of three modesbus, train and ferry. Services are coordinated by Auckland Transport under the AT Metro brand. Britomart Transport Centre is the main transport hub.

Historically Auckland was well served by public transport, but an extensive Auckland tram system was dismantled in the 1950s, which, together with the decision by William Goosman[1] not to electrify the rail network and instead heavily invest into a motorway system, led to a collapse in both mode share and total trips.[2] Major projects have been undertaken in recent years to improve public transport, both smaller-scale initiatives such as bus priority measures and large-scale bus and rail infrastructure projects. Public transport use grew by 4.4% over all modes in the year to June 2008 (with rail passenger up 18.4%),[3] and later accelerated even more, growing by 8.3 percent in the year to February 2011 (with rail passengers up 17.9%), with Auckland for the first time reaching 1950s overall numbers again.[4]

There have also been significant gains in the distances travelled by public transport in the Auckland Region, with an associated improvement in subsidy efficiency - with subsidy totals rising 14% in 2008-2009 (to account for increased patronage), but leading to a 39.4% increase in the kilometres travelled (during the same time, patronage in terms of trips increased 7.7%). The increased travel distances were mostly considered due to longer rail trips and more trips on long-distance services such as the Northern Busway.[5]

Despite these strong recent gains, Auckland however still ranks quite low in public transport use as of 2009, having had only 41 public transport trips per person per year, while Wellington had 91, and Sydney 114.[6] Despite these comparatively low metrics in international comparison, the Auckland Region, with 34% of New Zealand's population, in 2007-08 had 47% of national bus boardings, 37% of national rail boardings, and 93% of national ferry boardings, showing an above-average level of patronage for New Zealand, although if regions without rail and ferry services are excluded, national rail boardings are actually below average (Auckland has 75 percent of New Zealand's population with access to rail services).[7]

The construction of the City Rail Link for an estimated $2 billion, creating two new stations in the CBD and also improving capacity for trains on all suburban routes, has been argued as the most important future public transport project for Auckland, allowing extra capacity that could provide up to 50 million trips per year on the city's rail lines, about twice the amount possible without it.[8]

History[edit]

Early decades[edit]

Declining use[edit]

Auckland had an extensive tram network, but this was removed in the 1950s, with the last line closing in late 1956.[9][10] Ambitious rail transport schemes for the city and region were mooted several times in the 20th century. In the 1950s these were ignored in favour of a Master Transportation Plan emphasising motorways, and the influential De Leuw Carter report of 1965 and the passionate championship of mayors like John Luxford and Dove-Myer Robinson could not achieve funding for the proposed rail extensions.[11]

The negative decisions on public transport, such as the removal of the trams for a bus system considered more modern (quickly followed by removal of the tram tracks from the streets), and Auckland authorities not pushing for electrification of the rail network (criticised by some as having been a concession in return for government funding of the Auckland Harbour Bridge) led to a collapse in rider numbers.[2] From a 1954 average level of 290 public transport trips per person per year (a share of 58% of all motorised trips, also compare to the 41 trips per person per year made in 2009),[6][12] patronage rapidly decreased. From the record of about 100 million annual passenger trips the numbers fell to about 57 million - a level that fell even further in following decades, notwithstanding Auckland's substantial interim population growth. Even the reduced 57 million level of annual trips was only reached again in the late 2000s.[2]

With the significant sprawl occurring in the following decades, public transport became more and more influenced by the decentralised, relatively low-density urban area, where private motor vehicle transport outpaced public transport. However, the growth of the city and of car use have led to serious traffic problems, which, together with the lack of good public transport, have been cited by many Aucklanders as one of the strongest negative factors in living there.[13] Since car usage costs fall slightly with decreasing urban density while public transport costs rise sharply (even for less capital-intensive services like buses), Auckland's public transport will for the foreseeable future have to cope with a handicap compared to cities of similar population but higher density.[14][15]

Academic research also places most of the blame on the direction of transport planning, which systematically marginalised public transport improvements and maintenance in favour of US-influenced roads & motorway plans. As part of this declining importance of public transport, in 1983 there were serious plans by the Auckland Regional Authority, the predecessor of Auckland Regional Council, to abolish the Auckland railway system altogether.[16]

A long history of political lack of interest in public transport had by the 2000s left Auckland with substantially underused and underfunded bus and rail systems (by 2006, accounting for only 7% of all morning trips),[17] with research at Griffith University concluding that in the 50-year period from 1955 onwards the Auckland area had engaged in some of the most pro-automobile transport policies anywhere in the world. This is alleged to have been based not on rational (or indeed public) choice alone, but also due to policy tools being strongly weighed to produce favourable results for road projects when assessing transport spending.[18] The Ministry of Economic Development released a working paper assessing the economic benefits for public transport growth in Auckland and suggested a number of key framework issues may be responsible for the decline in Auckland public transport patronage.[19]

As concerns over urban sprawl and traffic congestion grew in recent decades public transport has returned to the spotlight, with local and national authorities in agreement that there is "a need for a substantial shift to public transport",[20] though uptake has a long way to grow from 1998 figures of only about 5% mode share.[21] In 2006 mode share had grown to 7%.[17]

New emphasis[edit]

The gap between desired and provided public transport options is being countered by large new investments in bus priority and rail infrastructure.[22] Regional authorities have emphasised the need for such improved provisions before measures like road pricing could be introduced.[20] The government noted in July 2007 that a 'steady growth' [of public transport spending and infrastructure construction] is favoured over the 'rapid growth' proposals advocated by Auckland area leaders such as Papakura District mayor John Robertson, because the associated costs, raised by means like a regional fuel tax, might put too much financial pressure on Auckland.[23]

A number of initiatives, especially by the Auckland Regional Council (ARC) and ARTA, are trying to change the focus on private cars by stimulating a discussion on intensified growth (higher urban densities).[24][25] Associated groups like those in the 'Auckland Transport Strategic Alignment Project' (a project of the government and Auckland authorities) have noted that even an eventual completion of an additional harbour crossing and the completion of the Western Ring Route will barely keep up with the expected traffic growth. Further expansions of the roading network beyond those measures would be prohibitively expensive or even impossible, because of "geographical constraints" and "increased community and environmental impacts". Therefore, future traffic growth would need to be covered via public transport.[26]

Critical views

Despite the call for increased density to boost and sustain public transport, Wendell Cox, a US public policy consultant, has stated that this policy was unrealistic: "Downtown Auckland would need to look like Hong Kong for Auckland Regional Council's [transport] goals to be achieved."[27] Despite the negative perception of public transport, he noted in 2001 that Auckland CBD "public transport's work trip market share is 31%" compared to Wellington's 26%. Cox further stated that no other centre in New Zealand achieved as high a market share in public transport as the Auckland City centre, but also noted that CBDs are no longer the dominant employment areas.[27] This qualifies the public transport share of the CBD, as public transport percentages for the whole Auckland Region hover around 5% of all journeys. This figure is comparable to numerous North American and Australian cities.[21][28]

An article in The New Zealand Herald by Owen McShane, director of the Centre for Resource Management Studies, notes that large parts of the Auckland Region 'barely have roads, let alone buses', and that comparing Auckland as a whole to metropolitan areas in other parts of the world is misleading. He also criticises public transport use as a sustainability measure (as promoted by the ARC), arguing that private cars use less energy than buses.[29] This claim, in which he does not detail what bus and car occupancy rates he is using, runs counter to estimates that a bus carrying 19 passengers uses less than a quarter of the energy per person than a typical car carrying one person.[30] ARTA data shows that bus emissions per passenger km for the 2007/08 year were half those of a typical car.[3]

The MAXX brand was used for Auckland public transport from 2001 until 2012.

Systems[edit]

Currently, Auckland public transport services are a mixture of private (commercially operated) and subsidised services (also run by private operators)

Bus services[edit]

  • NZ Bus (Northstar, Metrolink, Waka Pacific, Go West, Link)
  • Ritchies (also operates Northern Express Services on the Northern Busway)
  • Howick and Eastern
  • Birkenhead Transport
  • Urban Express (Blockhouse Bay, New Lynn and few crosstown services)
  • SkyBus Express (City to Airport every 15 mins)
  • Tranzit (380 Manukau to Airport)
  • Waiheke bus company (by Fullers, 5 routes)

Ferry services[edit]

  • Fullers
  • Pine Harbour Ferry
  • 360 Discovery
  • SeaLink
  • Belaire (West Harbour and Rakino Island)

Rail services[edit]

  • Transdev Auckland operates the trains on behalf of Auckland Transport with the trains and stations belonging to Auckland Transport and the rail infrastructure belonging to KiwiRail.

Integrated ticketing[edit]

Main article: AT HOP card

Due to the lack of integrated ticketing until March 2014, changing modes, or even changing bus services, generally required purchasing an additional ticket. However, as part of a push by ARTA and NZTA, an integrated ticketing / smartcard system was introduced in Auckland by successful tenderer Thales, similar to systems like Octopus card in Hong Kong.[31][32] The new system was hoped to also reduce delays while boarding buses, leading to fewer service delays.

The first stage of integrated ticketing came online in time for the Rugby World Cup 2011, with construction works for the 'tag on' / 'tag off' infrastructure having begun in January 2011.[33] The 'HOP Card' was publicised with a $1 million publicity campaign that started in early 2011.[32]

The AT HOP card system went live in October 2012 for trains, November 2012 for ferries and between June 2013 and March 2014 for buses.[34]

Buses[edit]

Stagecoach (2006 livery) and Link buses on Queen Street.
A bus in the 1910s or 1920s.

Urban services[edit]

Bus services provide the bulk of public transport and are mostly operated by NZ Bus, formerly Stagecoach New Zealand, with some buses are still in the old livery as of 2008. Bus routes are mainly radial lines connecting Auckland CBD with the suburbs and the surrounding cities.

Bus services have improved in various ways in recent years, with, for example, 20 new-technology 'Link' city route buses built in 2007[35] and the introduction of bus rapid transit on the Northern Busway (opened January 2008) and the Central Connector (opened October 2009). However, buses still often suffer from long delays[35] and a bad public image. Bus services generally stop around midnight or earlier, even on Fridays and Saturdays. A limited number of night buses serve Auckland's suburbs from the CBD on Friday and Saturday nights only.

Auckland Transport have begun the process to rebrand the bus services to AT Metro to create a single identity for AT services. This involves repainting the livery on all on AT contracted routes to a single colour, to be phased in over three years. The default colour scheme for the urban buses is ocean blue and grey. The exceptions are the LINK buses which will retain their traditional red, green and orange colours.[36]

Long-distance services[edit]

Long-distance bus operators, including Intercity and Naked Bus, link Auckland with all the main centres in the North Island. For example, in 2007 services to Hamilton (the closest large city to the south) depart around 12 times per weekday at variable intervals.[37]

User statistics[edit]

After a ridership plateau of just over 46 million bus trips per year in 2003, usage volumes fell for three years to 42.18 million trips in the year ended June 2006, before rising again to 43.23 million in the year ended June 2008,[3] and to over 50 million for the year ending February 2011.[38] Users were also found to be taking longer rides, which reduced the subsidy per passenger kilometer.[5][39]

An ARTA study found a number of characteristics typical of Auckland bus transport users:[39]

  • 58% were female
  • 50% were white-collar workers
  • 23% were tertiary students

It also identified some characteristics relevant to the scope for future public transport measures:

  • 71% had other transport available (such as private vehicles)
  • 37% wanted service frequencies to be increased

Patronage on the 'Northern Express' services from North Shore City into Auckland CBD has improved markedly; it carried 1.2 million trips in the year ended June 2008[3] and patronage continues to rise due to the time gains offered by the Northern Busway. A previous 2008 survey had shown a 34% patronage increase in one year.[40][40]

Northern Busway looking north along the Tristram Avenue viaduct in North Shore City.

Priority measures[edit]

Auckland has a slowly growing network of bus lanes: in Auckland City there were 27 km in 2008. The Central Connector bus lane project, which started construction in 2008, is expected to substantially improve links between Newmarket and the inner city, while bus lanes are also planned on Remuera Road and St Johns Road to connect the city with the Eastern Bays suburbs.[41]

The Northern Busway in North Shore City may possibly be extended further north, to serve the increasing urbanisation of the northern areas, and may eventually go all the way to Orewa and the Whangaparaoa peninsula.[42]

The Auckland-Manukau Eastern Transport Initiative (AMETI) project will include dedicated bus facilities and lanes.

Trains[edit]

Current and proposed lines of the Auckland rail network since July 2015
Auckland rail network map until July 2015. Waitakere Train Station has since closed and replaced with a bus service.

Urban services[edit]

Auckland's urban trains services are operated under the AT brand by Transdev Auckland, formerly known as Veolia. Since the opening of Britomart Transport Centre, significant improvements have been made to commuter rail services. In October 2005, Sunday services were reintroduced for the first time in over 40 years, together with a general 25% service frequency increase at the time.[43]

Recent investment has resulted in strongly increased patronage from a low level, with a 1,580% increase from the lowest ebb in 1994. Second-hand diesel units replaced even older coaches in 1993 and, by 1995, patronage was claimed to be up 60% to almost 2 million train trips a year.[44] Patronage has increased from just under 4 million train trips in 2005 to over 7 million in 2008, as of early 2016 patronage has quadrupled to 16 million passengers and growth at 4 million additional trips a year.[45] In March 2010, rail trips reached their highest point since 1955, with 918,000 passengers in one month, 115,000 more than the March 2009.[46]

Investment has focused on upgrading and refurbishing rolling stock and railway stations. Some double tracking to allow higher frequencies has been undertaken, and had resulted in a 25% increase in frequency, and a rise in punctuality (5 minutes late or less) from 60.9% in 2005 to 83.1% in 2006[39] and 82% in 2008.[3] Reliability has been a problem though and Auckland Regional Council chairman Mike Lee complained that there were over 400 signal and points failures in 2009.[47] ARTA noted that the unreliability was due to the large amount of work being conducted in the rail corridor to upgrade and double-track the rail system, especially on the Western Line.

Main lines[edit]

There are four commuter rail lines, all electrified at 25kV AC:

Line Frequency Calling at Notes
Eastern Line 3 tph (weekdays)
2 tph (weekends)
Britomart, Orakei, Meadowbank, Greenlane, Glen Innes, Panmure, Sylvia Park, Westfield, Otahuhu, Middlemore, Papatoetoe, Puhinui, Manukau
Southern Line 3 tph (weekdays)
2 tph (weekends)
Britomart, Newmarket, Remuera, Greenlane, Ellerslie, Penrose, Westfield, Otahuhu, Middlemore, Papatoetoe, Puhinui, Homai, Manurewa, Te Mahia, Takanini, Papakura
Southern Line (Papakura–Puhekohe shuttle) 1 tph Papakura, Pukekohe Diesel shuttle connecting with service to/from Britomart
Western Line 3 tph (weekdays)
2 tph (weekends)
Britomart, Newmarket, Grafton, Mount Eden, Kingsland, Morningside, Baldwin Avenue, Mount Albert, Avondale, New Lynn, Fruitvale Road, Glen Eden, Sunnyvale, Henderson, Sturges Road, Ranui, Swanson Trains reverse at Newmarket
Onehunga Line 2 tph Britomart, Newmarket, Remuera, Greenlane, Ellerslie, Penrose, Te Papapa, Onehunga

These names however are not the official names for these railway lines. Britomart to Wellington (via Orakei) is officially part of the North Island Main Trunk (NIMT). Quay Park Junction to Newmarket is officially the Newmarket Line, and Westfield Junction to Otiria is officially the North Auckland Line (NAL).

Long-distance services[edit]

Auckland has only one long-distance passenger train, the Northern Explorer to Wellington, operated by KiwiRail Scenic Journeys. It runs southbound on Mondays, Thursdays and Saturdays and northbound Tuesdays, Fridays and Sundays. The service is mainly tourist-oriented, but in 2008 there were proposals to reintroduce more services and increase emphasis towards regular users.

Current and recent upgrades[edit]

From 2008, a NZ$600 million upgrading project named "DART" (Developing Auckland's Rail Transport)[48] was undertaken, managed by the state-owned enterprise ONTRACK. Project DART and other current projects include:

  • double-tracking the Western Line (completed in 2010)[46]
  • upgrading stations and signalling (ongoing)
  • rebuilding and reconfiguring Newmarket Train Station to cater better for the growing importance of the area and improve transfers between the Western and Southern lines (completed 2010)
  • constructing the new Manukau Branch line from Wiri to Manukau City Centre, the first fully new track in Auckland for decades (completed)
  • reopening the disused Onehunga Branch line for passengers[49] (reopened September 2010)
  • extension of a peak Western Line service to Helensville in 2008, with temporary stations at Huapai and Waimauku, and a minor upgrade of Helensville station. Services between Auckland and Helensville resumed in July 2008 on a trial basis, with a minimum of forty passengers daily required for the train to be permanently reinstated,[50] but the service was terminated again in December 2009, because an average of only 43 passengers per day used the three daily services, requiring a much above-average subsidy.[51]
  • more rebuilt carriage trains, powered by DC class diesel locomotives in push-pull mode.

ARTA increased peak services to four trains per hour on the core urban network from July 2008, and plans to achieve six per hour from the middle of 2010. Services were extended to after 10 pm during the week in early 2009.[52]

In December 2014, weekend services to Pukekohe were introduced for the first time, together with later services and hourly frequencies on weekdays. All Eastern Line services via Glen Innes now run to Manukau, with all services to Papakura and Pukekohe running via Newmarket on the Southern Line.

Also in December 2014 a public campaign to have a diesel rail shuttle service introduced between Swanson and Huapai was launched by the Public Transport Users Association in response to Auckland Transport's plans to withdraw rail services from Waitakere Train Station in 2015.

Electrification and core upgrade[edit]

A new AM class electric multiple unit at Puhinui in 2013

From the 1920s, there were a number of proposals recommending electrification of the Auckland rail network, with some being parts of proposals for electrification of the North Island Main Trunk in its entirety from Auckland to Wellington.[53] In 2006 the Auckland Regional Transport Authority released a study pointing to a "desperate" need for electrification. The Mayor of Auckland City[54] and the Prime Minister[55] joined a general agreement[56] culminating in a commitment to electrification, to be partly paid for by a regional fuel tax. The goals of the upgrade were to raise rail use from 5 million passenger trips in 2007 to 30 million by 2030, with departures every 10 minutes.[57]

The "Core Network Upgrade" project proposed in late 2006 was calculated to cost around NZ$1 billion, and to be completed by 2015. It would include:[58]

  • electrification and further upgrading (beyond project DART) of 110 km of Auckland railway infrastructure
  • further station upgrades
  • new electric rolling stock
  • better service frequencies

Electrification of the Auckland suburban network was completed in July 2015.[59]

Further proposed upgrades[edit]

There has been growing recognition throughout Auckland over the past years of the need to invest in public transport to help ease growing traffic congestion.[20] A number of extensions to the rail network have been proposed, for a potential target of 30 million train trips per year (over four times the 2008 level),[60] though some have been discussed for several decades:

Ferries[edit]

The MV Quick Cat, deployed on the Waiheke Island service.
Ferry routes from Auckland.

Services[edit]

A feature of Auckland transport is the popularity of commuting by ferry. A substantial minority of North Shore commuters avoid motorway congestion by catching ferries from North Shore ferry terminals directly to the downtown ferry terminal. The ferries operate at least hourly, with longer hours of operation than many of Auckland's bus routes and railway lines.

North Shore ferry terminals[edit]

  • Devonport
  • Bayswater
  • Birkenhead
  • Northcote Point
  • Stanley Bay
  • Beach Haven

Further to these terminals there is Hobsonville and West Harbour in the west of the Waitemata harbour, and Half Moon Bay and Beachlands in east Auckland.

Ferries also connect the city with islands of the Hauraki Gulf. Regular sailings serve Waiheke Island's residents and visitors, with more infrequent ferries serving Great Barrier Island, as well as Rangitoto, Motutapu and other inner-gulf islands, primarily for tourism.

The main ferry operator, Fullers Group, transports around 4.7 million passengers a year (2010/11) on 42,010 sailings, an average of around 100 passengers per sailing.[67]

There are no ferry services on the west coast of Auckland and none are planned (although there have been some historical services from Onehunga) as the city's waterfront orientation is much stronger towards the eastern Waitemata Harbour than to the western Manukau Harbour.

Subsidies[edit]

Fullers Group has noted that Auckland ferry services are operating well for their low level of Council subsidy of around 84c per passenger and journey, half the subsidy of Brisbane ferry operators and a seventh of those in Sydney.[67]

Terminals[edit]

The Auckland Ferry Terminal is in downtown Auckland on Quay Street, between Princes Wharf and the container port, directly opposite Britomart Transport Centre. An underground link between the two, to allow easier road crossing and protection from bad weather, was planned but not built due to cost reasons.

There are ferry terminals at Devonport, Stanley Bay, Bayswater, Northcote Point, Birkenhead, Half Moon Bay, West Harbour, Pine Harbour and Gulf Harbour, and on the Hauraki Gulf islands.

The Auckland Regional Transport Network (ARTNL), then responsible for building Auckland's passenger transport terminals, in 2005-2006 invested $NZ20 million in upgrades to ferry terminals, and tried to improve the problem of parking, especially at terminals catering for commuters to the Auckland CBD - but was limited by parking being (at that time) the authority of local councils and that new parking would be hard to provide unless by provision of new parking buildings. ARTNL noted that while ferry services were often full, a combination of low profits and uncertainty about losing services to other bidders has made providers reluctant to invest the large sums necessary for new ferries.[68]

Britomart Transport Centre[edit]

Opened in July 2003, Britomart is a central hub for public transport in Auckland - buses at ground level, trains underground in a terminal station and ferries close by. During its planning period it provoked much controversy spanning multiple mayoral terms, mostly for cost and capacity reasons. New rail transport investment in the Auckland Region, both planned and recently started, will increase the importance of the centre.[69]

The local government elections in September 2004 centred largely around candidates' policies on public transport, with the incumbent Auckland mayor John Banks promoting the "Eastern Corridor" motorway plan, and his main rivals (former mayor Christine Fletcher and businessman Dick Hubbard, the eventual winner) supporting public transport alternatives like light rail and improving existing bus and rail services.[citation needed]

Second Harbour Crossing[edit]

During 2007, plans were mooted to build a second crossing over the Waitemata Harbour, which is a major barrier for traffic, and currently bridged by the Auckland Harbour Bridge. Proposed bridge or tunnel options included substantial provision for public transport, including for light rail, with some proposing to keep the new crossing reserved solely for public transport.[70]

Commentator Brian Rudman noted that it would make the most sense for a new crossing to be dedicated to public transport only, possibly connecting with a rail tunnel from the Western Reclamation to Britomart Transport Centre, providing an alternate way of making Britomart a through station.[65]

In 2008 it was decided to shortlist the harbour crossing options to the general Auckland waterfront area, and it was announced that due to the reduction in costs for the boring of multiple small tunnels compared to single large ones it was likely that public transport would receive a dedicated tunnel, with potential for light or heavy rail.[71]

In 2014 the New Zealand First political party included a plan in its transport policy to investigate a cheaper rail only tunnel option together with converting the Northern Busway into a railway, with the reasoning that with a rail link to the North Shore, there would be reduced traffic demand on the Auckland Harbour Bridge and no need for road tunnels.

Public advocacy[edit]

Groups like the Campaign for Better Transport (CBT) aim to be advocates for alternatives to the private car, including public transport, cycling and walking. The CBT is both a successor to the former 'Campaign for Public Transport' and a new umbrella group.[citation needed]

In December 2014 the Public Transport Users Association (PTUA) was formed to represent and take up the issues of public transport passengers, initially Auckland based, but with potential to become a nationwide organisation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sir Dove-Myer Robinson on his Rapid Transit Scheme – Part 4". transportblog.co.nz. 2016-05-18. Retrieved 2016-05-19. 
  2. ^ a b c "Michael Lee: Sins of the fathers - legacy of harbour bridge". The New Zealand Herald. 1 June 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d e ARTA Annual Report 2007/08 (Auckland Regional Transport Authority. Retrieved 10 January 2009.)
  4. ^ "Auckland Public Transport Figures Highest in 60 Years". Media Release. Auckland Transport Agency. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011. 
  5. ^ a b Dearnaley, Mathew (18 March 2010). "Aucklanders travelling further on public transport system". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 26 July 2010. 
  6. ^ a b Auckland's Transport Challenges (from the Draft 2009/10-2011/12 Auckland Regional Land Transport Programme, Page 8), ARTA, March 2009. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
  7. ^ Overview of transport system - Table 1: Key statistics on the Auckland region (June 2007-July 2008) (from the National Land Transport Programme 2009–2012, Auckland, NZTA, August 2009. Retrieved 14 January 2010.)
  8. ^ "Nine millionth rail passenger arrives at Britomart". The New Zealand Herald. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 7 February 2011. 
  9. ^ Auckland Tram - Number 11 (from the MOTAT website)
  10. ^ A Wheel on Each Corner, The History of the IPENZ Transportation Group 1956-2006 - Douglass, Malcolm; IPENZ Transportation Group, 2006, Page 12
  11. ^ History of Auckland City - Chapter 4 (from the Auckland City Council website. Retrieved 7 June 2008.)
  12. ^ Mees, Paul (December 2009). Transport for Suburbia: Beyond the Automobile Age. Earthscan Ltd. ISBN 1-84407-740-3. 
  13. ^ Auckland City Council. "Central Transit Corridor Project". Archived from the original on 22 May 2007. Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  14. ^ Vivier, Jean, UITP - Public Transport International, 1/99. "Density of urban activity and journey costs" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  15. ^ Optimisation and Scale Economies in Urban Bus Transportation - Mohring, H - American Economic Review, 1972
  16. ^ Mees, Paul; Dodson, Jago (1 February 2001). "The American Heresy: Half a century of transport planning in Auckland". Presentation to joint conference of New Zealand Geographical Society / Australian Institute of Geographers conference, University of Otago, Dunedin. Urban Planning Program, Faculty of Architecture, Building & Planning, University of Melbourne. Retrieved 9 February 2011. 
  17. ^ a b Reliance on private vehicles (from ARTA's 'Auckland Transport Plan', June 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2008.)
  18. ^ Backtracking Auckland: Bureaucratic rationality and public preferences in transport planning - Mees, Paul; Dodson, Jago; Urban Research Program Issues Paper 5, Griffith University, April 2006
  19. ^ Getting Auckland on Track: Public Transport and New Zealand's Economic Transformation - Ministry of Economic Development, 8 August 2007
  20. ^ a b c Dearnaley, Mathew (23 April 2007). "Force people out of cars, says Treasury". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  21. ^ a b Mode of Transport, Figure for New Zealand Regions (from the Travel Survey Highlights 1997-98, New Zealand Ministry of Transport)
  22. ^ References provided within this same article (Buses) and this same article (Trains)
  23. ^ Dearnaley, Mathew (12 July 2007). "Push for rapid transport growth". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  24. ^ Executive Summary (PDF) (from the Auckland Regional Growth Strategy document, ARC, November 1999
  25. ^ From Urban Sprawl to Compact City: an analysis of Auckland's Urban Growth Management Strategies - Arbury, Joshua - MA Thesis, University of Auckland
  26. ^ Rudman, Brian (23 April 2007). "Brian Rudman: Think a bit smaller and fix the bus-stop signs". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  27. ^ a b Wendell Cox. "Urban Transport Planning in New Zealand: From Fantasy to Reality". Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  28. ^ Private Vehicle & Public Transport Market Share: International Urban Areas: 1990/1991 (from the Wendell Cox Consultancy website)
  29. ^ McShane, Owen (9 March 2007). "Some plans heading down wrong road". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  30. ^ Divorce your car - Alvord, Katie; via climatechangecaravan, Mount Allison University, Canada
  31. ^ "Integrated ticketing". Region Wide. Auckland Regional Council. July 2010. p. 3. 
  32. ^ a b Dearnaley, Mathew (24 December 2010). "$1m budget to help publicise Hop Card". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 30 January 2011. 
  33. ^ "Start Of Construction For Integrated Ticketing". Press Release, Auckland Transport. 24 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011. 
  34. ^ "Planned bus roll-out schedule". Auckland Transport. Retrieved 30 March 2014. 
  35. ^ "AT Metro brand makes its debut". Auckland Transport. 16 December 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2016. 
  36. ^ Bookings (from the Intercity website. Retrieved 16 February 2008.)
  37. ^ "Auckland Public Transport Figures Highest in 60 Years". Press Release: Auckland Transport. 31 March 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2011. 
  38. ^ a b c Dearnaley, Mathew (11 October 2006). "Auckland buses - fewer fares but longer journeys". The New Zealand Herald. p. A15. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  39. ^ a b Dearnaley, Mathew (20 March 2008). "New busway a hit but numbers down elsewhere". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  40. ^ New bus lanes for Remuera - Times Online, Wednesday 20 February 2008
  41. ^ References provided within Northern Busway, Auckland
  42. ^ Dearnaley, Mathew (11 October 2005). "Sunday trains come back to Auckland". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 12 January 2011. 
  43. ^ "New Zealand Hansard: Thursday, July 27, 1995". www.vdig.net. Retrieved 2016-05-17. 
  44. ^ "NZ Transport Blog Patronage Updates". Transport Blog. Retrieved 23 April 2016. 
  45. ^ a b "Auckland's rail renaissance". Region Wide. Auckland Regional Council. July 2010. p. 3. 
  46. ^ Dearnaley, Matthew (12 April 2010). "Restructures take toll on rail service, warns Lee". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 12 April 2010. 
  47. ^ Rail Newsletter Issue 29 (published on the ARTA website, late 2006)
  48. ^ Dearnaley, Mathew (14 March 2007). "Delight at Government's decision to reopen Onehunga line". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  49. ^ "West Rail Needs Passengers", Western Leader, 1 November 2007.
  50. ^ "Press Release: Auckland Regional Transport Authority – Helensville trial rail service ends". Scoop. 10 November 2009. Retrieved 12 July 2010. 
  51. ^ Summary Draft Annual Plan - Transport - Region Wide, newsletter of the Auckland Regional Council, April 2008, Page 4
  52. ^ The Railways of New Zealand: a Journey Through History - Churchman, Geoffrey & Hurst, Tony; IPL Books, 2001
  53. ^ Mayor said electrification was a "must have" for Auckland - Auckland City Council, Tuesday 12 September 2006
  54. ^ Minister's Statement to Parliament - The Beehive, 13 February 2007
  55. ^ Brian Rudman: Electrification battle seems to be won - The New Zealand Herald, 16 February 2007
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  57. ^ Following the money - e.nz magazine, IPENZ, January/February 2007
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  59. ^ At last - electric rail for Auckland - Region Wide, newspaper of the Auckland Regional Council, November 2008, Page 1
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  61. ^ Electric train lines may reach Hamilton - The New Zealand Herald, Thursday 28 February 2008
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  63. ^ "SH20 Mount Roskill". Transit New Zealand. Retrieved 20 February 2009. 
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  65. ^ Busway FAQ on North Shore City Council website. Retrieved 11 January 2008
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  68. ^ References provided within this same article (Trains) and in Britomart Transport Centre
  69. ^ References provided within Auckland Harbour Bridge
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