Mentha arvensis

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Mentha arvensis
Mentha arvensis - põldmünt Keila.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Mentha
Species: M. arvensis
Binomial name
Mentha arvensis
L.

Mentha arvensis corn mint, field mint or wild mint, is a species of flowering plant in the mint family Lamiaceae. It has a circumboreal distribution, being native to the temperate regions of Europe and western and central Asia, east to the Himalaya and eastern Siberia, and North America.[1][2][3]Mentha canadensis, the related species, is also included in Mentha arvensis by some authors as two varieties, M. arvensis var. glabrata Fernald (in reference to North American plants such as American Wild Mint) and M. arvensis var. piperascens  Malinv. ex L. H. Bailey (in reference to eastern Asian plants such as Japanese mint).[4][5]

Description[edit]

Wild mint is a herbaceous perennial plant generally growing to 10–60 cm (3.9–23.6 in) and rarely up to 100 cm (39 in) tall. It has a creeping rootstock from which grow erect or semi-sprawling squarish stems. The leaves are in opposite pairs, simple, 2–6.5 cm (0.79–2.56 in) long and 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) broad, hairy, and with a coarsely serrated margin. The flowers are pale purple (occasionally white or pink), in whorls on the stem at the bases of the leaves. Each flower is 3 to 4 mm (0.12 to 0.16 in) long and has a five-lobed hairy calyx, a four-lobed corolla with the uppermost lobe larger than the others and four stamens. The fruit is a two-chambered carpel.[3][6][7][8]

Some authors claims that Japanese Mint (arvensis  var. piperasce) originated from China.[9]

Subspecies[edit]

Subspecies include:[1]

  • Mentha arvensis subsp. arvensis.
  • Mentha arvensis subsp. agrestis (Sole) Briq.
  • Mentha arvensis subsp. austriaca (Jacq.) Briq.
  • Mentha arvensis subsp. lapponica (Wahlenb.) Neuman
  • Mentha arvensis subsp. palustris (Moench) Neumann
  • Mentha arvensis subsp. parietariifolia (Becker) Briq.
  • Mentha arvensis subsp. haplocalyx (Linnaeus, eg var. sachalinensis)[10]

The related species Mentha canadensis is also included in M. arvensis by some authors as two varieties, M. arvensis var. glabrata Fernald (in reference to North American plants) and M. arvensis var. piperascens Malinv. ex L. H. Bailey (in reference to eastern Asian plants).[11][12]

Uses[edit]

In ayurveda, Pudina is considered as appetizer and useful in gastric troubles.[13] In Europe, wild mint[which?] was traditionally used to treat flatulence, digestive problems, gall bladder problems and coughs. The Aztecs used it for similar purposes[citation needed] and also to induce sweating and they used the infusion to cure insomnia. The oil was extracted and rubbed into the skin for aches and pains. The Native Americans also used it in several traditional ways. Nowadays it is used in many countries for various ailments. Mint extracts and menthol-related chemicals are used in food, drinks, cough medicines, creams and cigarettes.[14]

Chemical substances that can be extracted from wild mint include menthol, menthone, isomenthone, neomenthol, limonene, methyl acetate, piperitone, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, tannins and flavonoids.[14]

Menthol is widely used in dental care as a topical antibacterial agent, effective against streptococci and lactobacilli.[15]Menthol extracted from Japanese mint is also commonly used in pharmaceutical and oral preparations like toothpastes, dental creams, beverages, tobacco.[16]

Diseases[17][edit]

Two main diseases that can significantly damage Japanese mint (M. arvensis var. piperascens) and its yield are the rust fungus and the mildew attacks. Mildew attacks usually only occur on the west coast of United States where the weather can be foggy and humid, a condition that attracts mildew. Rust fungus is a disease that is common for most of the Mentha plants such as peppermint and spearmint. These diseases are flagged due to the almost to none probability of controlling once it starts in a mint farm. They are typically cut immediately when discovered to help reduce the probability of contaminating the rest of the plant leaves. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Mentha arvensis
  2. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Mentha arvensis
  3. ^ a b Flora of NW Europe: Mentha arvensis
  4. ^  Germplasm Resources Information Network: Mentha canadensis
  5. ^  Quattrocchi, Umberto (1947), CRC World dictionary of plant names: Common names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synyonyms, and Etymology, III M-Q, CRC Press, p. 1659
  6. ^ Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2
  7. ^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  8. ^ "Corn mint: Mentha arvensis". NatureGate. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  9. ^ Lipman, Elinor, ed. Report of a working group on medicinal and aromatic plants. Bioversity International, 2009.
  10. ^ "Mentha sachalinensis in Flora of China". Flora of China (series) Vol 17. p. 237. Mentha sachalinensis (Briquet ex Miyabe & Miyake) Kudô, J. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo. 43(10): 47. 1921. 东北薄荷 dong bei bo he. 
  11. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Mentha canadensis
  12. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (1947). CRC World dictionary of plant names: Common names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synyonyms, and Etymology. III M-Q. CRC Press. p. 1659. 
  13. ^ Khalsa, Karta Purkh Singh; Tierra, Michael (2008). The way of ayurvedic herbs : the most complete guide to natural healing and health with traditional ayurvedic herbalism (1st ed.). Twin Lakes, Wis.: Lotus. p. 313. ISBN 0940985985. 
  14. ^ a b Maria Kostka-Rokosz, Yelena Yalli, Lana Dvorkin, Julia Whelan. "Mentha Arvensis Piperascens". Boston Healing Landscape Project. Boston University School of Medicine. Archived from the original on 2015-03-19. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  15. ^ Freires IA, Denny C, Benso B, de Alencar SM, Rosalen PL (22 April 2015). "Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils and Their Isolated Constituents against Cariogenic Bacteria: A Systematic Review". Molecules. 20 (4): 7329–7358. PMID 25911964. doi:10.3390/molecules20047329. 
  16. ^ Farooqi, A. A., Sreeramu, B. S., & Srinivasappa, K. N. (2005). Cultivation of spice crops. Universities Press.
  17. ^ Sievers, A. F., & Lowman, M. S. (1933). Commercial possibilities of Japanese mint in the United States as a source of natural menthol (No. 378). US Dept. of Agriculture.

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