Pudong

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Pudong
浦东新区
Sub-provincial district
State-level new area
Pudong New Area
Pudong landmarks & skyline
Pudong landmarks & skyline
Location within Shanghai
Location within Shanghai
Country  China
Municipality Shanghai
District Gov't Established 1993
Government
 • CPC Pudong District Secretary Shen Xiaoming (沈晓明)
 • District Governor Sun Jiwei (孙继伟)
Area
 • Total 1,210.4 km2 (467.3 sq mi)
Population (2010)[1]
 • Total 5,044,430
 • Density 4,200/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard Time (UTC+8)
Area Code 021
Postal Code 200135
Website pudong.gov.cn
Pudong New Area
Simplified Chinese 浦东
Traditional Chinese 浦東
Postal Map Pootung
Literal meaning East Bank New Area

Pudong, is a district of Shanghai, China, located east of the Huangpu River across from the historic city center of Shanghai in Puxi. The name refers to its historic position as "The East Bank" of the Huangpu River, which flows through central Shanghai, although it is now administered as the Pudong New Area, a state-level new area which extends all the way to the East China Sea.

The traditional area of Pudong is now home to the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and the Shanghai Stock Exchange and many of Shanghai's best-known buildings, such as the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Jin Mao Tower, the Shanghai World Financial Center, and the future Shanghai Tower. These modern skyscrapers directly face Puxi's historic Bund, a remnant of a former foreign concessions in China. The rest of the new area includes the Shanghai Expo and Century Park, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Pudong international airport, the Jiuduansha Wetland Nature Reserve, and a planned Disney resort.

History[edit]

Pudong—literally "The East Bank of the Huangpu River"—originally referred only to the less-developed land across from Shanghai's Old City and foreign concessions. The area was mainly farmland and only slowly developed, with some warehouses and wharfs near the shore administered by the districts of Puxi on the west bank: Huangpu, Yangpu, and Nanshi. Pudong was originally established as a county in 1958 until 1961 which the county was split among Huangpu, Yangpu, Nanshi, Wusong and Chuansha County. In October 1, 1992 the original area of Pudong County and Chuansha County merged and established Pudong New Area.

In 1993, the Chinese government set up a Special Economic Zone in Chuansha, creating the Pudong New Area. The western tip of the Pudong district was designated as the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and has become a financial hub of modern China. Several landmark buildings were constructed, including the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Jin Mao Building, and the supertall Shanghai World Financial Center 494 m (1,621 ft) and Shanghai Tower (projected to reach 565.6 m or 1,856 ft). These buildings—all along Century Avenue and visible from the historic Bund—now form the most common skyline of Shanghai.

On May 6, 2009, it was disclosed that the State Council had approved the proposal to merge Nanhui District with Pudong and comprise the majority of eastern Shanghai. In 2010, Pudong was host to the main venues of the Shanghai Expo, whose grounds now form a public park.

Pudong New Area consist of the original Pudong County (northeastern portion of Shanghai County), Chuansha County, and Nanhui County.

Government[edit]

Districts of the direct-controlled municipality of Shanghai are administratively on the same level as prefecture-level cities. However, the government of Pudong has a status equivalent to that of a sub-provincial city, which is a half-level above a prefecture-level city. This is due to Pudong's size and importance as the financial hub of China. The Pudong Communist Party Secretary is the top office of the district, followed by the district governor of Pudong. The Pudong party chief is customarily also a member of the Shanghai Party Standing Committee.

On April 27, 2015, People's Government of Pudong New Area is working with China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone Administrative Committee.[2]

Demographics[edit]

Pudong literally means "East Bank". Pudong is bounded by the Huangpu River in the west and the East China Sea in the east. Pudong is distinguished from Puxi ("West Bank"), the older part of Shanghai. It has an area of 1,210.4 square kilometres (467.3 sq mi) and according to the 2010 Census, a population of 5,044,430 inhabitants, 1.9 million more than in 2000. Currently, at least 2.1 million of residents of Pudong are newcomers from other provinces or cities in China.[3]

Pudong is the most populous district in Shanghai. According to the 2010 Census, it has 5,044,430 people in 1,814,802 families, around 1/4 of Shanghai's total population, an explosive growth since the last census thanks to immigrants.[4] Pudong's resident population growth is well above national average because it is a popular immigration destination. The 2010 census shows a 58.26% increase in the last decade, or an annual pace of 4.7%. In particular, the district saw am immigration growth of 189.5%, or an annual pace of 11.22%.

Excluding immigrants, the birth rate is 0.806% while the death rate is 0.729, resulting a net growth of 0.077%. The total fertility rate is 1.03, well below the replacement level.[5] The district actually has a negative registered household population growth if immigrants are excluded, thus the growth is purely driven by immigration.

The 2010 Census shows a population density of 3,909/km2. About 3/4 of the population live in the northern part and part of city center called "Northern Territory". 1/4 live in the "Southern Territory" that was the Nanhui District. The Northern Territory has a 6,667 population density, while the Southern Territory has 1,732/km2. Suburbs saw a greater increase in population during 2000-2010 with the help of the city's suburb expansion policy. Some counties in the traditional city center saw a population decrease.

Subdistricts and towns[edit]

Name Chinese (S) Hanyu Pinyin Shanghainese Romanization Population (2010)[6]
Weifang Xincun Subdistrict 潍坊新村街道 Wéifāng Xīncūn Jiēdào vij vaon sin tsen ka do 100,548
Lujiazui Subdistrict 陆家嘴街道 Lùjiāzuǐ Jiēdào loq ka tzyu ka do 112,507
Zhoujiadu Subdistrict 周家渡街道 Zhōujiādù Jiēdào tzoe ka du ka do 144,668
Tangqiao Subdistrict 塘桥街道 Tángqiáo Jiēdào daon djio ka do 76,916
Shanggang Xincun Subdistrict 上钢新村街道 Shànggāng Xīncūn Jiēdào zaon kaon sin tsen ka do 104,932
Nanmatou Road Subdistrict 南码头路街道 Nánmǎtóulù Jiēdào neu mau doe lu ka do 107,130
Hudong Xincun Subdistrict 沪东新村街道 Hùdōng Xīncūn Jiēdào wu ton sin tsen ka do 112,031
Jinyang Xincun Subdistrict 金杨新村街道 Jīnyáng Xīncūn Jiēdào cin yan sin tsen ka do 206,017
Yangjing Subdistrict 洋泾街道 Yángjīng Jiēdào yan cin ka do 146,237
Puxing Road Subdistrict 浦兴路街道 Pǔxìnglù Jiēdào phu xin lu ka do 177,468
Dongming Road Subdistrict 东明路街道 Dōngmínglù Jiēdào ton min lu ka do 121,449
Huamu Subdistrict 花木街道 Huāmù Jiēdào hau moq ka do 221,327
Chuanshaxin Town* 川沙新镇 Chuānshāxīn Zhèn tseu sa sau sin tzen 420,045
Gaoqiao Town 高桥镇 Gāoqiáo Zhèn ko djio tzen 184,486
Beicai Town 北蔡镇 Běicài Zhèn poq tsa tzen 276,547
Heqing Town 合庆镇 Héqìng Zhèn req chin tzen 132,038
Tang Town 唐镇 Tángzhèn daon tzen 129,267
Caolu Town 曹路镇 Cáolù Zhèn dzo lu tzen 186,012
Jinqiao Town 金桥镇 Jīnqiáo Zhèn cin djio tzen 81,537
Gaohang Town 高行镇 Gāoháng Zhèn ko raon tzen 137,625
Gaodong Town 高东镇 Gāodōng Zhèn ko ton tzen 110,552
Zhangjiang Town 张江镇 Zhāngjiāng Zhèn tzan kaon tzen 165,297
Sanlin Town 三林镇 Sānlín Zhèn se lin tzen 360,516
Huinan Town 惠南镇 Huìnán Zhèn we neu tzen 213,845
Zhoupu Town 周浦镇 Zhōupǔ Zhèn tzoe phu tzen 147,329
Xinchang Town 新场镇 Xīnchǎng Zhèn sin dzan tzen 84,183
Datuan Town 大团镇 Dàtuán Zhèn da deu tzen 71,162
Kangqiao Town 康桥镇 Kāngqiáo Zhèn khaon djio tzen 174,672
Hangtou Town 航头镇 Hángtóu Zhèn raon doe tzen 110,060
Zhuqiao Town 祝桥镇 Zhùqiáo Zhèn tzoq djio tzen 104,945
Nicheng Town 泥城镇 Níchéng Zhèn gnij zen tzen 62,519
Xuanqiao Town 宣桥镇 Xuānqiáo Zhèn si djio tzen 59,567
Shuyuan Town 书院镇 Shūyuàn Zhèn syu yeu tzen 59,323
Wanxiang Town 万祥镇 Wànxiáng Zhèn ve zian tzen 24,346
Laogang Town 老港镇 Lǎogǎng Zhèn lo kaon tzen 37,408
Nanhui Xincheng Town** 南汇新城镇 Nánhuì Xīnchéng Zhèn neu we sin zen tzen 47,381
Luchaogang Farm 芦潮港农场 Lúcháogǎng Nóngchǎng lu dzo kaon non dzan 688
Donghai Farm 东海农场 Dōnghǎi Nóngchǎng ton he non dzan 508
Chaoyang Farm 朝阳农场 Cháoyáng Nóngchǎng dzo yan non dzan 862
Waigaoqiao Free-trade Zone 外高桥保税区 Wàigāoqiáo Bǎoshuìqū nga ko djio po seu chiu 1,349
Jinqiao Export Processing Zone 金桥经济技术开发区 Jīnqiáo Jīngjì Jìshù Kāifāqū cin djio cin tzij djij dzeq khe faq chiu 5,514
Zhangjiang Hi-tech Park 张江高科技园区 Zhāngjiāng Gāo Kējì Yuánqū tzan kaon ko khu djij yeu chiu 23,617

Education[edit]

Universities and higher education[edit]

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

International schools:

Other private schools:

Economy[edit]

Skyscrapers in Pudong

With the Nanhui District merger in May 2009, the size of Pudong's economy grew. The district's 2013 gross domestic product amounts to an estimated 644.87 billion RMB (~US$104 billion). Its GDP per capita is approximately $19,098. The area is divided into four distinct economic districts. Apart from Lujiazui Trade and Finance Zone, there is Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, the largest free trade zone in mainland China covering approximately 10 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) in north-east Pudong. The Jinqiao Export Processing Zone is another major industrial area in Pudong covering 19 square kilometres (7.3 sq mi) Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park is a special area for technology-oriented businesses.

The Pudong area continues to experience rapid development, especially in the commercial sector, with 1.3 million square meters of prime office space reaching completion in 2008, more than the previous two years combined.[13] Pudong has also attracted considerable fixed asset and real estate investment, reporting 87.268 billion RMB in fixed asset investment and 27.997 billion RMB in real estate investment in 2008.[14]

The newest Disney resort, with a Disneyland included, is under construction in Pudong. It is planned to be operational by 2016.[15]

Businesses[edit]

Bao Steel has its head office in the Bao Steel Tower (simplified Chinese: 宝钢大厦; traditional Chinese: 寶鋼大廈; pinyin: Bǎogāng Dàshà) in Pudong.[16] Comac has its head office in Pudong.[17] The headquarters of Yangtze River Express, a cargo airline, are in the Pufa Tower (S: 浦发大厦, T: 浦发大廈, P: Pǔfā Dàshà) in Pudong.[18]

Hang Seng Bank has its mainland offices in the Hang Seng Bank Tower in Pudong.[19] Kroll has an office in the Hang Seng Bank Tower.[20]

Transportation[edit]

The Shanghai Pudong International Airport opened its doors in 1999, shortening the travel time for visitors.

In the same year, Line 2 of the Shanghai Metro commenced services. An extension brought the line further east, where it serves the airport. Other lines, namely Lines 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12 and 13 also have sections that serve parts of Pudong. A magnetic levitation train began operating in 2004, moving passengers between the airport and Longyang Road Metro station.

Ships on the Huangpu River with Pudong in view

Pudong is connected to Puxi by several tunnels and four major bridges. The first of these bridges were the Nanpu Bridge (1991) and the Yangpu Bridge (1993). The Xupu Bridge opened in 1996. The latest of these is Lupu Bridge, which is the world's second longest arch bridge and was completed in 2002. Currently there are five tunnels that link the two sides, Dapu Rd. Tunnel, the first tunnel across the Huangpu River, Yan'an Rd. Tunnel, running east-west, and Dalian Rd. Tunnel, running north-south, Fuxing Rd. Tunnel, complementing the Yan'an Rd. Tunnel, Waihuan Tunnel, one part of Shanghai Outer Ring Express. Two new tunnels linking Lujiazui to Puxi are under construction.

Roads in Pudong have no particular longitudinal or latitudinal orientation. Major thoroughfares Pudong Avenue, Zhangyang Road and Yanggao Road run east-west until Yangpu Bridge before turning gradually to become north-south. Century Avenue crosses all three major roads and extends from Lujiazui to Century Park. Yanggao Road extends south to the A20, Shanghai's outer Ring road, which runs east-west from Xupu Bridge and then north-south beginning at the interchange near Renxi Village, when the east-west expressway turns into Yingbin Avenue, headed for Pudong International Airport.

Metro[edit]

Pudong is currently served by nine metro lines and one tram line operated by Shanghai Metro and one maglev line operated by Shanghai Maglev Train:

Gallery[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Pudong is twinned with:

Similar business districts[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chinese Shanghai 2010 Census Data Eastday
  2. ^ "上海自贸区空间扩大4倍 将与浦东新区合署办公". People's Daily. April 27, 2015. Retrieved April 27, 2015. 
  3. ^ (Chinese) China Statistical Office. Data from the Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
  4. ^ Summary of Pudong Data from the Sixth National Population Census http://gov.pudong.gov.cn/pudongNews_inform/Info/Detail_365360.htm
  5. ^ Population analysis of Pudong, 2011 http://rkjsw.sh.gov.cn/dr/qxinfo/310115/2012227/000000003500038000944464363.html?openpath=spfp/qxinfo/310115
  6. ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2. 
  7. ^ "Contact Us." Dulwich College Shanghai. Retrieved on October 12, 2013. "DCS MAIN CAMPUS 266 LanAn Rd, JinQiao, PuDong, 201206 地址:上海市浦东金桥蓝桉路266号,201206" and "DUCKS 425 LanAn Rd, Jin Qiao, PuDong 201206 地址:上海市浦东金桥蓝桉路425号,201206"
  8. ^ "Home." French School of Shanghai. Retrieved on 23 May 2014. "Campus de Pudong : 1555, Jufeng Lu, Pudong District 201208 Shanghai (Chine)"
  9. ^ "Kontakte." German School of Shanghai Pudong. Retrieved on 23 May 2014. "DS Shanghai Pudong 1100 Jufeng Lu 201206 Shanghai - VR China" - Chinese address: "上海德国学校浦东校园201206上海市巨峰路1100号综合楼"
  10. ^ Home page. Shanghai American School. Retrieved on February 19, 2014. "Puxi Campus 258 Jinfeng Road Huacao Town, Minhang Dist. Shanghai, China 201107 6221-1445" and "Pudong Campus Shanghai Links Executive Community 1600 Lingbai Road Sanjiagang, Pudong Shanghai, China 201201 6221-1445"
  11. ^ "Shanghai Japanese School Pudong Campus." Shanghai Japanese School. Retrieved on February 18, 2014. "上海日本人学校 浦東校 〒200127 上海市浦東新区錦康路277号"
  12. ^ "Home." SJS Senior High School. Retrieved on February 18, 2014. "〒200127 上海市浦東新区錦康路277号"
  13. ^ Knight Frank China Knight Frank China, Shanghai Commercial Market Quarterly Report, Q4 2009
  14. ^ Knight Frank China Knight Frank China, Shanghai Commercial Market Quarterly Report, Q1 2009
  15. ^ "[1]." THE WALT DISNEY COMPANY REACHES ANOTHER MAJOR MILESTONE ON SHANGHAI THEME PARK PROJECT. Retrieved on July 7, 2010.
  16. ^ "Contact Us." Baosteel. Retrieved on November 10, 2012. "ADD:Baosteel Tower, Pu Dian Road 370, Pudong New District, Shanghai, 200122, P.R. China Postal Code:200122" - Chinese: "上海市浦东新区浦电路370号宝钢大厦"
  17. ^ "Contact Us." Comac. Retrieved on November 10, 2012. "25 Zhangyang Road, Shanghai" - Chinese: "上海市张杨路25号"
  18. ^ "Yangtze River Express Airlines Company Limited." HNA Group. Retrieved on February 24, 2014. "Address: Pufa Tower, 588 Pudong South Road, Pudong New Area, Shanghai" - Address in Chinese: "地址:上海市浦东新区浦东南路588号浦发大厦 邮编:200120"
  19. ^ "Mainland Service Network." Hang Seng Bank. Retrieved on 11 September 2011. "Hang Seng Bank(China)Limited Address: 34/F & 36/F, Hang Seng Bank Tower, 1000 Lujiazui Ring Road, Pudong, Shanghai, China"
  20. ^ "Office locations." Kroll Inc. Retrieved on 14 August 2011. "Shanghai Room 3031, 30F 1000 Lujiazui Ring Road, Hang Seng Bank Tower Pudong New Area Shanghai 200120 China"
  21. ^ "Kuopio and Shanghai Pudong have signed a sister city agreement". City of Kuopio. 2012-07-20. Retrieved 2012-08-24. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 31°14′05″N 121°30′23″E / 31.23472°N 121.50639°E / 31.23472; 121.50639