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For other uses, see Puelche (disambiguation).

The Puelche (Mapudungun: pwelche, " people of the east") were indigenous peoples living east of the Andes Mountains in eastern Chile and Argentina in the 18th century. They spoke the Puelche language. The name "Puelche" was not native, but was given to them by the Mapuche. They were annihilated by plagues and epidemics in the late 18th century, with survivors merging into other groups such as the Mapuche, Het, and Tehuelche.