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Puff, the Magic Dragon

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This article is about the song. For the film, see Puff the Magic Dragon (film).
"Puff, the Magic Dragon"
Single by Peter, Paul and Mary
from the album Moving
Released January 1963
Format Vinyl single
Recorded 1962
Genre Folk, pop
Length 3:20
Label Warner Music Group
Writer(s) Leonard Lipton
Peter Yarrow
Producer(s) Albert Grossman
Peter, Paul and Mary singles chronology
"If I Had a Hammer"
"Puff, the Magic Dragon"
"500 Miles"

"Puff, the Magic Dragon" (or "Puff") is a song written by Leonard Lipton and Peter Yarrow and made popular by Yarrow's group Peter, Paul and Mary in a 1963 recording.

Lipton wrote the complete lyrics, Yarrow found and used them, and later gave Lipton the credits.[citation needed]


The lyrics for "Puff, the Magic Dragon" were based on a 1959 poem by Leonard Lipton, a 19-year-old Cornell University student.[1] Lipton was inspired by an Ogden Nash poem titled "Custard the Dragon", about a "realio, trulio little pet dragon."[2]

The lyrics tell a story of the ageless dragon Puff and his playmate, Jackie Paper, a little boy who grows up and loses interest in the imaginary adventures of childhood and leaves Puff to be with himself. (The line "A dragon lives forever, but not so little boys" is generally thought to imply only that "little Jackie Paper" grew up.) The story of the song takes place "by the sea" in the fictional land of "Honalee".

Lipton was friends with Peter Yarrow's housemate when they were all students at Cornell. He used Yarrow's typewriter to get the poem out of his head. He then forgot about it until years later, when a friend called and told him Yarrow was looking for him, to give him credit for the lyrics. On making contact Yarrow gave Lipton half the songwriting credit, and he still gets royalties from the song.

In an effort to be gender-neutral, Yarrow now sings the line "A dragon lives forever, but not so little boys" as "A dragon lives forever, but not so girls and boys." The original poem also had a verse that did not make it into the song. In it, Puff found another child and played with him after returning. Neither Yarrow nor Lipton remembers the verse in any detail, and the paper that was left in Yarrow's typewriter in 1958 has since been lost.[3]

In 1961, Yarrow joined Paul Stookey and Mary Travers to form Peter, Paul and Mary. The group incorporated the song into their live performances before recording it in 1962; their 1962 recording of "Puff" reached number two on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and spent two weeks atop the Billboard easy listening chart in early 1963.[4] It also reached number ten on Billboard's R&B chart. More importantly, however, "Puff" joined several other PP&M hits of the same era ("If I Had a Hammer", "Where Have All The Flowers Gone," and "Blowin' In the Wind" among them [the last composed and first recorded by Bob Dylan]) to become standards of American musical culture, the best-known and most widely loved examples of the folk-song genre that virtually all Americans know by heart and can sing along to.[citation needed]

Speculation about drug references[edit]

After the song's initial success, speculation arose — as early as a 1964 article in Newsweek — that the song contained veiled references to smoking marijuana.[5] The word "paper" in the name of Puff's human friend (Jackie Paper) was said to be a reference to rolling papers, and the word "dragon" was interpreted as "draggin'," i.e. inhaling smoke; similarly, the name "Puff" was alleged to be a reference to taking a "puff" on a joint. The supposition was claimed to be common knowledge in a letter by a member of the public to The New York Times in 1984.[6]

The authors of the song have repeatedly rejected this interpretation and have strongly and consistently denied that they intended any references to drug use.[7] Peter Yarrow has frequently explained that the song is about the hardships of growing older and has no relationship to drug-taking.[8][9] He has also said of the song that it "never had any meaning other than the obvious one" and is about the "loss of innocence in children",[10] and dismissed the suggestion of association with drugs as "sloppy research"."[11]

In 1976, Yarrow's bandmate Paul Stookey of Peter, Paul and Mary also upheld the song's innocence. He recorded a version of the song at the Sydney Opera House in March 1976,[12] in which he set up a fictitious trial scene. The Prosecutor accused the song of being about marijuana, but Puff and Jackie protested. The judge finally left the case to the jury (the Opera House audience) and said if they will sing along with the song, it would be acquitted. The audience joined in with Stookey, and at the end of their sing-along, the judge declared: "case dismissed."[citation needed]


A 1978 animated television special, Puff the Magic Dragon, adapted the song. It was followed by two sequels, Puff the Magic Dragon in the Land of the Living Lies and Puff and the Incredible Mr. Nobody. In all three films Burgess Meredith voiced Puff. In December 2016, it was announced that Fox Animation will produce a live-action/animation film based on the song with Mike Mitchell as director.[13]

The song was adapted for a children's pantomime, which played at Sydney's Seymour Centre in 1983.[14]

A 2007 book adaptation of the song's lyrics by Yarrow, Lipton, and illustrator Eric Puybaret gives the story a happier ending with a young girl (presumed by reviewers to be Jackie Paper's daughter)[15] seeking out Puff to become her new companion. The lyrics remain unchanged from the Peter Paul and Mary version; the young girl is only seen in the pictures by illustrator Puybaret. On the last page of the book, she is introduced to Puff by an older Jackie Paper.

Both tune and elements of the lyrics were adapted in the controversial parody "Barack the Magic Negro", written and recorded by Paul Shanklin for Rush Limbaugh's radio program, after the term was first applied to then presidential candidate Obama by movie and culture critic, David Ehrenstein, in a Los Angeles Times op ed column of March 19, 2007. Yarrow condemned the act as "shocking and saddening in the extreme," stating that "taking a children's song and twisting it in such vulgar, mean-spirited way, is a slur to our entire country and our common agreement to move beyond racism… Puff, himself, if asked, would certainly agree."[16]

In the mid 1970s an American Jewish band named Ruach created a parody version of the song entitled "Puff the Kosher Dragon". In the course of the song, Kosher Puff eats kosher food, has a Bar Mitzvah, fights anti-semites and finally marries and brings up his children as loyal members of the faith.[17] The Ruach song has been noted[18] as one of the first examples of a modern Jewish band using a popular secular tune.

The tune was used in the promotional LP Push the Magic Button for the track with the same name by Versatec, a computer printer company[19]

Vietnam War[edit]

During the Vietnam War the AC-47 Spooky gunship was nicknamed the "Dragon" or "Dragon ship" by the Americans because of its armament and firepower – the nickname soon caught on, and one website without primary citations indicates that the American troops began to call the AC-47 "Puff the Magic Dragon".[20]

In another Vietnam reference, Robert Mason's Chickenhawk states, in reference to the Peter, Paul and Mary song playing on a turntable: “Puff the Magic Dragon” was making me uncomfortable. It was the saccharine song that had inspired the naming of the murderous Gatling-gun-armed C-47s. I couldn’t listen.

Cultural references[edit]

Elon Musk, founder of SpaceX, said his Dragon spacecraft was named after "Puff the Magic Dragon".[21]

Part of the song was used in a scene from Meet the Parents where Greg Focker is uncomfortably trying to explain to Jack Byrnes how the song is supposedly about smoking marijuana.[22]

In Japan, part of this song was used for ending theme of Jijihoudan, a political talk show which broadcast on TBS and BS-TBS.

In an episode of King of the Hill titled "The Bluegrass is Always Greener", Hank scolds Bill for singing the song; as a bait-and-switch joke, the conservative and uptight Hank isn't aware of the alleged drug subtext, and is scolding Bill for being a grown man singing a song about a dragon.

The Orlando Magic mascot is named "Stuff the Magic Dragon".

In Marvel Studios' Iron Man 2, the character Justin Hammer, who owns Hammer Industries, introduces a machine gun nicknamed Puff the Magic Dragon to the U.S. military, thereby combining allusions to both PP&M's "If I Had a Hammer" and "Puff".

There is a comedic magician who calls himself Piff the Magic Dragon. He always opens his show with, "You might know my brother... Steve."

International versions[edit]

A German version ("Paff, der Zauberdrachen") was recorded by Marlene Dietrich in 1963.

A Catalan translation ("Paf, el drac màgic") was popularized by the Grup de Folk supergroup on the 1967 EP "Escolta-ho en el Vent", becoming from then onwards one of the most popular children's songs in Catalan.[citation needed] It has also been played by, among many others, Joan Manuel Serrat.

A Hungarian version ("Paff, a bűvös sárkány") was performed by 100 Folk Celsius band in 1984.[23]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Lipton, Lenny. "Lenny Lipton". Lennylipton. Retrieved 2011-12-07. 
  2. ^ Nash, Ogden. "The Tale of Custard the Dragon". Harvard. Retrieved 2011-12-07. 
  3. ^ "Song facts". Retrieved 2011-12-07. 
  4. ^ The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits (6th ed.), 1996 
  5. ^ "Puff the Magic Dragon and Marijuana". Snopes. Retrieved 2011-12-07. 
  6. ^ "Magic Dragon's Not-So-Innocuous Puff". The NY Times. 1984-10-11. Retrieved 2011-12-07. 
  7. ^ Just A Minute With: Peter Yarrow, Reuters 
  8. ^ "Puff the Magic Dragon and Marijuana". 2016-09-14. Retrieved 2016-09-27. 
  9. ^ Konstantin, Phil, Kusi TV (interview), American Indian 
  10. ^ "Puff the magic dragon", YouTube (live), Google 
  11. ^ "Puff: Still Not a Drug Song". Chronogram. 
  12. ^ Released in 1977 on the album "Real to Reel" and distributed by Sparrow Records.
  13. ^ Fleming Jr, Mike. "Peter, Paul & Mary Tune 'Puff The Magic Dragon' In Fox Deal With 'Troll's Helmer Mike Mitchell". Deadline. Retrieved December 9, 2016. 
  14. ^ "What's On For the School Hols [sic]", The Sydney Morning Herald 
  15. ^ "New take on Puff the Magic Dragon". The Star. 2007-08-18. Retrieved 2011-12-07. 
  16. ^ Yarrow, Peter, "My Response to the Mean-Spirited "Barack the Magic Negro"", The Huffington Post 
  17. ^ "Puff the Kosher Dragon". YouTube. 
  18. ^ Bryan Edelman, Marsha (2003). Discovering Jewish music. Jewish Publication Society. 
  19. ^ "Push the Magic Button", Archives (songlist), Computer History Museum 
  20. ^ John Pike. "AC-47". Retrieved 2016-09-27. 
  21. ^ Chow, Denise (December 8, 2010). "Millionaire private space capsule splashes: successful maiden voyage". Retrieved May 15, 2014. 
  22. ^ "Meet the Parents - Puff the Magic Dragon". YouTube. 2010-10-22. Retrieved 2016-09-27. 
  23. ^ "Paff, a bűvös sárkány". YouTube. 2007-11-23. Retrieved 2016-09-27. 

External links[edit]