Pugwash, Nova Scotia

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Pugwash
Pugwash Lighthouse
Pugwash Lighthouse
Official seal of Pugwash
Motto(s): 
World Famous for Peace
Pugwash is located in Nova Scotia
Pugwash
Pugwash
Location of Pugwash in Nova Scotia
Coordinates: 45°51′00″N 63°39′40″W / 45.850°N 63.661°W / 45.850; -63.661Coordinates: 45°51′00″N 63°39′40″W / 45.850°N 63.661°W / 45.850; -63.661
Country Canada
Province Nova Scotia
CountyCumberland
Founded1807
Electoral Districts     
Federal

Cumberland-Colchester
ProvincialCumberland North
Government
 • Governing BodyPugwash Village Commission
 • ChairRoger Mundle
 • MLAElizabeth Smith-McCrossin Progressive Conservative Association of Nova Scotia
 • MPLenore Zann (L)
Area
 • Total9.83 km2 (3.80 sq mi)
Elevation
5 m (16 ft)
Population
 (2016)
 • Total736
 • Density79.7/km2 (206/sq mi)
Time zoneATS
 • Summer (DST)Atlantic Standard Time
Postal Code
B0K 1L0
Area code(s)+1-902-243
WebsiteThe Village Of Pugwash

Pugwash is an incorporated village in Cumberland County, Nova Scotia, Canada, located on the Northumberland Strait at the mouth of the Pugwash River. It had a population of 736 as of the 2016 census.[1] The name Pugwash is derived from the Mi'kmaq word, Pakwesk (also written as Pagwĕsk) meaning "a shoal",[2][3] in reference to a reef near the mouth of the harbour.

The village is home to fishing, salt mining, and small-scale manufacturing, and tourism. Pugwash sits atop a salt deposit measuring 457.2 metres (1,500 ft) thick and is home to the largest underground salt mine in Atlantic Canada, with shipments from its port, as well as by rail from a facility at Oxford Junction.[citation needed]

History[edit]

The end of glaciation began 13,500 years ago and ended with the region becoming largely ice-free 11,000 years ago. The earliest evidence of Palaeo-Indian settlement in the region follows rapidly after deglaciation.

The Pugwash area is part of the Mi’kma’ki territory of the Mi’kmaq, who have inhabited their traditional lands these 13,500 years. Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, Mi’kmaw lived in and around what is now the Northumberland Shore, including Pugwash. West Pugwash is shown as "Indian land" on early post-settlement maps of the area. There are many Mi’kmaq who live in the area today.

The Chignecto peninsula was settled by Acadians from the 1660s onward, this period ended with the with Expulsion and th Bay of Fundy Campaign during the French and Indian War. Wallace and near-by Tatamagouche were the first villages in Acadia to be burned because they were important port through which Acadians supplied the French Fortress Louisbourg.

British colonial settlement began with the arrival of the United Empire Loyalists, coming to Chignecto in 1790, and then with the Seaman family, formerly of New York State, moving to farm the mouth of River Phillip in 1795, and ultimately purchasing what became the Pugwash town site from the Mi'kmaw in 1802.[4]

Pugwash is also home of many descendants of Highland Scots who immigrated to the region in the 19th century. All street signs in the town are bilingual, with both English and Gaelic translations. The village celebrates its Scottish heritage each July 1, with the annual Gathering of the Clans and Fisherman's Regatta. The Pugwash area, and indeed the entire north shore of Nova Scotia, is famed for its warm waters and sandy beaches. Some claim the waters in summer here are the warmest waters north of the Carolinas in the United States.

The Crowley Memorial was erected in 1870 at Pugwash, Nova Scotia by the Legislature of Nova Scotia in honour of Mary E. Crowley, who died October 1869, aged 12 years after rescuing her younger brother and sister from a house fire. This is believed to be the first public monument ever erected to a woman in Canada.[5]

In 1898 a fire destroyed the entire town leaving 1200 people homeless, with the New York Times reporting 200 dwellings, 5 churches, 20 stores, 3 hotels, and several mills" were destroyed, and that the "town was little insured."[6]

Pugwash is famous for being the site of an international conference of scholars organized by Bertrand Russell in 1957, and hosted by Pugwash's native son, steel magnate Cyrus Eaton (1883–1979), at the lodge on property owned by the Pugwash Park Commission located at the north end of Water Street in the village. This conference brought high-level scientists from both sides of the Cold War divide to state their opposition to nuclear weapons. This meeting was a follow-up to an earlier statement of notables whose signatories had included Albert Einstein and Linus Pauling, the Russell-Einstein Manifesto. The name Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs has since been used to refer to the group.

A myth about the village is that the children's cartoon character Captain Pugwash was named after the international organization that takes its name from the town, but the character, a pirate, in fact first appeared in 1950, several years before the planning of the first Pugwash conference took place.

Today[edit]

Visitors entering Pugwash were once greeted by roadside signs announcing that they were entering the "Home of the Thinkers," but the signs have since been replaced by a newer slogan "World Famous for Peace". The switch was made in response to the 1995 awarding of the Nobel Prize to the International Pugwash conferences "for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and in the longer run to eliminate such arms".

The village has an elementary school, named after Cyrus Eaton, as well as a regional high school that draws students from around rural Cumberland County. Pugwash has a farmers market that runs on Saturdays during the summer months.

The Pugwash railway station is now a library. The building was designed by Sir Sandford Fleming and completed in 1892, is a registered historic site under the Heritage Property Act of Nova Scotia.

The village was hit by a tornado in 1999, a rarity in Nova Scotia.[7]

Demographics[edit]

In the 2021 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, Pugwash had a population of 746 living in 343 of its 458 total private dwellings, a change of 1.4% from its 2016 population of 736. With a land area of 9.8 km2 (3.8 sq mi), it had a population density of 76.1/km2 (197.2/sq mi) in 2021.[8]

Economy[edit]

Pugwash sits on the dividing line between two fishing areas making it the only place on the Northumberland Strait to have two fishing seasons. The first one takes place in May and June and the second in mid-August and mid-October. Many boats fish out of the Pugwash harbour, carrying up to 300 lobster traps at a time.[9]

The Village is home of the Canadian Salt Company Mine[10] the only salt mine and only underground mine in Nova Scotia. This mine has been open since 1959. The majority of the mine runs under the Pugwash River, some under solid ground, but none under the village. The plant produces industrial grades salt, salt blocks for farm use and refined salt for domestic consumption. The mine produces approximately 1,200,000 tones of salt per year. The salt is distributed by road or from the company owned ship-loading facility for which large ships can be seen in the harbour from early spring to late autumn.[11]

The creation of pewter crafts and souvenirs is another important industry in Pugwash.

Government[edit]

The Village of Pugwash is governed by a Commission composed of a five Commissioners elected at-large, who elect a Chair and Vice Chair from their numbers[12] The Chair of the Commission is Roger Mundle. Day-to-day activities are managed by a Village Clerk who is accountable to Commission.[12] Terms overlap and elections are held every year for one or two seats.[13] The village's operating budget was $$327,015 in fiscal 2021.[14]

Pugwash is also a part of the Municipality of Cumberland. Municipal Council is responsible for all facets of the municipal government, including directly delivered and shared or regional services. Directly delivered services include services such fire, public works, roads, as well as the municipally owned and operated electrical and water utilities. The municipality participates in shared services, such as library services and policing. The municipal operating budget was $7.6 million in the 2019/20 fiscal year.[15]

The provincial legislation that creates and empowers the a village and a municipal council is the Nova Scotia Municipal Government Act.[16]

Pugwash is represented by Elizabeth Smith-McCrossin in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly and Lenore Zann in Canada's House of Commons.

Climate[edit]

Pugwash has a humid continental climate (Dfb) characterized by warm summers with cool nights and long, cold, and snowy winters.

Climate data for Pugwash (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.0
(64.4)
17.0
(62.6)
19.0
(66.2)
25.5
(77.9)
32.2
(90.0)
33.5
(92.3)
36.0
(96.8)
35.0
(95.0)
32.5
(90.5)
26.5
(79.7)
23.0
(73.4)
16.5
(61.7)
36.0
(96.8)
Average high °C (°F) −2.4
(27.7)
−1.3
(29.7)
2.5
(36.5)
8.4
(47.1)
15.5
(59.9)
21.0
(69.8)
24.7
(76.5)
24.1
(75.4)
19.8
(67.6)
13.3
(55.9)
7.3
(45.1)
1.2
(34.2)
11.2
(52.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −7.1
(19.2)
−6
(21)
−1.7
(28.9)
4.3
(39.7)
10.6
(51.1)
15.9
(60.6)
19.8
(67.6)
19.4
(66.9)
15.3
(59.5)
9.2
(48.6)
3.7
(38.7)
−2.8
(27.0)
6.7
(44.1)
Average low °C (°F) −11.8
(10.8)
−10.6
(12.9)
−5.9
(21.4)
0.2
(32.4)
5.8
(42.4)
10.8
(51.4)
14.8
(58.6)
14.5
(58.1)
10.8
(51.4)
5.2
(41.4)
0.2
(32.4)
−6.8
(19.8)
2.3
(36.1)
Record low °C (°F) −33.0
(−27.4)
−37.0
(−34.6)
−27.5
(−17.5)
−13.0
(8.6)
−5.6
(21.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
2.8
(37.0)
3.0
(37.4)
−5.0
(23.0)
−6.0
(21.2)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−29.0
(−20.2)
−37.0
(−34.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 88.1
(3.47)
64.8
(2.55)
77.4
(3.05)
81.9
(3.22)
95.3
(3.75)
81.5
(3.21)
72.7
(2.86)
78.5
(3.09)
98.1
(3.86)
103.8
(4.09)
99.7
(3.93)
96.4
(3.80)
1,038.2
(40.87)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 40.1
(1.58)
26.4
(1.04)
41.9
(1.65)
69.6
(2.74)
93.9
(3.70)
81.5
(3.21)
72.7
(2.86)
78.5
(3.09)
98.1
(3.86)
103.8
(4.09)
91.2
(3.59)
57.7
(2.27)
855.4
(33.68)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 47.9
(18.9)
38.5
(15.2)
35.5
(14.0)
12.3
(4.8)
1.4
(0.6)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
8.5
(3.3)
38.8
(15.3)
182.8
(72.0)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 12.2 10.3 12.7 13.9 14.3 13.0 11.8 11.3 11.9 14.0 15.5 14.0 154.8
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 4.8 4.0 7.5 12.5 14.3 13.0 11.8 11.3 11.9 14.0 14.1 8.2 127.4
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 7.7 6.7 6.3 2.7 0.25 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.1 6.3 32.0
Source: Environment Canada[17]

Notable people[edit]

Parks[edit]

  • Gulf Shore Provincial Park
  • Heather Beach Provincial Park [19]
The Northumberland Strait from the Gulf Shore Rd in the Pugwash area.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  2. ^ Cumberland County Facts and Folklore - Laurie Glenn Norris, 2009, Nimbus Publishing, ISBN 978-1-55109-731-2
  3. ^ Ganong, William Francis, An organization of the scientific investigation of the Indian place-nomenclature of the Maritime Provinces of Canada p285 (Ottawa : Printed for the Royal Society of Canada, 1914: text at Columbia University Library Digital Collections)
  4. ^ Smith, James F. (1978). The history of Pugwash. Internet Archive. Pugwash[N.S.] : North Cumberland Historical Society.
  5. ^ Morgan, Henry James, ed. (1903). Types of Canadian Women and of Women who are or have been Connected with Canada. Toronto: Williams Briggs. p. 65.
  6. ^ "PUGWASH WIPED OUT BY FIRE.; Nova Scotia Lumber Town Destroyed by a Conflagration -- 1,200 People Homeless and Destitute". timesmachine.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2021-12-26.
  7. ^ "History of tornadoes in Atlantic Canada". Global News. Retrieved 2020-09-10.
  8. ^ "Population and dwelling counts: Canada and designated places". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Retrieved May 9, 2022.
  9. ^ "Industry". www.pugwashvillage.com. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  10. ^ "Home - Windsor Salt". Windsor Salt. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  11. ^ "Industry". www.pugwashvillage.com. Retrieved 2017-04-07.
  12. ^ a b "Village Government". Village of Pugwash. Village of Pugwash. Retrieved 24 Dec 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. ^ "It Takes A Village March 2020" (PDF). Village of Pugwash. Retrieved 24 Dec 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. ^ "Village of Pugwash Budget 2021" (PDF). Village of Pugwash. Retrieved 24 Dec 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  15. ^ "2019-2020 Budget Approved by Council | News Items". www.cumberlandcounty.ns.ca. Retrieved 2021-12-24.
  16. ^ https://nslegislature.ca/sites/default/files/legc/statutes/municipal%20government.pdf "Municipal Government Act"
  17. ^ "Pugwash, Nova Scotia". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  18. ^ Charles Aubrey Eaton, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed September 9, 2007.
  19. ^ "Heather Beach | Nova Scotia Provincial Parks". parks.novascotia.ca. Retrieved 2017-04-07.

External links[edit]