Pukaskwa National Park

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Pukaskwa National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
Map showing the location of Pukaskwa National Park
Map showing the location of Pukaskwa National Park
Location of Pukaskwa National Park in Canada
Location Ontario, Canada
Nearest city Marathon, Ontario
Coordinates 48°14′44″N 85°53′18″W / 48.24568°N 85.88821°W / 48.24568; -85.88821Coordinates: 48°14′44″N 85°53′18″W / 48.24568°N 85.88821°W / 48.24568; -85.88821
Area 1,878 km2 (725 sq mi)
Established 1978
Governing body Parks Canada

Pukaskwa National Park (/ˈpʌkəsɔː/ PUK-ə-saw)[1] is a national park located south of the town of Marathon, Ontario in the Thunder Bay District of northern Ontario, Canada. Established in 1978, Pukaskwa is known for its vistas of Lake Superior and boreal forests. The park covers an area of 1,878 square kilometres (725 sq mi), and protects part of the longest undeveloped shoreline anywhere on the Great Lakes.

The Hattie Cove Campground is located at the north end of the park and can be accessed via Highway 627, the only road access into the park. There are also a number of backcountry campsites located along the 60 km Coastal Hiking Trail which follows the north shore of Lake Superior. The Coastal Hiking Trail has two suspension bridges; one across the White River at Chigaamiwinigum and one across the Willow River. The Coastal Hiking Trail is part of the long-distance Voyageur Hiking Trail. Backcountry campsites are also located along the Coastal Paddling Route, the White River, and the Pukaskwa River.

Black bears, moose, peregrine falcons, lynxes and wolf packs are found in this park. There is also a small population of woodland caribou but their numbers declined from 30 caribou in the 1970s to about four in 2012 mainly due to wolf predation.[2][3] In early 2017, after previous failures to locate any remaining caribou, researchers turned to advanced thermal imaging technology to survey the area for caribou. This survey revealed caribou are now extirpated from the park.

Climate[edit]

The park has a humid continental climate (Dfb) under the Köppen climate classification that is strongly influenced by Lake Superior.

Climate data for Pukaskwa National Park (1981−2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
10.0
(50)
17.0
(62.6)
27.0
(80.6)
29.0
(84.2)
30.7
(87.3)
30.5
(86.9)
32.0
(89.6)
25.3
(77.5)
21.0
(69.8)
16.5
(61.7)
9.2
(48.6)
32.0
(89.6)
Average high °C (°F) −7.7
(18.1)
−4.1
(24.6)
0.6
(33.1)
7.2
(45)
13.5
(56.3)
17.2
(63)
19.5
(67.1)
20.4
(68.7)
15.8
(60.4)
8.8
(47.8)
1.9
(35.4)
−4.2
(24.4)
7.4
(45.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −13.5
(7.7)
−10.1
(13.8)
−5.3
(22.5)
1.9
(35.4)
7.8
(46)
11.8
(53.2)
14.4
(57.9)
15.6
(60.1)
11.6
(52.9)
5.0
(41)
−1.8
(28.8)
−9.1
(15.6)
2.4
(36.3)
Average low °C (°F) −19.2
(−2.6)
−16.1
(3)
−11.1
(12)
−3.4
(25.9)
2.4
(36.3)
6.3
(43.3)
9.3
(48.7)
10.7
(51.3)
7.3
(45.1)
1.2
(34.2)
−5.5
(22.1)
−13.9
(7)
−2.7
(27.1)
Record low °C (°F) −40
(−40)
−39
(−38)
−35
(−31)
−21
(−6)
−7.5
(18.5)
−4.5
(23.9)
−4.5
(23.9)
−2.0
(28.4)
−7
(19)
−11.5
(11.3)
−28.5
(−19.3)
−39.5
(−39.1)
−40
(−40)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 60.4
(2.378)
32.7
(1.287)
36.7
(1.445)
41.7
(1.642)
72.4
(2.85)
84.5
(3.327)
95.2
(3.748)
75.9
(2.988)
106.0
(4.173)
90.8
(3.575)
80.0
(3.15)
59.8
(2.354)
836.2
(32.921)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.64
(0.0252)
1.8
(0.071)
10.5
(0.413)
34.3
(1.35)
71.6
(2.819)
84.5
(3.327)
95.2
(3.748)
75.8
(2.984)
105.9
(4.169)
83.5
(3.287)
47.7
(1.878)
5.1
(0.201)
616.5
(24.272)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 59.8
(23.54)
30.9
(12.17)
26.3
(10.35)
7.3
(2.87)
0.88
(0.346)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.09
(0.035)
0.13
(0.051)
7.3
(2.87)
32.3
(12.72)
54.7
(21.54)
219.7
(86.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 14.6 10.9 9.0 8.4 13.3 13.6 15.6 14.3 17.2 17.6 15.6 13.9 164
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.42 0.58 1.8 7.3 12.9 13.6 15.6 14.2 17.2 16.2 7.6 1.0 108.4
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 14.0 9.6 6.8 2.7 0.33 0.0 0.0 0.08 0.07 2.2 9.3 13.4 58.4
Source: Environment Canada[4]

Rivers in the park include the:

The Pic River enters Lake Superior just north of the park.

The highest point in the park is the peak of Tip Top Mountain which rises to 641 meters / 2106 feet.[5]

Thousand year old rock structures known as Pukaskwa Pits which were created by the original inhabitants of this area can be found on many of the park's cobblestone beaches.

The most recent State of the Park Report for Pukaskwa National Park was published in 2008.

Cascade River Falls
Horseshoe Bay on Lake Superior

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "The Pukaskwa Coastal Trail: a hike that's breathtaking in more ways than one". The Independent. March 31, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2017. 
  2. ^ Foster & Harris 2012, p. ii.
  3. ^ Bergerud 2007, p. 46.
  4. ^ "Pukaskwa National park". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved September 29, 2013. 
  5. ^ Tip Top Mountain - Peakbagger.com

References[edit]