Pullman (car or coach)
In the United States, Pullman was used to refer to railroad sleeping cars which were built and operated on most U.S. railroads by the Pullman Company (founded by George Pullman) from 1867 to December 31, 1968.
It also refers to railway dining cars in Europe that were operated by the Pullman Company, or lounge cars operated by the Compagnie Internationale des Wagons-Lits. Specifically, in Great Britain, Pullman refers to the lounge cars operated by the British Pullman Car Company.
The nickname Pullman coach was used in some European cities for the first long (four-axle) electric tramcars whose appearance resembled the Pullman railway cars and which were usually more comfortable than their predecessors. Such coaches (Russian: пульмановский вагон, tr. pul'manovsky vagon) ran in Kiev since 1907 and in Odessa since 1912. Since 1920s tramcars nicknamed Pullmanwagen in German ran in Leipzig, Cologne, Frankfurt and Zürich.
In 1963, the luxurious Mercedes-Benz 600 was introduced, with a range including a long wheelbase version called Pullman. Later, stretched versions of regular Mercedes-Benz S-Class cars were also called Pullman.
- Pullman loaf, a type of long, square bread developed to be baked in the small kitchens of rail cars
- Starlight Express, a train musical in which two characters are modeled on a Pullman.
- Clerestory#Transportation, Railway Coach roof design following the Pullman American influence.
- Welsh, Joe; Bill Howes (2004). Travel by Pullman: a century of service. Saint Paul, MN: MBI. ISBN 0760318573. OCLC 56634363.
- Barger, Ralph L. (1988). A Century of Pullman Cars, Volume I, Alphabetical List. Greenberg Publishing Company, Inc.
- Barger, Ralph L. (1990). A Century of Pullman Cars, Volume II, The Palace Cars. Greenberg Publishing Company, Inc.
- The Pullman Project
- Canadian National Railways Sleeping Car No. 1683 St. Hyacinthe—photographs and short history of a Sleeping Car built in 1929.
- Chicago Historical Society's Pullman website
- Sleeping in Comfort: Pullman Fundamentals
- Pullman Prototypes—Pantagraph (Bloomington, IL newspaper)