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Causes are usually autoimmune.
It is most commonly due to granulomatosis with polyangiitis or Goodpasture's syndrome. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis usually presents with nasopharyngeal involvement as well, whereas Goodpasture's will not.
- Herman, PG; Balikian JP; Seltzer SE; Ehrie M (June 1978). "The pulmonary-renal syndrome". American Journal of Roentgenology. American Roentgen Ray Society. 130 (6): 1141–1148. PMID 418654. doi:10.2214/ajr.130.6.1141.
- Sugimoto T, Deji N, Kume S, et al. (2007). "Pulmonary-renal syndrome, diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis, associated with Wegener's granulomatosis effectively treated with early plasma exchange therapy". Intern. Med. 46 (1): 49–53. PMID 17202734. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.46.6070.
- "Pulmonary-Renal Syndrome: Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage and Pulmonary-Renal Syndrome: Merck Manual Professional". Retrieved 2010-04-09.
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