Pulp and paper industry
The industry is dominated by North American (United States and Canada), northern European (Finland, Sweden, and North-West Russia) and East Asian countries (such as East Siberian Russia, China, Japan, and South Korea). Australasia and Brazil also have significant pulp and paper enterprises. The United States had been the world's leading producer of paper until it was overtaken by China in 2009.
The industry is criticized by environmental groups like the Natural Resources Defense Council for unsustainable deforestation and clearcutting of old-growth forest. The industry trend is to expand globally to countries like Russia, China and Indonesia with low wages and low environmental oversight. According to Greenpeace, farmers in Central America illegally rip up vast tracts of native forest for cattle and soybean production without any consequences, and companies who buy timber from private land owners contribute to massive deforestation of the Amazon Rainforest.
List of main countries by production quantity
According to statistic data by RISI, main producing countries of paper and paperboard, not including pulp, in the world are as follows:
|Country||Production in 2011
|Production in 2010
List of main company groups by production quantity
The world's main paper and paperboard company groups are as follows. (Some figures are estimates.):
|Rank||Company Group||Country||Production in 2015
|Rank by Sales|
|1||Asia Pulp and Paper||Indonesia||19,000||1|
|1||International Paper||United States||11,922||2|
|4||Svenska Cellulosa Aktiebolaget||Sweden||8,948||6|
|5||Smurfit Kappa Group||Ireland||7,650||9|
|7||Nine Dragons Paper||China||7,280||31|
|10||Smurfit-Stone Container||United States||5,896||13|
|14||Mondi|| United Kingdom/
|16||Lee & Man Paper||China||3,500||46|
|18||Shandong Chenming Paper Holdings||China||3,350||35|
|20||Siam Cement (SCC)||Thailand||3,191||51|
List by net sales
In 2007, the top 10 forest, paper and packaging products companies were:
|Rank||Company||Country||2007 Net Sales
|2007 Net Income (Loss)
In 2008, the top 10 forest, paper and packaging products companies were:
|Rank||Company||Country||2008 Net Sales
|2008 Net Income (Loss)
|1||International Paper||United States||24,829||(1,282)|
|10||Mondi Group||UK/ South Africa||9,466||(310)|
Leading manufacturers of capital equipment with over $1 billion in annual revenue for the pulp and paper industry include:
- American Forest & Paper Association
- List of paper mills
- Converters (industry)
- Paper pollution
- Pulp and Paper
- Pulp and paper industry in Canada
- Pulp and paper industry in Europe
- Pulp and paper industry in Japan
- Pulp and paper industry in the United States
- Roll hardness tester
- Environmental impact of paper
- De Sisti, Mike (12 December 2012). "China's Paper Operation". Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- Paper Industry Laying Waste to North American Forests
- A crumpling paper industry
- Brazil forms 'crisis cabinet' following unexpected deforestation surge
- Pira International Ltd. Nanotechnology in Paper Production. iSmithers Rapra Publishing. ISBN 184735811X.
- Hubbe, M.A. (2006). "Does production of the world's highest-tonnage manufactured item often involve nanotechnology?". Nanotechnology Perceptions 2 (3): 263–265. ISSN 1660-6795.
- "Japan in the World (according to the figure in Annual Review of Global Pulp and Paper Statistics by RISI)" (in Japanese). Japan Paper Association. Retrieved Dec.17, 2011 and Nov.15, 2012. Check date values in:
- "The PPI Top 100 - most companies in the black". RISI. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
- "Global Forest, Paper & Packaging Industry Survey: 2008 Edition – Survey of 2007 Results" (pdf). PricewaterhouseCoopers. p. 7. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
- "Global Forest, Paper & Packaging Industry Survey: 2009 Edition - Survey of 2008 Results" (pdf). PricewaterhouseCoopers. p. 12. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
- Confederation of European Paper Industries
- American Forest & Paper Association (AF&PA)
- Forest Products Association of Canada (FPAC)